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Harold S. Powers

revised by Richard Widdess





Speranta Radulescu, Valentina -Sandu-Dediu, Adriana Şirli and Costin Moisil

[Roumania, Rumania] (Rom. România)

Country in South-East Europe. Modern Romania is roughly situated in the ex-Roman province of Dacia (106–271 ce), and its people are of Latin heritage. After the withdrawal of the Romans the area was successively overrun by Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, and, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Turks. Romania was formed as a state in 1859 through the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia, to which Transylvania, formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was added in 1918. It became a people’s republic in 1947 and a socialist republic in 1965. An uprising in 1989 led to the establishment of a non-communist administration.

Valentina -Sandu-Dediu

Until the 19th century, musical culture in Wallachia and Moldavia was primarily made of folkloric and Byzantine layers. The beginning of lay composition, in the form of ‘worldly’ and court songs written by some boyars at the end of the 18th century, showed Oriental and Turkish influences. In Transylvania, contacts with Western European musical styles were strengthened through the presence of German and Austrian court musicians (for example, Michael Haydn or Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf). About ...


2. Rrokatake and borizani

(photo by Visar Munishi)


Marina Frolova-Walker, Jonathan Powell, Rosamund Bartlett, Izaly Zemtsovsky, Mark Slobin, Jarkko Niemi and Yuri Sheikin

(Russ. Rossiiskaya Federatsiya; Russia)

Country largely in Asia, with its capital at Moscow. It is the world's largest country in area, reaching from the Gulf of Finland to the Pacific, and from the Arctic to the Black and Caspian seas, covering 11 time zones.

During the three centuries of Romanov rule (from 1613) the Russian Empire expanded to take in much of eastern Europe and northern and central Asia. The 1917 Revolution replaced the Romanovs with a Soviet republic headed by a series of strong leaders (Lenin, Stalin) whose views affected all spheres of society including music. The empire was reconstituted as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) which, following territorial gain after World War II (including the absorption of the Baltic States), grew to a total of 15, of which the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic was by far the biggest and itself included a number of smaller autonomous republics. Liberalization in the late 1980s led to the break-up of the Soviet Union into its constituent parts. In this way the Russian Federation was shorn of areas, partly Russian-speaking, such as Ukraine and Belarus, that had been closely linked with Russia for many centuries....


Peter Cooke

revised by J. Gansemans

Two neighbouring republics in Central Africa.

Despite their differing contemporary political situations, the same three ethnic groups – the Hutu, Tutsi and Twa – are located in Rwanda and Burundi. From the 16th century the Tutsi kingdom of Rwanda has shared the history of Burundi. In both republics, the majority is Hutu, Bantu-speaking farmers culturally related to peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo who have been dominated by Tutsi dynasties since the 16th century when these cattle-breeders arrived in Rwanda from the north. The Tutsi conquered the area and founded a feudal kingdom, wielding absolute power over the other population groups although they represented only about 15% of the total population. In the late 19th century, both Rwanda and Burundi were under German control and from 1920–62 were moved to Belgian colonial rule. In 1959, a Hutu uprising destroyed the Tutsi feudal hierarchy and overthrew the monarchy. Violent inter-ethnic rivalry between the Hutus and Tutsis culminated in the near-genocide of the Rwandan Tutsis in ...


Lisa A. Urkevich

(Arab. Mamlaka al-Arabiya as-Saudiya)

Country in the Middle East , flanked by the Red sea and the Arabian Gulf . The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with an area of 2·2 million km², covers nearly 80% of the Arabian peninsula. The population is small (21·66 million, 2000 estimate) but comparatively diverse; over one quarter is non-Saudi.

The area of the present kingdom has been exposed to many cultures, including Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Indian, Persian and Chinese, because of its important ancient trade routes, as well as the visits by millions of Muslim pilgrims to its Islamic holy cities, Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Medinah). The Islamic era dates from the hijra (hegira), 622 ce, when the Prophet Muhammad returned to his birthplace of Medina. Ottoman Turks, who controlled the coastal regions of Saudi Arabia from the 16th century until the first quarter of the 20th, have also had significant influence on the area.

The Saudi state was cultivated in the 18th century on the basis of Wahhabism, a Muslim reform movement: in ...



Eric Charry

(Fr. République du Sénégal)

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 196,190 km² and a population of 9·49 million (2000 estimate), approximately 92% of whom are Muslim. The Senegal river defines the northern boundary with Mauritania and eastern border with Mali. The Gambia river defines the country of the same name, which cuts through the middle of Senegal (fig.1). The region south of The Gambia, called Casamance, is lush compared to the dry north. Senegal has undergone strong Islamic influence via its northern region in the Sahel, and early, prolonged European contact via its western border along the Atlantic coastline. The hereditary professional musician, oral historian and praise-singer (Griot) is prominent in the socially differentiated societies of the Wolof, Haalpulaaren (Tukulor, Toucouleur, FulBe or Fulani) and Mandinka. Senegal is well known for its drumming and dance traditions, especially the Wolof sabar ensemble, its Mandinka kora players and its wealth of urban popular music groups....


