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(b Paris, ?March 19, 1785; d Paris, Oct 29, 1853). French pianist, teacher and composer. The son of a Paris piano maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798 to study piano with Boieldieu and harmony with J.-B. Rey and then Catel. In 1800 he won a premier prix for piano (over Kalkbrenner) and in 1802 a premier prix in harmony; later he studied composition with Cherubini. From 1811 he assisted in teaching the piano at the Conservatoire and in 1816 was appointed professor. In 1821 he was selected to succeed A.-F. Eler as professor of counterpoint and fugue, but decided to teach the piano only and the vacant post went to Fétis. He was one of the most influential French keyboard teachers of his time; his pupils included Franck, Alkan, Louis Lacombe, Ambroise Thomas, Bizet and A.-F. Marmontel (who succeeded him in 1848). He also taught Gounod (who became his son-in-law). He retired early from public performance in order to devote himself to teaching and composition. His ...


Tully Potter

(b Lahr, Oct 8, 1966). German viola player. Encouraged by her elder siblings, who wanted to play trios, she started playing a small viola at three and at five began learning the piano. From 1979 she studied with Ulrich Koch at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Freiburg and from 1986 with Sándor Végh at the Salzburg Mozarteum. She was a prizewinner at international competitions at Geneva in 1982, Paris in 1983 – where she was awarded a new Etienne Vatelot viola – and Budapest in 1984. She then began an outstanding career which has taken her all over the world. Her US début was made in 1993 and in 1995 she gave her first recital in Carnegie Hall, New York. Zimmermann is among today's finest viola virtuosos, with a superb technique and an ample, supple tone; but she is also an artist of rare profundity. She is often heard in concert with the pianist Hartmut Höll or the conductor David Shallon, and other close colleagues are the oboist Heinz Holliger, and violinists Gidon Kremer, Thomas Zehetmair and Frank Peter Zimmermann (not related to her). She gave the first performances of Volker David Kirchner's ...


(b Husum, Holstein, bap. March 8, 1743; d Ludwigslust, June 23, 1801). German instrumentalist and composer , brother of Hardenack Otto Conrad Zinck. His father, also named Bendix Friedrich Zinck, was a town musician in Husum, then cathedral organist in Schleswig (c1783), who wrote Kleine Duette für verschiedene Instrumente and other pieces for wind instruments (according to GerberL). Zinck studied the violin, harpsichord and organ with his father. About 1764 he visited Norway and stayed for a time in Christiania (now Oslo), and in 1767 he became a violinist at the Ludwigslust Hofkapelle of the Duke of Schwerin, where he served until his death. From Ludwigslust he made several concert tours to Dresden, Hamburg (where he studied composition with C.P.E. Bach), Berlin, London and elsewhere, becoming known as a violinist and keyboard player. In 1781 he married the court singer Charlotte Nussbaum (1760–1817)....


(b Husum, Holstein, July 2, 1746; d Copenhagen, Feb 15, 1832). German composer and instrumentalist, brother of Bendix Friedrich Zinck. Like his brother, he was taught several musical instruments and harmony by his father. He continued his studies in Hamburg for ten years and performed in both amateur and public concerts there; he also had the special esteem of his teacher, C.P.E. Bach, under whose direction he performed as a singer in 1768. In 1777 he was recruited as first flautist and chamber musician in the Ludwigslust Hofkapelle of the Duke of Schwerin, where he dedicated himself increasingly to composition, learning from imitation of Classical models and from C.P.E. Bach’s Versuch, Kirnberger’s Kunst des reinen Satzes and Marpurg’s theoretical writings (preface to his Sechs Clavier-Sonaten, 1783). In August 1786 he visited Copenhagen, where he gave a highly successful concert, appearing as a flautist, keyboard player and composer. A year later he was offered the post of ...


A. Lindsey Kirwan

revised by Stephan Hörner

(b Konstanz, c1570; d Augsburg, Feb 1622). German composer and instrumentalist. He matriculated at Freiburg University in 1589. For 11 years he was a musician in the service of Cardinal Andreas of Austria at Konstanz. He then moved to Augsburg and worked as a cornettist, organist and composer in the service of the town, the cathedral and the influential Fugger family, Maximilian Fugger being a particular patron of his. In 1614 he applied for the post of Kapellmeister at Augsburg Cathedral, in succession to Bernhard Klingenstein, but Georg Mezler was preferred to him. He was a talented instrumentalist and received a special subsidy for training younger cornett players. He was also highly esteemed at the Munich court, where he frequently performed as a cornettist; he received five payments for compositions, the last being in 1619. He was also connected with the court at Innsbruck, being personally acquainted with Archduke Leopold, a keen patron of music....


