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(b Swabia or Alemannia, between 1470 and 1475; d c1540). Swiss composer. He was a travelling minstrel (‘ioculator egregius’) until about 1510. He was offered the position of court jester to the Count of Württemberg, but declined it. Later he probably lived in Augsburg and Basle. From about 1520 he was a headmaster in Kaysersberg, north-west of Colmar, Alsace. From there he corresponded with Swiss humanist circles, in particular with Joachim Vadian, the Amerbach brothers and Glarean.

Apart from a Latin psalm motet and two sacred two-voice songs, 22 secular German songs for four and five voices have survived; ten are contained in CH-Bu F X 1–4, compiled in 1523–5 for the Amerbach family. Of these songs, a cycle of four four-voice arrangements of the folksong Elslein, liebstes Elselein is particularly interesting; the melody appears in a different voice in each version, and the phrases already show a strong tendency towards homophony. A psalm motet for five voices and other songs are lost....


Anton Haefeli

(b Aeschi, Berne, Aug 3, 1937). Swiss composer. He studied with Sava Savoff (piano) and Sándor Veress (theory) at the Berne Conservatory (diploma 1962) and with Klaus Huber (composition) at the Musik-Akademie der Stadt Basel (1968–72). He also studied linguistics, philosophy and musicology at Zürich University (doctorate 1973). He has taught at Zürich and Basle universities (1971–85) and at the Winterthur Conservatory (from 1985). In 1974 he founded Mixt Media Basel, an ensemble specializing in experimental music-theatre works. His honours include first prize in the Zürich composition competition (1972), distinctions from the International Composers Seminars, Boswil (1974, 1976, 1978), the Paul Gildson prize of the Communauté radiophonique des programmes de la langue française (1984) and the Anerkennungspreis Kultur of the canton of Basel-Landschaft (1991).

Wüthrich has developed individual compositional procedures for each of his works, hoping ‘that a person who hears one of my works will experience something he or she can experience only in this piece and nowhere else’ (Meyer, ...


(fl ?late 13th century). English composer of many polyphonic alleluia settings, most of which are no longer extant but a list of which still survives. A ‘W. de Wicb’ was apparently scribe of many manuscripts during a four-year stay at the priory of Leominster in Herefordshire probably in the later 1270s (according to references in GB-Ob Bod.125, ff.98v and 99r). Among items listed in this source are a collectarium according to Reading use, written at the behest of the subprior, R. of Worcester (Leominster had been a cell, or dependency, of Reading Abbey since the reign of Henry I); a precentor’s work book (‘that is to say, a troper and processional in one’); a ‘summary [compotum] together with a treatise on music’; a ‘history [historiam] of St Margaret’, of which ‘Hugo de Wicb’ was the author and to which W. de Wycombe had added music; two rotuli containing polyphony, and many other books. W. de Wycombe, who seems to have compiled this list himself, made it clear that for part of those four years he occupied the priory’s leading musical position, that of precentor....


(b Thaxted, Essex, c1445; dWells, ?September 1505). English church musician and poet . The stepson of a schoolmaster, he was a chorister of King’s College, Cambridge, during 1455–6 and a scholar of Eton College from about 1459 to 1464, whence he returned to King’s College and graduated MGram in 1467/8. Through his position as tutor to the sons of nobility he came to the notice of Edward IV, by whom he was presented to a chaplaincy of the chantry of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral, a position that he occupied from 1474 to 1478. Probably he returned thence to the royal court, where he appears in 1491 as schoolmaster in Latin to the choristers of the Chapel Royal. In 1500 he entered residence as a canon and subdean of Wells Cathedral, where he was buried on 4 October 1505.

Among contemporaries he enjoyed celebrity as a poet and as an inaugural exponent in England of humanist ideals in the recovery of the classical Latin style; a few lines of his poetry have been preserved. Later reports that he may have studied in France and Italy cannot be verified. In addition, in ...


John Warrack

revised by Rosemary Williamson

(b Bushey, Herts., May 22, 1822; d London, March 13, 1890). English conductor, composer and writer on music . The son of Henry Wylde (b 1795), an organist and gentleman-in-waiting to George IV, he became organist of Whitchurch and then at 16 had piano lessons from Moscheles; from 1843 to 1846 he studied with Cipriani Potter at the RAM, where he was later a professor of piano. He was organist of St Anne and St Agnes, Gresham Street (1844–7). In 1851 he gained the degree of MusDoc at Cambridge. He was a juror in the musical instrument section in the international exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, and was made professor at Gresham College in 1863.