Cootje Van Oven

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 73,326 km² and a population of 4·87 millon (2000 estimate). Colonized by the British in the early 19th century, the state became independent in 1961 and a Republic in 1971. The population comprises the Mende in the south and the Temne in the north, with a number of smaller ethnic groups, including the Kissi, Malinké (Maninka), Fula (FulBe) and Krio.

Although Sierra Leone is a relatively small country, it has a rich variety of music. This is not only because it has different peoples, each with their own musical variety, but also because of their influence on each other. In addition, music is closely connected with dancing, drama, storytelling and the visual arts. Even carving and other arts and crafts are associated with music through the use of masks and costumes by dancers who act as the embodiments of certain spirits, and through the decoration of such instruments as the ...


Tong Soon Lee

Island state situated between peninsular Malaysia and the archipelago of Indonesia. Founded in 1819, it served as an important port of call for the British Empire in South-east Asia, gaining independence on 9 August 1965. The country has approximately three million people, who are largely descendants of immigrants from the Malay peninsula, Indonesia, China, South Asia and Sri Lanka. The ethnic make-up consists mainly of Chinese (77·4%), Malay (14·2%), Indian (7·1%) and Eurasian (0·4%), with other peoples, including Arabs, Japanese, Jews, Armenians and Europeans, making up the remainder. With a largely Asian population in a post-colonial setting, Singapore boasts a mixture of cultural attributes, reflected in its diverse musical culture.

The musical palette of Singapore is largely marked by music of the three major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian), as well as Euro-American classical music and popular music in Mandarin and English. In the late 1980s, musicals by Singaporean composers had tremendous success in the country, followed by the advent of locally composed, produced and performed rock music in the 1990s....


Richard Rybarič, Ľubomír Chalupka and Oskár Elschek

Country in Central Europe. From 1018 the territory of the Slovaks was part of Hungary and in 1526 it was brought, together with Bohemia and Moravia, under Habsburg rule. The administrative division into the Austrian (Cisleithan) region and the Hungarian (Transleithan) region was created after declaration of the dual monarchy in 1867. In the Hungarian region a policy of aggressive oppression of minorities (including the Slovaks) was promoted, eroding the conditions for the development of Slovak culture. After 1918 the territory of Slovakia was incorporated into the new state of Czechoslovakia and was able to build its own cultural identity. In 1993 Slovakia became an independent state.

Richard Rybarič, revised by Ľubomír Chalupka

The first mention of music in the territory of present-day Slovakia dates from the end of the 8th century, when the Christianization of the central European Slavs began. In 863 the Byzantine missionaries Cyril and Methodius came to the Great Moravian Empire and laid the foundations of Slavonic liturgical chant, formed by the synthesis of Eastern (Byzantine) and Western (Latin) elements. After the incorporation of the territory of the Slovaks into Hungary in ...


Jurij Snoj, Leon Stefanija and Svanibor Pettan

(Slov. Republika Slovenija)

Country in southern Central Europe, bordered by Austria in the north, Hungary in the northeast, Croatia in the south and southwest, and Italy in the west. Following centuries of Habsburg rule, the current territory of Slovenia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918, and into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945. Slovenia became an independent republic in 1991 and joined the European Union in 2004. The population of roughly 2 million is composed of the Slovenian majority (over 80%) and several minorities, including those from former Yugoslav republics: Hungarians, Italians, and Roma. The official language, Slovene, belongs to the Slavic branch of the Indo-European linguistic family and is particularly rich in dialects. The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism, while Lutheranism is of major historical importance. The political and cultural capital of Slovenia is Ljubljana.

In the Middle Ages, the great majority of the territory inhabited by Slovenians made up part of the Holy Roman Empire. More exactly, Slovenians lived in Carniola (Ger. Krain), southern Carinthia (Ger. Kärnten), southern Styria (Ger. Steiermark), the County of Gorizia, and some other adjoining political formations. All these lands passed in the later Middle Ages to the House of Habsburg, and were still later united as Inner Austria with the capital Graz. The coastal belt of the modern Slovenia belonged, until the beginning of the 19th century, to the Republic of Venice, and the easternmost regions to the kingdom of Hungary. In the later Middle Ages the most important Slovenian town became Ljubljana (Ger. Laibach), the capital of Carniola. In ...



