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Article

Jonas Westover

[Fred Lincoln Wray, Jr. ]

(b Dunn, NC, May 2, 1929; d Copenhagen, Denmark, Nov 5, 2005). American guitarist and songwriter. Part Shawnee Indian, Wray moved frequently throughout the United States, first with his family and then because of his own military service. This mobility exposed him to many different musical styles. After he was honorably discharged from the army during the Korean War, he and several friends (including his brothers Doug and Vernon) formed a band called Lucky Wray and the Palomino Ranch Hands. The group, later called the Wraymen, recorded on Starday Records and became house band for the television show Milt Grant’s House Party, where they played backup for many key musicians of the mid-1950s, including Ricky Nelson and the Diamonds. It was there that Wray came up with the music for his most famous instrumental, “Rumble” (1958), which featured heavy rhythmic pounding and Wray’s aggressive guitar work. Other notable songs included “Rawhide” (...

Article

James Freeman

(Willis)

(b Front Royal, VA, Oct 17, 1949).American composer. He studied composition at Duke University with Iain Hamilton, and at Columbia University with Jack Beeson, Mario Davidovsky, Charles Dodge and Chou Wen-chung. He taught at Columbia and Boston universities before joining the composition department at Temple University in 1980. His honours include an award from the Guggenheim Foundation and commissions from the Fromm Foundation, the American Brass Quintet, the Emerson String Quartet and the Boston SO, among others. An extremely prolific composer, Wright has a wide range of compositional interests. He has written for both acoustic and electronic instruments, often in combination, as in the Cantata for tenor, percussion and electronic sounds (1975) and the two-act opera The Trojan Conflict (1989), in which a quartet of oboe, horn, viola and cello is balanced by four continuously droning synthesizers. Though his early works rely on serial techniques, later music (after ...

Article

Geoffrey Block

(b Daytona Beach, FL, Sept 25, 1914; d Miami, July 27, 2005). American composer and lyricist. The first significant phase of Wright’s career with co-composer and co-lyricist George Forrest (b Brooklyn, NY, 31 July 1915), initially begun when both were teenagers, was their employment at the MGM studios in 1936. Over the next six years Wright and Forrest wrote lyrics, adapted music and occasionally composed new music for a series of film adaptations of successful stage musicals (mainly operettas). These included Sigmund Romberg’s Maytime and Rudolf Friml’s The Firefly (1937), Victor Herbert’s Sweethearts (1938), a film musical with Herbert Stothart and George Posford, Balalaika (1939), and Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart’s I Married an Angel (1942), also with Stothart. Three songs from their original film musicals received Academy Award nominations. Working from Hollywood, the team launched a second career when they began adapting the music of famous composers into popular staged musicals. The most skilful and popular of these adaptations were ...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b Stockton-on-Tees, Sept 18, 1763; d Wycliffe Rectory, nr Barnard Castle, Nov 24, 1829). English musician and inventor . Wright was instructed in music by his father, Robert, by John Garth and, as an articled apprentice, by Thomas Ebdon. On expiration of his articles about 1784, he succeeded Garth as organist at Sedgefield. In 1794 he married Elizabeth Foxton and set to music her operetta, Rusticity. In the ‘Advertisement’ to his Concerto for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (London, c1796), he promoted his invention of a pendulum for keeping musical time as more practicable than the timekeepers of Loulié, Sauveur and others. A model of the invention, owned by Wright’s granddaughter, Miss Edith Wright of Wakefield, was seen by Frank Kidson, when compiling his article for Grove’s Dictionary (3rd edn). In 1797 Wright succeeded his father as organist at Stockton. In 1817 he was organist at Kirkleatham near Redcar; but sometime after he returned to Stockton and remained there as organist, teacher and composer until his death....

Article

Wolfram Knauer

revised by Adam Cegielski

[Ptaszyn, Ptak ]