Gary W. Kennedy

[Corujo de Magalhàes Alves, Carlos ]

(b Lisbon, Dec 15, 1948). Portuguese violinist. He studied classical music at a conservatory in Lisbon (c1953–1965) and learned organ at a school of sacred music (1967–8). During the 1960s he was a member of a chamber orchestra at Lisbon University, and in 1967 he founded the group Plexus, which explored a fusion of rock, contemporary classical music, and improvisation. Following a period in the Portuguese Army, in 1975 he studied graphic art and stage design at a theater school in Lisbon, and from 1974 to 1980 he served as the music director for a theater company, Comicos; later he founded an art gallery of the same name in which he displayed his own works. He also wrote for the theater, and in 1988 he collaborated on an Italian production of a trilogy by Franz Kafka.

Zingaro performed free jazz and improvised music throughout Europe with Daunik Lazro (from ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 21, 1904; d Cologne, Nov 16, 1978). German harpist and musicologist . He was the son of Rudolf Ewald Zingel (1876–1944), an organist, choral conductor and composer in Greifswald. From 1923 to 1927 he studied at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with harp (under Max Saal) as his main subject. He then studied musicology under Max Schneider, with German literature and aesthetics as secondary subjects, at the universities of Berlin, Breslau (1927–8) and Halle (1928–30). He took the doctorate in Halle in 1930 with a dissertation on harp playing from the 16th century to the 18th. Harpist in the Städtische Orchester of Lübeck from 1932, he joined the Städtische Orchester of Halle in 1934 and the Gürzenich Orchestra in Cologne in 1938, where he remained until his retirement in 1969; he also played in the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra (...


Charles Barber


(b New York, July 10, 1936). American conductor. After early violin studies at the Oberlin Conservatory he studied theory and composition at the University of Minnesota and took up conducting at Tanglewood. He then worked in Maine with Monteux (1958–62), serving as his assistant from 1961 to 1964. Zinman was principal conductor of the Netherlands Chamber Orchestra from 1965 to 1977, music director of the Rochester PO from 1974 to 1985 and chief conductor of the Rotterdam PO from 1979 to 1982. After two years as principal guest conductor, Zinman was appointed music director of the Baltimore SO in 1985, a position he held until 1998. With that orchestra he made important recordings (including a series of Schumann symphonies and much American music) and transformed a regional ensemble into a leading American institution, his musical strengths complemented by an engaging manner, a deep commitment to music education and community relations, deft use of the media and self-deprecating humour (‘I am the Mel Brooks of the violin’, he once declared). He has also appeared with leading orchestras and festivals in the USA, Canada and Europe. Zinman has given numerous premières at Baltimore and elsewhere, including works by Adams, Bolcom, Danielpour, Daugherty, Kernis, Kirchner, Rouse and Torke. His recording of Gorecki’s Symphony no.3 with the London Sinfonietta was an international bestseller. Zinman became music director of the Zürich Tonhalle Orchestra in ...


Anton Haefeli

(b Geneva, May 9, 1941). Swiss composer and flautist. He studied the flute at the Geneva Conservatory, the Paris Conservatoire and the Accademia Chigiana, Siena. After playing in various European orchestras (1964–7), he became a member of the Zürich Tonhalle-Orchester (1967–75). It was during this period that he began to study composition, working with Hans Ulrich Lehmann at the Zürich Conservatory (1973–5) and privately in Stuttgart and Hanover with Helmut Lachenmann (1975–7). From 1976 to 1978 he was an active participant in the Darmstadt summer school. He later lived in the USA (1979–80, 1983), Berlin (1981–2) and Paris (1982), where he worked at IRCAM. In 1986 he co-founded the Tage für Neue Musik Zürich with Thomas Kessler, serving as co-director until 1994. His honours include the title of guest of honour at the Leningrad Spring Festival (...


