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Nazir A. Jairazbhoy

(b Hilversum, May 19, 1899; d London, Oct 8, 1963). Dutch scholar of Indian music. He studied oriental languages at the University of Leiden and in 1930 took the DLitt at Utrecht University with a translation of a Sanskrit musical treatise. With his wife Cornelia he spent over 15 years in India. He studied music and language at Tagore’s school in Santiniketan, and Bengal became one of his main areas of interest; subsequently he did fieldwork from Ceylon to Nepal, largely on folk and tribal traditions (financed by a fellowship from Brasenose College, Oxford, 1937–44). During the war he served as music adviser to the All India Radio in Delhi and as director of European music at the Calcutta Broadcasting Station. In 1948 he was appointed lecturer (later reader) in Sanskrit and Indian music at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London; he also gave many lectures and recitals (accompanied by his wife) in Europe, India and North America. During his final visit to the Indian subcontinent (...


Larisa Alexandrovna Nazarova

(b Dushanbe, Nov 19, 1942). Tajik composer. Born into a family with a strong operatic tradition, he received his first training as a pianist, firstly with Rafael′ Danilovich Ayrapetyants (1959–63) and then at the Gnesin Institute in Moscow (1963–6) where he started to show an interest in composition. He studied privately with Khagagortian and Ter-Osipov before transferring to the composition department of the Tashkent Conservatory in 1966. He worked in the Mirzo Tursun-zade Institute of Art (1971–6 and 1993–6) before settling in Germany. Although he has experimented with serial, aleatory and sonoristic techniques, these have always been subordinated to the national traditions which lie at the roots of his work. The six vocal and instrumental shashmakom which form the basis of Tajik folk music all constitute the main building blocks of Bakhor's compositions; they can be recognized not only by their modal properties, melodic contours and rhythmic or metrical characteristics of the works, but also by their instrumentation, methods of development, architecture and artistic imagery....



Gregory Salmon

Capital of Azerbaijan. After the annexation of Azerbaijan by Russia in 1806 a theatrical tradition developed only gradually, under the influence of Russian residents. The first local theatre, the Teatr G. Z. A. Tagiyeva (built in 1880), featured some music in its productions, including musical-dramatic performances by singers and instrumentalists during intervals. Concert life developed only at the end of the 19th century, although touring Russian and Italian opera troupes appeared earlier. Efforts by the Nijat society, which directed the Tagiyev Theatre, led to the production of the first Azerbaijani opera, Leyli i Mejnun by Uzeir Hajibeyov, on 12/25 January 1908 and later to other operas by Hajibeyov, including Sheykh Sanan in 1909 and Rustam i Zokhrab in 1910. A 1281-seat opera theatre, built in 1910–11 and reconstructed in 1938, opened in 1911 with a performance of Boris Godunov and has since devoted itself to the performance of Russian and Azerbaijani classics. In ...



Alastair Dick

[bākurá dṛ́ti]

Indian term found in the ancient Sanskrit Ṛgveda (pre-1000 bce), sometimes interpreted, but without certainty, as a musical instrument. It occurs only twice, both times connected with the verb dhmā (‘to blow’), once in the simple form bákura (i, 117.21) and once in the adjectival form bákurá, qualifying the word dṛ́ti (‘skin, bag’; ix, 1.8). In the first, the twin sky-gods (the Aśvin) are said to have made light for the Aryans by blowing with a bákura upon the aboriginal foe; in the second, ‘the virgins send him forth: they blow the bākurá bag and fuse the triple foe-repelling mead [the sacred drink soma]’. The two passages appear to be mythologically connected. Some Indologists have translated the word as ‘trumpet’ or, in the latter instance, ‘bagpipe’, clearly implausible. Sachs (1940) identified it as the conch horn, an important instrument, under the name śa ṅkha...


Leah Dolidze

(b Kutaisi, April 17, 1943). Georgian composer. In 1967 Bakuradze completed his musical education at the Tbilisi State Conservatory studying composition with Andria Balanchivadze. He lives and works in Tbilisi, composing on a freelance basis. Because of the originality and independence of his approach Bakuradze occupies a special place in Georgian music: having rejected prevailing norms and official aesthetic criteria from the start, he was the first Georgian composer to be interested in experimental instrumental theatre, ‘happenings’ and also the radical reinterpretation of traditional genres. His style is marked by the use of an array of techniques ranging from atonality and serialism to collage, minimalism, musique concrète along with aleatory and sonoristic methods. Most of his pieces contain extra-musical elements: some scores bear witness to his interest in mystical philosophy and Christian symbolism, which is organically combined with provocative wit and a touch of surrealism. In his first significant compositions (dating from the early 1970s), such as the String Quartet and ...


Jean During, Johanna Spector, Scheherazade Qassim Hassan and Mark Slobin

[balaman, yasti balaman, duduk]

(1) Cylindrical oboe of the Caucasus (particularly Azerbaijan), northern Iran and north-east Iraq. In northern Iran the bālābān is also known by its older Turkish name nerme ney or mey. It has a cylindrical wooden pipe, a broad reed and eight finger-holes, giving the scale E♭ (with an A♮). The warm, full tone of the bālābān is often used with the choghur (lute) and qāvāl (frame drum) to accompany the singing of an ‘āshiq (poet-singer); it is also played solo, and in pairs with one instrument providing a drone.