(b Kalisz, Poland, March 27, 1936). Polish tenor saxophonist and composer. He is known among his colleagues and on stage as Ptaszyn or Ptak (Bird). While studying agricultural mechanics at the polytechnic in Poznań he played clarinet, tenor and baritone saxophone, and piano, after which he took courses in music theory at the high school of music in Kraków (from 1958). His professional début was in 1956, when he performed and recorded with Krzysztof Komeda at the first jazz festival in Sopot. He was chosen to play in Marshall Brown’s International Youth Band at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1958 and thereafter was invited to perform with many Polish groups. Wróblewski led the Jazz Believers (1958–9), a quintet (1959–61), the Jazz Outsiders (1961–3), and the Polish Jazz Quartet (1963–6) and also played with Andrzej Kurylewicz (1962–3). In the second half of the 1960s he worked mainly as a freelance musician, then in ...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Kraków, 1850 or 1851; d Krynica, Dec 17, 1915). Polish violinist, conductor and composer . He was educated at the music school of the Kraków Technical Institute, studying the violin with Ignacy Wójcikiewicz, theory and wind instruments with Piotr Studziński, and the piano with Józef Blaschke. Later, he studied at the Vienna Conservatory. While serving in the Austrian army Wroński played the violin in the orchestra of the 70th Infantry Regiment under the direction of Michał Zimmermann, from whom he learned much about the craft of instrumentation. He soon became assistant conductor, and in 1867 he went with the orchestra to the Paris Exposition Universelle, where they won first prize. For several years he was musical director of the band of the 40th Infantry Regiment, from which, with great effort, he was able to create a full symphony orchestra. The latter had a great impact on the musical culture of Kraków, promoting important works and becoming part of the Old Theatre (Teatr Stary), where it accompanied performances and played during the entr'actes (under the direction of S. Koźmian). The orchestra also collaborated with the Kraków operetta (under the direction of K. Hofman), and stimulated the amateur musical scene. In ...

Article

David Charlton

[Auffdiener, Baronne]

(b 1766; d 1835). French author and composer. The daughter of an organist in Rambouillet, she was trained as a pianist and later obtained patronage from Marie-Antoinette. She studied with Beaumarchais and Greuze, and took composition lessons from Grétry. Two of his later letters to her survive (Froidcourt). Her L’heureuse erreur (1786) was intended as a sequel to Grétry and Desforges’ L'épreuve villageoise (1784) and was rehearsed with orchestra at the Comédie-Italienne, but not voted for public performance. At the Revolution she was arrested, but fled to Holland and then England.

During the Directory, Wuiet returned to fashionable Paris society and was the editor of several short-lived papers. In about 1807 she married one Colonel Auffdiener and lived with him in Lisbon, where he was posted. On the defeat of the French armies they returned to France but lived separately, and Wuiet continued to write both music and fiction. Her literary works include the three-act ...

Article

Gerhard Conrad

(b Mayen, Germany, June 19, 1961). German trombonist, arranger, and bandleader. He began his music studies in 1980 with Jiggs Whigham in Cologne. From 1983 to 1984 he was a member of the band led by the clarinetist and saxophonist Pierre Paquette, then joined Rod Mason. While with Mason (until 1991) he wrote his first arrangements and also worked as a studio musician and as a teacher at the Musikhochschule Cologne and at the university in Bonn. From 1992 he led his own band, Joe Wulf and his Gentlemen of Swing, and changed his style from traditional jazz to swing of the 1930s and 1940s. From October to December 1998 he toured with Buddy DeFranco and Terry Gibbs.

Article

Elizabeth C. Teviotdale

(fl 992–6). English versifier, music theorist and most probably composer . He is not to be confused with the homilist Wulfstan of York, who was Bishop of London (996–1002), Bishop of Worcester (1002–16), and Archbishop of York (1003–23). Often referred to as ‘the cantor’ in his lifetime and describing himself as the ‘least servant of English hymn singers’, Wulfstan was the precentor at Winchester's Old Minster in the years before, and perhaps after, the turn of the millennium. John Leland (?1506–52) claimed that Wulfstan was chosen precentor by his fellow monks because of his ‘thoroughly melodious voice and consummate skill in singing’. According to his own testimony, Wulfstan was a pupil of St Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester (963–84). He died on July 22 ( GB-Lbl Cotton Titus D.xxvii, f.6r), but the year is not known.

Wulfstan's name appears as an acrostic in the preface to his ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Münster, Jan 28, 1832; d Braunfels, Sept 7, 1902). German conductor, pianist and composer , father of Ludwig Wüllner. From an early age he studied the violin and the piano and composed music. His father was a distinguished philologist who was director of the Düsseldorf Gymnasium; when he died in 1842 the family moved to Münster, where Franz studied the piano and composition with Carl Arnold; from 1846 to 1850 he studied with Anton Schindler in Münster and Frankfurt. From 1850 to 1854 he went on concert tours, playing Beethoven's late sonatas, and completed his studies, visiting Berlin, Brussels, Cologne and Leipzig and meeting many of the important musicians of his day. A lifelong friendship linked him with Brahms from 1853. From 1856 he taught the piano at the music school in Munich before being made music director of Aachen in 1858. He returned to Munich in 1865...