Kyle Gann

(b Chicago, 1959). American composer and clarinettist. He took the BA at Yale (1981) and the MA and doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley. His composition teachers included Bresnick, Imbrie, Grisey, Lewin, Schwantner, Felciano and Anthony Davis. He also studied the clarinet (with Keith Wilson), Balinese drumming and jazz performance. After graduating from Yale, Ziporyn spent a year in Bali studying under I Made Lebah. From 1990 he taught at the MIT, in 1993 he became director of the ensemble Gamelan Galak Tika (a group that has provided him with opportunity to explore combinations of Indonesian and Western instruments) and in 1997 he joined the staff at Yale. For several years he has been a prominent performer at the New York Bangon a Can festival.

Ziporyn's career embodies jazz clarinet playing, composition in a postmodernist vein and ethnomusicology. Not surprisingly, his music embraces the differences between music cultures. For instance, in ...


E. Fred Flindell

(b Frankfurt, June 20, 1914; d Freiburg, Oct 7, 1997). German composer, teacher and organist. In 1933 he attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, where he studied the organ with Walcha and composition with Sekles, and also studied at the university of Frankfurt. From 1934 to 1938 he continued his studies at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musikerziehung und Kirchenmusik in Berlin-Charlottenburg, where his teacher of composition was Armin Knab. Under Knab’s influence Zipp developed a keen and lasting interest in German and international folk music and particularly the treasury of old chorale tunes. He learnt to compose with the most archaic musical elements, convinced that they would best convey his personal musical expression. From 1938 until his war service (1941–5) he was active in Frankfurt as an organist and teacher. In 1947 he was appointed lecturer in composition at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt, later becoming a professor (...


Joseph S.C. Lam

(b Yangzhou, 1899; d Tianjin, 1991). Chinese qin zither master . Born in the historical site of the Guangling school, Zhang studied qin as a teenager with Sun Shaotao. By his early twenties he was already an accomplished performer, though remaining true to the amateur ideal of the qin. In the 1930s Zhang moved to Shanghai, acquainting himself with the qin players Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing; their regular meetings led in 1936 to the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region) in Suzhou. After the founding of the People’s Republic, Zhang was enlisted to the state-sponsored Shanghai Folk Music Troupe (Shanghai minzu yuetuan), and in 1957 he was appointed a teacher of qin at the Shanghai Conservatory. Zhang promoted the Guangling style through his performances, teaching and publications. His distinctive style of rhapsodic rhythm and flexible phrasing can be heard in his recordings of pieces such as ...



Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū ’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Nāfi‘ ]

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (817–38) in Qairawan (Tunisia), and later received a generous welcome from ‘Abd al-Raḥmān II (822–52) in Córdoba. His influence there as a court musician and companion (nadīm) must have been exceptional: customs in clothing and eating that he had brought from Baghdad became fashionable, and the tradition of his school of music was maintained by his descendants at least two generations after his death. Like his contemporary al-Kindī he seems to have known the musical theory of late antiquity and to have reconciled it with the teachings of his masters in Baghdad. Details of his vocal training techniques are described by Ibn Ḥayyān (...


Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

(selective list)...


Lada Duraković

(b Sovinjak, nr Buzet, June 1, 1910; d Pula, Oct 27, 1993). Croatian conductor, composer, and musical pedagogue. He received the degree in composition in 1934 at the Music Academy in Zagreb. Until 1941 he worked as city kapelmaster and director of the Music School in Sušak. From 1941 until the war he worked at the Croatian State Conservatory in Zagreb and led the Croatian Choral Society ‘Lisinski’. During the war years he conducted the choir of the Central Theatre Troupe of the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH). From 1946 he worked as conductor of the choir of the Radio-television, music editor of Radio Zagreb, and professor of conducting at the Music Academy. From 1965 until his death he lived in Pula. He worked as director of the School of Music ‘Ivan Matetić Ronjgov’, research associate and ethnomusicologist of the North Adriatic Institute of Jugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts (JAZU), taught at the Academy of Pedagogy, and collected folk-music material....