The Azerbaijani balaban is 28 to 31 cm long and made of mulberry or apricot wood. The reed is 9 to 11 cm long and is inserted into the globular head. The older balaban had five to seven finger-holes, while contemporary instruments have eight finger-holes and one thumb-hole. Sometimes an additional hole is made in the lower end of the tube at the back....


Shantha Balachander and S.B.S. Raman

(b Madras [Chennai], Tamil Nadu, Jan 18, 1927; d Bhilai, Madhya Pradesh, April 13, 1990). South Indian vīṇā player. S. Balachander was one of the greatest and most influential Karnatak musicians of the 20th century. From the age of five he showed a great interest in music and at six he appeared on the concert platform for the first time, as a kañjīrā accompanist to vocalists. He also learnt other instruments including the tablā, mṛdaṅgam and sitār. He was a concert artist on the sitār between 12 and 16 years of age. From the age of 15 for three years he was a staff artist at the Madras station of All India Radio, playing various instruments, as a soloist, accompanist and as part of an ensemble.

He took up the vīṇā at age 16 and, self-taught, evolved a highly influential and original style which owed a great deal to the techniques of vocal music. This style is now known as the Balachander ...


Gulbat Toradze

Georgian family of musicians .

(b Banoja, nr Kutaisi, 12/Dec 24, 1862; d Kutaisi, Nov 21, 1937). Composer . One of the pioneers of Georgian professional music, he is the father of the composer Andria Balanchivadze and the ballet master, §2 . He studied music at the Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary (1877–9), then singing in the choir of, and later taking solo roles at the Tbilisi Opera House. In 1882 he set up a folk choir of 12 singers; it was from this date that his musical and public duties began as a promulgator and a collector of Georgian folk songs. It was also during this period that he wrote his first compositions – the romances Rodesats gitsker (‘When I Look at You’), Shen ghetrpi marad (‘I am Eternally Drawn to You’) and Nana (‘Lullaby’) – which were early and successful examples of the genre in Georgian music.

In 1889...


Galina Grigor′yeva

(b Ashkhabad, Aug 26, 1902; d Moscow, June 3, 1982). Russian composer of Armenian extraction. After graduating from Kabalevsky’s composition class at the Moscow Conservatory (1935), he worked in Stalinabad (now Dushanbe) and took a large part in the development of professional music in the republics of central Asia. He made a serious study of Tajik folk music, recording and arranging a great number of songs. This work assisted him in creating the first Tajik works for the musical stage, among them the opera Vosstaniye Vose (‘Vose's Uprising’, 1939), which relates the story of a peasant revolt at the end of the 19th century and which uses many Tajik melodies in symphonic development. Balasanyan’s music gradually grew more complex as his technical mastery became sharper. The ballet Leyli i Medzhnun, which achieved particular renown, is based on a widely known eastern legend; its subtle lyricism, vividly characterized images and symphonic growth established it in the Soviet repertory, and a successful film version was produced. Balasanyan has also drawn on other folk musics: Armenian, Afghan, Indian and Latin American. Of his expressive and colourful orchestral works the most notable is the suite ...


Narayana Menon

(b Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, May 13, 1918; d ? Madras, 1984). South Indian dancer and musician. Her family included many distinguished dancers and musicians since the 18th century; during the 19th century some of her forebears studied with Subbaraya Śāstri. Her formal training as a dancer started when she was four under the noted teacher Kandappan Pillai (1899–1942), himself the inheritor of a great tradition, and her mother taught her music. When she was seven her araṇkeṟṟam (formal début) took place at the Kāmākṣi Ammaṉ temple, Kanchipuram, and her professional début was two years later in Madras. As a girl she was already an accomplished and mature dancer with a very large repertory, but she continued to study, notably the basis of abhinaya (dramatic expression) and its improvisation. She became a musician in her own right and a leading exponent of forms such as padam and jāvali...




Andrew C. McGraw

The particular types of gamelan of Bali, Indonesia; commonly distinguished from Javanese gamelan. Although many ethnomusicologists have categorized gamelan using a taxonomy developed by the Balinese state conservatory, which distinguishes ensembles as ‘old, middle, and new’ (kuno, madya, baru), definitive evidence regarding the emergence of pre-20th-century ensembles is lacking. Authors have alternatively attempted to categorize ensembles by their ceremonial and social function. However, new social and aesthetic contexts have shifted prior associations; practically all extant ensembles now appear in tourist, state, religious, and experimental contexts. Ultimately it might be simplest to organize the ensembles organologically. For information on individual instruments see separate entries. For bibliography see gamelan .

Balinese gamelan appear primarily in bamboo and bronze, and rarely iron, varieties. Ensembles dominated by bamboo instruments are typically smaller and are often associated with secular or recreational social contexts. The joged (pajogedan, joged bumbung) ensemble combines six tingklik...