Article

Franki Raden

(b Bandung, Java, Nov 16, 1958). Indonesian composer , active in the Netherlands. At the age of ten she moved with her family to the Netherlands. Wullur finished her piano studies at the Sweelinck Conservatory in Amsterdam in 1971; in 1984 she returned there to study composition with Leeuw. In 1988 she undertook further composition studies with Andriessen and Loevendie at the conservatory in The Hague. Wullur’s works often use the aesthetics and sound elements of gamelan music, for example in Ganantara (1988) for gamelan ensemble. She has made great efforts to discover the individual character of each gamelan instrument, blending her background in Western classical composition techniques with her experience of playing gamelan music. In 1985 Wullur set up Irama, a Balinese gamelan ensemble which performs wayang kulit (shadow puppet theatre). Since commissioning a gamelan tuned to a chromatic scale in 1995, she has written many works for chromatic gamelan ensemble including ...

Article

Gerhard Wienke

(b Leipzig, April 25, 1919). German organist, church musician and composer . He studied the organ with Karl Straube and composition with Johann Nepomuk David at the Leipzig Hochschule für Musik (1935–41). In 1943 he gained a teaching post at the Halle School of Church Music. When the Halle Musikhochschule was founded in 1947 he became its first, and for some time its only, lecturer in organ and harpsichord. He was also Kantor and organist, then director of church music, at the Moritzkirche. In 1958 he moved to Hamburg to become organ teacher at the Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst and Kantor and organist at the Jacobikirche. In 1963 he became a professor at the Hochschule and in 1972 he took a professorship at the Hochschule für Musik, Frankfurt, a post he held until his retirement in 1990. Wunderlich gave organ interpretation courses in the USA in alternate years and appeared as an organist and harpsichordist in almost all European and many other countries. His cyclic performances of Bach and Reger were widely acclaimed, and he also performed music by Michelsen, Fiebig, David and Brönner. Among his compositions, organ and choral works predominate....

Article

[Johann Georg]

(b Bayreuth,?Feb 2, 1755/6; d Paris, 1819). German flautist and composer active in France. He was the son of an oboist in service to the Margrave of Ansbach. He studied the flute with his father and at the age of 20 went to Paris to study with Félix Rault, a flautist at the Concert Spirituel. Wunderlich appeared as a soloist as early as 1776. He was a member of the Concert Spirituel orchestra from 1778 to 1783, performed a solo concerto there on 7 June 1778 and appeared regularly as a soloist in 1779. He joined the Opéra orchestra in 1781 as second flautist and rose to principal in 1787, by which time he had entered the king’s service. At the end of the century he was one of the most famous flautists in France. In 1795, on the founding of the Paris Conservatoire, he became a professor of flute, teaching such celebrated flautists as Berbiguier, Camus and Tulou. Wunderlich continued to play in the Opéra orchestra until ...

Article

Louis Karchin and Jason Carucci

(Peter)

(b New York, June 9, 1938). American composer. He began composing at the age of five, even before starting piano lessons. By the age of 12, despite fierce family opposition, he had chosen composition as his career. He attracted early attention by winning the New York PO's Young Composers’ Award in 1954. After graduating from the Trinity School, Manhattan, he enrolled in Columbia University (BA 1961, MA 1963), where his composition teachers included Luening, Ussachevsky and Beeson. While a student he received three Bearns prizes (1958, 1959, 1961) and four BMI Student Composer Awards (1959, 1961–3), a feat unmatched by any previous or subsequent composer.

Already a brilliant pianist and formidable conductor, Wuorinen co-founded the Group for Contemporary Music in 1962, an ensemble that quickly set a new performance standard for contemporary music. Stefan Wolpe’s Trio for Flute, Cello and Piano and the ...

Article

Frank Kouwenhoven

(b Hengyang, Hunan, Sept 5, 1958; d Beijing, June 2, 1993). Chinese composer. He studied privately with Luo Zhongrong and at the Central Conservatory in Beijing (1983–88), later continuing his studies with Taira and Malec in Paris. Mo’s limited output shows a great sophistication and power of expression. When he died of liver cancer at the age of 34, the younger generation of Chinese composers lost one of its most promising voices. Mo’s music combines elements of Chinese folksong with a contemporary idiom sometimes reminiscent of Ligeti yet strongly personal and imaginative. He was an accomplished performer of his own vocal works and a brilliant pianist. His string quartet Sacrificial Rite in Village (1987) won a prize at the World Music Days in Hong Kong in 1988. Fan I, for male voice and ensemble (1991), with the composer as vocal soloist, was given an award at the Asian Festival of the Arts ...