John William Johnson

[Somali Democratic Republic] (Som. Jamhuriyadda Dimugradiga ee Soomaaliya). Country in the Horn of East Africa. It has an area of 637,657 km² and a population estimated at 11·53 million (2000). The Somali Democratic Republic collapsed in a revolution in 1991, and no political state has been formed to replace it, although the Somali National Movement declared the secession of an independent country called the Somaliland Republic in the north-western region. Somalis are the primary ethnic group and inhabit neighbouring parts of Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya. These peripheral populations have been separated from the main population since the colonial partition of Africa. A small number of other Bantu-speaking ethnic groups live among the Somalis. Islam, language and ethnic identity unite all Somalis, but there are internal divisions into clan families, lineages and other subgroupings based on an agnatic genealogy. There are also three main linguistic divisions. Most Somalis are nomadic herders of camels, cattle, sheep and goats or small-scale subsistence farmers. The growing urbanization of the country was curtailed considerably by the civil war, which began in ...


David K. Rycroft, Angela Impey, Gregory F. Barz, John Blacking, Jaco Kruger, C.T.D. Marivate, Caroline Mears, James May and David Coplan

Country in Southern Africa. With an area of 1,224,691 km², it occupies the southernmost tip of the continent, bordered by Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north and by Swaziland and Mozambique to the north-east ( fig.1). Lesotho, Kingdom of is an independent enclave in the mountains in the east of the country. In the north-west is the vast Kalahani desert, where most of the remaining Bushmen (San) peoples (see Bushman music), the earliest inhabitants of the region, and the Khoikhoi (Hottentot) peoples live (see Khoikhoi music).

South Africa was colonized by the Dutch in 1652 and also by the British in the 19th century; it became a dominion within the British Empire in 1910 and an independent republic in 1961. Although less than 11% of the total population of 46·26 million (2000 estimate) are whites, of European descent, a system of apartheid or segregation, which deprived blacks, Coloureds (mixed race) and Asians of constitutional equality (though they represent 77%, 9% and 3% of the population respectively), became official policy when the ...



Robert Stevenson, Louise K. Stein, Albert Recasens, Belen Perez Castillo, Josep i Martí i Perez, Martin Cunningham, Ramón Pelinski, Jaume Aiats, Sílvia Martínez García and Arcadio de Larrea Palacín

revised by Maricarmen Gómez

(Sp. Reino de España)

Country in Europe. Its territory covers an area of 504,750 km², comprising most of the Iberian peninsula, the Canary and Balearic Islands and the towns of Ceuta and Melilla on the North African coast. It shares borders with Portugal to the west, and France and Andorra to the north. Its population of approximately 39·8 million (2000 estimate) is distributed among 17 autonomous regions, many of which preserve a strong sense of regional identity. Although Castilian is the official language of Spain, other languages are also recognized in some of the regions, for example, Catalan in Catalonia (Catalunya), Valencia and the Balearic Islands, and Gallego in Galicia. In addition, the Basque language is spoken in the Basque country (Euskadi) and parts of Navarre. (For a discussion of the musical traditions of the Basque people see Basque music.)

Christianity was introduced to the Iberian peninsula during the 3rd century and Catholicism officially accepted by the Visigothic rulers at the end of the 6th (...


[formerly Ceylon] (Sinh. Sri Lanka Prajathanthrika Samajavadi Janarajaya)

Country in Asia. It is an island in the Indian Ocean, roughly 38 km from the southern tip of India and 960 km north of the Equator. With an area of approximately 65,610 km², it has a population of around 18·8 million (2000 estimate).

From the standpoint of music and musical performance practice, one of the most significant features of Sri Lanka is its long involvement in the political and commercial life of the region. Situated with the Arabian Sea to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east, Sri Lanka has since ancient times participated in an intricate East-West economy, negotiating the sale of its sought-after natural resources (pearls, spices and elephants). The destinies of three important kingdoms in Sri Lanka – Anuradhapura (137–1000), Polonnaruva (1055–1255) and Kotte (1371–1597) – were tied to shifting centres of trade between the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea. Anuradhapura remained the capital until the 12th century, when trading networks in south India shifted trade from the west to the east coast of India, more strategically located for Polonnaruva. The south-western kingdom of Kotte became dominant during the 14th century, when the centre of trade moved back to the western coastal areas in response to the international demand for commodities associated with the southwest (pearls and gems). Strategic alliances between influential families in India and Sri Lanka were not uncommon. In the 16th century Sri Lanka’s strategic location and its natural resources became a focus of European imperial expansion. The Portuguese colonized parts of the south and south-west in ...