José Maceda

Bamboo instrument of the Kalinga people of the northern Philippines, combining elements of an idiophone and aerophone. It is called pahinghing or paginggeng by the Isneg and pakkung by the Ibaloy. A slot divides the upper half of the thin bamboo tube (about 40 cm long and 3 cm in diameter), and these halves are shaved and shaped into slender tongues. The lower part of the tube is split partway down as a continuation of the slot. When the tongues are struck against the heel of one hand, the split allows them to vibrate and buzz. A small hole at the base of the split is closed or opened by the thumb (or third finger) of the holding hand, altering the length of the air column of the tube and thus the pitch of the buzz. The balingbing is believed to drive away evil spirits when played by young girls in the evening or by boys along paths....


(b Palestine, TX, Jan 21, 1902; d Fort Worth, May 2, 1984). American singer and bandleader. He led his own band in Dallas (c1925) and toured Texas, then briefly led the Wolverines. In 1928 he worked as a banjoist in New York, but from 1929 he specialized as a singer. He made a large number of recordings as a leader (1929–31, 1934), as well as with such musicians as the Dorsey Brothers (1928–9), Irving Mills, the Goofus Five, and Ben Pollack (all 1929), the California Ramblers, Joe Venuti, and Frankie Trumbauer (all 1929–30), the violinist Ben Selvin (1929–31), Duke Ellington (1930, notably Nine Little Miles from Ten-Ten-Tennessee, Vic. 22586), and Red Nichols and Benny Goodman (both 1931). During the early 1930s his band held many residencies in New York, and Ballew also led an all-star group which included Bunny Berigan and Glenn Miller. Later he appeared in many films....



Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Gini Gorlinski


Narrow end-blown duct flute, found in slightly varied types in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The instrument is used most notably by the Karo Mandailing and Toba Batak peoples of the province of North Sumatra, but also by the Gayo and Alas peoples of Aceh. Two types of baluat are distinguished in the Karo area: the baluat pingko-pingko and the baluat gendek. The relatively soft-toned baluat pingko-pingko is made from a bamboo tube usually 30 to 50 cm long and 1 to 2 cm wide at the top. The louder baluat gendek is about 24 cm long and 2 cm wide. Both types narrow towards the bottom and have six small fingerholes about 2 cm apart, sometimes with the third and sixth holes larger than the others. A bamboo or wooden block inserted into the top forms a small duct that directs the breath onto the sharp edge of a V-shaped opening cut just below the block. The lower end of the flute is usually cut at a node, which serves to strengthen the instrument. A small hole is made in the node. The ...




Jonathan McCollum

[bambirn, pandïr, pandïrn]

Plucked chordophone of medieval Armenia. It was used by gusanner (entertainers) in theatrical performances, weddings, funerals, and other rites and feasts. The Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi refers to the bambir in his History of Armenia (474 ce). Some modern scholars believe the bambir might have been a concussion idiophone, similar to castanets....


Robert At’ayan

Type of Armenian cello, invented in the early 1950s and named after the ancient Armenian instrument. The body is hollowed from a single piece of wood and covered by a wooden soundtable. The large bambir has two crescent soundholes (7 cm long and 2.5 cm wide) in the soundtable and a thin animal membrane, with several soundholes (about 5 mm in diameter), stretched underneath. This membrane under the soundtable gives the instrument its distinctive timbre—a clean tone, reminiscent of a muted cello, but related to the sound of the k’amancha and other folk instruments. The body is 54 cm long, and the width varies from 29 cm at the base to 13 cm in the middle and 24 cm at the top. The bambir is strung and tuned like the cello, and the sounding length of the strings is 63 cm (from head to bridge).

The small bambir has no membrane and only one soundhole in the belly. Its measurements are: body length 40 cm, width 24 cm at the base, 12.5 cm in the middle, and 19 cm at the top; sounding string length 39 cm. It is tuned like the violin but an octave lower. When ...



Alan R. Thrasher

Wooden idiophone of the Han Chinese. Ban (‘flat board’) and the onomatopoeic bang are generic terms denoting time-beaters of several types: the woodblocks nanbangzi and Muyu; bangzi concussion bars; concussion plaques, sibao, which are shaken; and the widespread clapper paiban. Audible time-beating in Chinese music dates back to the du (cited in the Confucian text Zhouli, from about the 3rd century bce), a long hollow staff of bamboo held vertically and struck against the floor in ritual music. The Korean tok was derived from this idiophone. Other examples of bamboo tubes, wooden bars, and pieces of metal struck together for signalling purposes have had local importance only.

The idiophones employed in traditional performance mostly emerged between the 17th and 19th centuries. In North China, concussion bars known as bangzi (also bangban) consist of two hardwood bars of different length, thickness and shape: a short rectangular bar with rounded edges (about 20 cm long, 6 cm wide, and 4 cm thick) and a longer rounded bar with a slight conical profile (about 25 cm long, end diameters about 2.3 and 2.8 cm). These bars mark beats in Hebei ...