Sigrid Wiesmann

(b Vienna, Jan 9, 1950; d Hanover, March 21, 1991). Austrian composer and percussionist. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers included Urbanner and Cerha, with Kotonski in Warsaw (1972–3), at Vienna University and at Humboldt University, Berlin (PhD musicology 1978). During this period, he worked at the Institut für Elektroakustik at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik (1969–72) and at the experimental studio of Polish Radio in Warsaw (1972–3). Active as a percussionist, he founded the improvisatory group Spiegelkabinett. In 1985 he served as visiting professor at the University of São Paolo, and from 1987 to 1991 he taught electro-acoustic music at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik. He was appointed president of the Austrian section of the ISCM in 1988.

Following an exploration of aleatory and postserial techniques, Zobl devoted himself to electro-acoustic composition. From his attempts to develop a new approach to tonality grew his work with animation and his collaboration with songwriters and amateur ensembles. Later, he became interested in ethnic music as a stimulus for integral rhythmic composition. He saw in this genre the possibility of overcoming an outmoded European conception of music on the one hand, and a chance to open music up to a variety of historical and cultural phenomena on the other. ‘Rhythmic composition,’ he explained, ‘means the conscious transformation and transposition of the cultural experiences that are deposited in rhythms, and is in no way a superficial borrowing from a foreign culture …’....


Giorgos Sakallieros

[Lisa, Elisabeth]

(b Gavalou, Mesolongi, Aug 8, 1940). Greek guitarist. She studied with Dēmētrēs Fampas at the National Conservatory of Athens (1953–60). Right after graduating, she won the first prize at the International Guitar Competition of Naples. She became the first Greek female professional classical guitarist as well as the first Greek guitarist to perform concertos with orchestra (transcr. of Vivaldi’s Mandoline Concerto in D major, RV93 (8 March 1958) and Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s Guitar Concerto no.1, op.99 (3 April 1960)). With her classmate, and subsequent life-partner, Euangelos Asēmakopoulos, they formed the first Greek classical guitar duo. After studying, under consecutive scholarships, with the famous guitar duo Presti Lagoya at the International Summer Guitar Academy of Nice (1964–7), and with Andrés Segovia at Santiago de Compostela (1967–9), Zōē and Asēmakopoulos embarked on an international career as a guitar duo that has recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. First introduced as ‘The Athenian Guitar Duo’ (...


E. Heron-Allen

revised by John Moran

[Marteau, Léon ]

(b Berlin, March 26, 1840; d London, July 13, 1889). German player of the viola d’amore, bandmaster and composer . At the Berlin Conservatory, Hubert Ries, W. Gärich and A.E. Grell taught him the violin, harmony and counterpoint respectively. He travelled in Germany with an Italian opera company, eventually settling in London in 1873. In 1879 he became bandmaster of the 7th (Queen’s Own) Hussars; in 1884 he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome, and in 1885 a similar honour was conferred on him by the Istituto Musicale of Florence.

Zoeller’s compositions include a comic operetta The Missing Heir, a lyric drama Mary Stuart of Fotheringay, church music, a scena for soprano and orchestra The Rhine King’s Daughter, four overtures and other orchestral pieces, a violin concerto, a string quartet and quintet and several songs. As a player of the viola d’amore he did much to revive interest in that instrument, to which purpose he wrote ...


David Cummings

(b Mobile, al , Aug 17, 1949). American soprano. She studied with Elena Nikolaidi at Florida State University and made her début at the Houston Opera in 1975, as Donna Elvira. She has appeared widely in North America as Fiordiligi and Pamina, and as Giulietta in I Capuleti e i Montecchi...


Harry B. Lincoln

(b Rome, c1537; d Loreto, 1592). Italian composer and singer. He spent most of his life in Rome. After singing in the Cappella Giulia from 9 August 1558 until February 1561, he was maestro di cappella of S Luigi dei Francesi from 1561 to 1566. From 1567 to June 1570 he held a similar position at S Giovanni in Laterano, and during this period may also have been in the service of Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto. On 5 July 1570 he joined the choir of the Cappella Sistina as an alto but, according to an entry in the Diario sistino for August 1577, was obliged to resign because of ill-health in July 1577. On 25 October 1577 he and Palestrina were appointed by Pope Gregory XIII to prepare a corrected edition of the Roman Graduale; Zoilo worked on the Proprium sanctorum and the Antiphonale. Because of lack of funds the project was abandoned in autumn ...