Article

Adrienne Simpson

[Werfel, Wenzel Wilhelm ]

(b Plaňány, nr Kolín, May 6, 1790; d Vienna, March 23, 1832). Bohemian pianist and composer . He came from a musical family and was pushed (especially by his mother) towards a career in music. A precocious pianist, he made many concert tours in Bohemia as a youth. He went to Prague as a pupil of Tomášek and, though he primarily studied the piano, was tremendously influenced by the novel style of Tomášek’s keyboard compositions and modelled some of his own works on them; this is particularly so in the music he wrote while in Warsaw during the most important period of his career.

In 1815 Würfel went to Warsaw, where he soon became a favourite artist in the salon and the concert hall; that year he was appointed professor of organ and thoroughbass at the conservatory. In Warsaw he published some major didactic works for keyboard, including Euterpe: dziennik muzyczny na fortepiano...

Article

(b Southampton, May 18, 1860; d Munich, Jan 21, 1938). British pianist, conductor and composer of German parentage. She studied the piano and composition at the Stuttgart conservatory and later became a piano pupil of Clara Schumann, Joachim Raff, Franklin Taylor, józef Wieniawski and others. Her composition teachers in London included Arthur Sullivan, C. V. Stanford and Frederick Bridge; she won the Mendelssohn Scholarship three times in succession, which enabled her to study composition at Leipzig, with Carl Reinecke, in 1886. She made her début as a pianist at Crystal Palace in 1882, and followed this with engagements in London, Leipzig, Meiningen and Berlin. Germany was her home for most of her life; she became a teacher in Hanover and Berlin, and eventually moved to Munich. In 1898 she established a women’s orchestra in Berlin which she conducted and took on tour until 1900. Her sisters, Adela, Alice and Matilde, changed the family name to Verne, and pursued careers as pianists in England....

Article

Edward H. Tarr

[Vurm, Vasily Vasilyevich]

(b Brunswick, Aug 28, 1826; d St Petersburg, 25 May/June 7, 1904). German cornet player, composer and band director. His first musical training was with his father, bandmaster of the Black Hussars of the Grand Duke of Braunschweig. At the age of 21 he moved to St Petersburg, where he was ‘Soloist of the Imperial Theatre Orchestra’ from 1847 to 1878 (from 1862, ‘Cornet Soloist to His Imperial Majesty’) and director of bands of the Imperial Guards from 1869 to 1889, as well as musical adviser to Tsars Aleksandr II and III, the latter an amateur cornet player. In 1866 he reorganized Russian infantry bands, using special instruments he had invented a year earlier together with the St Petersburg maker Anders. From 1867 until his death he taught the cornet and brass chamber music, the latter an innovation, at St Petersburg Conservatory. For 33 years Wurm was chairman of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society....

Article

[Brand-Vrabely, Stephanie ]

(b Pressburg [now Bratislava], Dec 26, 1849; d Vienna, Feb 16, 1919). Austrian composer, pianist and writer of Slovak origin. She used the pseudonym Stephanie Brand-Vrabely. She was the daughter of the post office director in Pressburg. Through her cultured family circle she became acquainted with Peter Cornelius, Brahms and Liszt, and with Tausig , who later became her teacher. As a pianist she performed a wide range of Romantic music, sometimes playing arrangements for four hands with her sister Seraphine (Tausig’s wife). After her marriage to Count Ernst Wurmbrand-Stuppach she lived in Vienna, where her compositions were performed by leading Austrian musicians. Her virtuoso piano music is typical of the late Romantic period; it includes Die schöne Melusine op.33 (‘musikalische Illustrationen’), Phantasiestücke op.21, Konzertstück im ungarischen Stile (for two pianos), waltzes, paraphrases and studies. Other works include a violin sonata (op.35) and songs. She also promoted the first performances of Béla Bartók’s music in Vienna and Manchester....

Article

Burkhard Kippenberg

revised by Lorenz Welker

[Würzburc; Würzburc; Meyster Conrat von Wertzeburc]

(b Würzburg, c1230; d Basle, Aug 31, 1287). German poet and composer . He was the most distinguished and successful German poet of the late 13th century. He was of bourgeois origin, and after a thorough education he became an itinerant musician, later settling in Basle and Strasbourg; he was probably the first Minnesinger to earn his living from writing, and, thanks to his city life and clients, counted patricians, noblemen and ecclesiastical lords among his patrons. His work shows him to be the most individual poetic figure from the second half of the 13th century and suggests that his knowledge of Latin and his understanding of theology and the law were considerable. Although he was in the direct line of descent from the classic courtly poetry of Gotfrid von Strassburg, Konrad managed to develop a style that was terse in its language but at the same time exhibited a wealth of images, similes and learned arabesques. His virtuoso poetic talent, brilliant formal skill and masterly originality of formulation transcend the transitional era in which he lived....