In 1852 the New Philharmonic Society was founded, with Wylde as a guarantor, to introduce new or rare works. The first six concerts were conducted by Berlioz and Wylde, with Wylde in the second concert directing his own Piano Concerto in F minor (with Alexandre Billet), in the fourth his scena ...


Janelle Gelfand

(b Cincinnati, June 24, 1916; d Estes Park, CO, Jan 20, 1989). American composer. She studied at Wayne State University, Detroit (AB 1937, MA 1939) and the Eastman School of Music (PhD 1943), where her teachers included Bernard Rogers and Howard Hanson. She continued her studies at the Berkshire Music Center with Arthur Honegger, Samuel Barber and Aaron Copland. Her teaching appointments included positions at the University of Missouri (1943–9) and Wayne State University (1949–69); she also served as composer-in-residence at the Huntington Hartford Foundation (1953–4) and the MacDowell Colony (1954, 1956).

Wylie’s music evolved from a tonal style through an increasingly dissonant language to atonality. In the 1960s she became interested in improvisational techniques, composing more than 12 works for the Improvisation Chamber Ensemble, which she founded and directed. She described her piano work Psychogram (1968...


[Fredericus, Federico ]

(b c?1572; d after 1597). Flemish composer and singer . He is listed as one of the older choirboys in the Flemish chapel at the court of Philip II at Madrid in the second quarter of 1586; according to Becquart he very probably went to Madrid with George de La Hèle in the spring of ...


Vivian Perlis

revised by Elizabeth Perten

(b Calgary, AB, June 1, 1929). Composer, pianist, and conductor of Canadian birth, son of lazar Weiner . He studied music at the Juilliard School of Music, Yale University (BMus 1951, MMus 1953), where his teachers were richard frank Donovan and paul Hindemith , and Harvard University (MA 1952) with walter Piston , among others. After a period at the American Academy in Rome (1953–6), he was active as a performer and composer in New York. His teaching appointments have included positions at the Yale School of Music (1963–77), the Tanglewood Music Centre (1975–97), SUNY, Purchase (1978–89), where he also served as dean of music (1978–82), and Brandeis University (1989–2005), where he is professor emeritus of composition, as well as visiting professorships at Harvard (1991–7). Among his honors are two Guggenheim fellowships (1958–9, 1977–8...


Ed Wynn  

Jonas Westover

[Isaiah Edwin Leopold ]

(b Philadelphia, PA, Nov 9, 1886; d Beverly Hills, CA, June 19, 1966). American actor, comedian, composer, and lyricist. Best known for his character “The Perfect Fool,” Wynn created his stage moniker from his middle name, Edwin. He began his stage career in vaudeville and quickly moved into larger stage productions. Especially important were his starring roles in Florenz Ziegfeld’s Follies of 1914 and 1915 and the Passing Show of 1916. In the 1920s he appeared in revues including Ed Wynn’s Carnival (1920), The Perfect Fool (1921), and The Grab Bag (1924) and introduced spirited songs such as “When I Was Small,” “She loves me, she loves me not,” and “Sing, Sweet Juanita.” Although none of the songs were hits, the revues themselves were successful. Wynn turned to radio in the 1930s, hosting The Fire Chief for most of the decade. He appeared in numerous films during the 1940s and was one of the pioneers of television. Wynn had his own comedy-variety show (...


Mervyn Burtch and Malcolm Boyd

[Thomas, David Wynne]

(b Penderyn, Glam., June 2, 1900; d Maesycwmmer, Mid Glam., March 23, 1983). Welsh composer. He worked as a miner before entering University College, Cardiff, as a mature student in 1925. He took the BMus in 1928, trained as a teacher for a year at Bristol University and became the first full-time music teacher at a Welsh school, at Lewis School, Pengam, Glamorgan (1929–60). He then taught at the Welsh College of Music and Drama in Cardiff (1960–70) and at University College, Cardiff (1970–80). In 1945 he won the Clements Memorial Prize and first made contact with Michael Tippett, one of the judges, whose support was crucial in his early career.