Artur Simon

(Arab. Jamhuryat es-Sudan)

Country in north-east Africa. The largest country on the continent, it has an area of 2,505,813 km² and a population of 29.82 million (2000 estimate). Approximately 70% of Sudanese are Sudan Arabs, 10% are Nubian, and 20% are Southerners belonging to numerous Nilotic and Bantu ethnic groups such as the Dinka, Shilluk (Colo), Nuer and Azande (Zande). These southern ethnic groups practise traditional religions or Christianity, while most other Sudanese are Sunni Muslim.

Popular Islamic customs and orders include song and music as an integral component of religious life and ceremonies. A distinctive musical practice has evolved out of local traditions over the centuries, resulting in solo songs such as qaṣīda and madī , and in collective performances such as d ̱ikr. The motivating force of this development was Sufism. The d ̱ikr is a part of a larger ceremonial in the northern Sudan called lailiya (evening session, the meeting on Thursday evening), ...


Terry Agerkop, Kenneth Bilby and Peter Manuel


Country in South America. Suriname (formerly Dutch Guiana) is situated between French Guiana and Guyana on the north-east coast. Bounded to the south by Brazil and to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, it has an area of 163,820 km². Suriname is notable for its heterogeneous population: ethnic groups among its approximately 450,000 inhabitants include East Indians (‘Hindustanis’, 35%), Creoles (30%), Indonesians (18%), Maroons (descendants of escaped slaves, also known as ‘Bush Negroes’, 10%), Chinese (2%), Europeans (1%), and other minorities such as Lebanese. The indigenous inhabitants were the Carib, Arawak and Warroo Indians, and Amerindians comprise 3% of the present population, retaining their own languages and aspects of their religious and musical traditions. There is no state religion. Most Creoles are either Protestant or Roman Catholic; the majority of the East Indians are Hindu, although some are Muslim; most of the Indonesians are Muslim; and the Maroons maintain distinct religions that are largely African-derived....


Gregory F. Barz

Country in southern Africa located between Mozambique and South Africa. It has an area of 17,400 km² and a population of 985,000. British colonial rule established Swaziland as a protectorate in 1903 and independence was achieved in 1968. The population is 84% Swazi and 10% Zulu, and the kingdom's official languages are English and siSwati. Both the siSwati- and Zulu-speaking peoples of Swaziland belong to the Nguni group of Bantu language speakers and speak a tonal language with clicks adopted from neighbouring San and Khoikhoi peoples. Traditional culture is maintained in the country and annual ceremonies are performed and preserved at a national level. Music in Swaziland is largely homogeneous; Swazi vocal music is distinctive but bears a resemblance to Zulu choral singing (Rycroft, 1982, p.315).

Music is an integral part of everyday Swazi and Zulu life. Songs are often specific to age-groups or to varying functions, occasions or activities. Swazi songs are frequently instructional, functional or directional (when incorporated into dancing); they may also communicate Swazi mores or collective or individual opinions. Songs are often a permissible forum for the criticism of authority. Women tend to sing in chest voice in their lower ranges, adopting a slow ‘diaphragm vibrato’ (ibid., 322). A male choral style known as ...



Hans Åstrand, Leif Jonsson, Folke Bohlin, Axel Helmer, Margareta Jersild and Märta Ramsten

(Swed. Swed. Sverige)

Country in northern Europe. It occupies the central part of Scandinavia, sharing frontiers with Norway to the west and Finland to the east; it is separated from Denmark by the Øresund strait to the south-west. Southern Sweden was united under one king in the 12th century, and by the Union of Kalmar (1379) Sweden, Norway and Denmark were united under Danish rule. With the accession of Gustav Vasa (1523) the country became independent and subsequently rose to a peak of imperial power in the 17th century, when its provinces included Finland (which had long been under Swedish rule), Livonia, Pomerania and Bremen; most of these were lost under the Peace of Nystad (1721).

Hans Åstrand, assisted by Leif Jonsson

Folke Bohlin

Archaeological finds in Sweden include pre-Christian musical instruments, the most famous of which are the bronze trumpets of about 1300–500 bce. Among other discoveries are flutes, animal horns, rattles and a few bridges from string instruments, some of which were probably imported. Stone carvings showing instruments have been interpreted as depicting religious ceremonies; little is known about other functions that music may have had. In the 11th century Christian missionaries introduced a new musical culture. Liturgical chant, at first following English models, soon became dominated by continental influences. As the ecclesiastical organization developed, the needs of church music were also taken into account, and detailed regulations for cathedral music are known from several dioceses. Monasteries were also important musical centres, parts of the monastic liturgical traditions being taken over by the lay churches; the Dominicans were especially influential, above all in Finland, the eastern part of the kingdom. Similarly, an originally Swedish tradition was taken to other countries, including England, by the Order of the Holy Saviour, founded in the 14th century by St Bridget. All convents of the Brigittine order used a special Office in honour of the Virgin, the ...