The early influences on him were Bartók and Schoenberg, though the influence of Schoenberg was a negative one: he realized that the dodecaphonic system was alien to his Celtic spirit, but it showed him that there were new ways of thinking, and that the way was open to new harmonic and structural principles. The influence of Bartók was much more positive, as his language and style become a lingua franca for so many composers of that period and later. This was allied to a rhythmic diversity which derived directly from the complex metrical patterns of Welsh poetry, particularly the work of poets like Dafydd ap Gwilym....


John Caldwell

revised by Alan Brown

(d Winchester, bur. Dec 15, 1572). English composer . He was a conduct (i.e. singer) of St Mary-at-Hill, London, from 1537 to 1540. Richard Winslade, Master of the Choristers (and therefore also Organist) of Winchester Cathedral from 1541, was very probably the same man. He apparently held these posts until his death; he is last mentioned in the Winchester Chapter Book in a list dated November 1572.

Wynslate's sole surviving composition is an antiphon for organ, Lucem tuam ( GB-Lbl Add.29996, f.19v; ed. in EECM, vi, no.9) signed ‘Rychard Wynslate’. Since this is one of only two names (the other being that of Richard Coxsun) which appear in the earliest section of this manuscript without a prefix such as ‘Master’ it is at least possible that Wynslate himself compiled this part of the manuscript. The repertory includes works by Thorne and Philip ap Rhys, both of whom were at St Mary-at-Hill in the 1540s and perhaps earlier. ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Warsaw, 1810; d Zürich, 1850). Polish composer and pianist . He studied with Józef Elsner at the Warsaw Conservatory, and later with Karl Arnold in Berlin. He gave many concerts in Warsaw and Kraków (1839–40) and in Dresden (1841); ill-health frequently led to spells away from the concert hall. He wrote orchestral marches and dances, krakowiaks, mazurkas and a rhapsody for piano, and also a number of songs, which for a time enjoyed a measure of popularity in Poland. Some of his compositions were published in Warsaw and Leipzig....


Stefan Jena

(b Poznań, July 18, 1934). Austrian composer of Polish origin. He studied at the Poznań Conservatory, where his teachers included Stefan Boleslaw Poradowski and Andrzej Koszewski, and in Vienna with Erich Urbanner (until 1970) and Dieter Kaufmann (1978–80). From 1971 to 1973 he worked at Universal Edition and later divided his time between choral conducting, performing as a pianist and a cellist, and teaching in Vienna and Graz. He took Austrian citizenship in 1976. He has won awards in both Poland and Austria.

Wysocki's output, primarily for chamber ensemble, reflects his preference for new and transparent sound structures achieved through unconventional performance techniques (Fantasia, 1981) and unusual combinations of instruments (Quasi divertimento, 1993). Characterized by colouristic richness and sharply contrasting effects, his music is similar in style to that of the Polish avant garde. Although the logic of his thematic development shows the influence of the Second Viennese School, he has rejected serialism and made only a very limited use of aleatory elements (in, for example, the ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Berne, Dec 2, 1935). Swiss composer and pianist. He studied at the Berne Conservatory with von Fischer and Veress among others, at the Paris Conservatoire, where his teachers included Lefébure and Calvet, and with Karl Engel (1958–9). He has taught the piano at the conservatories of Biel (1959–67) and Berne (1962–6), and at the Basle Musik Akademie (from 1967). A specialist in the performance of new music, he co-founded the Basle Ensemble of the ISCM with his wife, Janka Brun, the Holligers, and Nicolet and Eduard Brunner. He has received particular recognition for his interpretations of Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, Stockhausen’s Mantra and works by Elliott Carterand, which he has recorded for the Accord label.

As a composer, Wyttenbach was influenced early on by the music of Bartók and Stravinsky, as can be heard in the humorous-satirical choruses Sutil und Laar...



Margaret Bent


Evi Nika-Sampson

(b Piraeus, June 18, 1950). Greek composer and educator. He studied literature, history of art, and composition with Y. A. Papaioannou and electronic music with M. Adamis in Athens. In 1979 he continued his studies in France, attending the graduate class of Iannis Xenakis and seminars of music informatics at G.R.M. (Groupe de Recherches Musicales 1979–85) and the Centre d’Études de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales (CEMAMu). Xanthoudakis holds the bachelor’s degree from the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Athens, and the Master’s Degree (DEA) and PhD from the University of Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne).

In 1992 he was elected professor of advanced theory and music creation at the music department of the Ionian University and, since March 2013, he has been the chairman of the department. For a time he was vice rector of the university. As a founding member of the music department of the Ionian University, Xanthoudakis has provided versatile and innovative work on educational, scientific, and artistic issues. He taught at the University of Athens in the interdepartmental graduate program with the department of theatre studies and as a visiting professor at the University of Paris, the University of York, the Conservatory of Nuremberg, the Institute of Musicology of Budapest, etc. He served as vice rector for academic affairs and personnel for two consecutive terms and since ...


Gail Holst-Warhaft

(b Athens, March 14, 1939). Greek composer and conductor. He is best known internationally for the scores he composed for the film Rebetiko, and for the British television series The Dark Side of the Sun. After completing his studies at the Athens Conservatory, Xarhakos went to Paris to study composition with Nadia Boulanger and to New York to study at the Juilliard School with David Diamond. Returning to Greece he became part of the Neo Kyma (New Wave) of 1960s Greek composers who set modern Greek poetry to music in a laïko (popular) style. He wrote a number of very successful popular songs, collaborating with the poet Lefteris Papadopoulos, and also composed music for cinema and theatre. His most enduring song from the 1960s is probably Savvatovrado stin Kaisariani (Saturday evening in Kaisariani), first recorded by Bithikotsis and subsequently performed by a number of singers including Dalaras. During the 1970s Xarhakos turned to classical music, although his compositions did not become known outside Greece. He later became director of the Greek National Orchestra. He also entered Greek politics and became a controversial spokesperson for the arts. Costas Ferris’s ...


Peter Hoffmann

(b Braïla, ?May 29, 1922; d Paris, Feb 4, 2001). French composer of Greek parentage. He belonged to the pioneering generation of composers who revolutionized 20th-century music after World War II. With the ardour of an outsider to academic musical life, he was one of the first to replace traditional musical thinking with radical new concepts of sound composition. His musical language had a strong influence on many younger composers in and outside of Europe, but it remained singular for its uncompromising harshness and conceptual rigour.

The eldest child of a Greek businessman, he was born in Romania, and at the age of ten was sent to a boarding school on the Greek island of Spetsai (Spetses). An outsider there, he immersed himself in science and Greek literature, both of which were to become lifelong interests. His early musical experiences were various: at home he heard classical piano music played by his mother and the music of gypsy bands; on Spetsai he encountered Byzantine liturgical music and Greek folk music and dance; he also sang in the school choir (whose repertory included works of Palestrina), and absorbed classical music from the radio. Later, during World War II, a comrade in the Greek Resistance was to introduce him to the music of Bartók, Debussy, and Ravel....


Isabel Pope

revised by David Fallows

(b ?Jerez; fl 1500). Spanish composer. Anglès read ‘Xeres’ incorrectly as Exerea or Exereo. The Pietro Furtado documented at the court of Naples in 1455 seems too early for confident identification with Hurtado de Xeres. Two three-voice canciones by Hurtado, No tenga nadie speranca and Con temor de la mudança, are in the Cancionero Musical de la Colombina (ed. in MME, xxxiii, 1971). Both are conventional lover's laments; they seem to have been added to the manuscript (ff. 60v–63v) after 1490 by a single hand otherwise found only in the preceding piece by Gijón. The superius of the first closely follows the melodic contour of the estribillo of Urreda's famous canción Nunca fué pena mayor. This gesture of homage to Hurtado's predecessor is composed in an accomplished contrapuntal style. The comment ‘buena’ (good) appears in contemporary handwriting beside both pieces.

StevensonSM H. Anglès...


Nicholas Tochka

(b Zall-Dardhë, 1917; d Tirana, Albania, 1959). Albanian composer and guitarist. Born into a small village in the north-eastern district of Dibër, he showed an early aptitude for singing and performing. He primarily accompanied himself on the two-stringed plucked chordophone, çifteli, performing traditional men’s songs. In 1937 the pre-war monarchy sentenced him to prison, where he first encountered the health problems that would plague him until the end of his life. After escaping from prison, he made his way to Italy as an economic migrant. A self-taught singer and guitarist, he enrolled at the Conservatory in Bologna, though he interrupted his studies to return to Albania to join the Partisan Resistance during World War II. After the war, he was named guitarist to the Orchestra of the People’s Theater and subsequently held the post of bandleader at the State Estrada. During this period, he began composing the Italian-style songs for which he became best known. Among these are his compositions ...