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Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Single-headed conical drum of the Tuutsi people of Rwanda. The struck head is laced to another skin that covers the closed end of the drum. The chihumurizo is the largest and lowest-pitched in a set of 15 drums; others include the ishako (ishaakwe, ‘high pitched one’), ...

Article

Chijin  

David W. Hughes and Henry Johnson

Double-headed drum of the Amami Islands and Okinawa, Japan. The pronunciation of the same character in mainland Japan is tsuzumi (‘hourglass drum’), but chijin generally refers to a small shallow barrel drum played by dancers in certain group ritual dances and as accompaniment to songs and during festivals. Hourglass drums, namely the ...

Article

Robert C. Provine

Large Korean barrel drum supported on a four-legged stand. It is related to the Chinese jingu and is the largest Korean drum in current use. Two cowhide heads (about 110 cm in diameter) are tacked to the slatted wooden body (about 155 cm long), which is painted a plain red; the struck head has a yin–yang symbol in the centre and multi-coloured decoration around the edge. The standing player strikes only one head, in the centre, with a large soft-headed mallet. The sound can be very deep and imposing, but in humid weather the drumskin might be too slack to produce a resonant sound....

Article

Chindon  

Henry Johnson

Composite Japanese instrument consisting of two membranophones and one idiophone. The onomatopoeic term chindon, referring to the high (chin) and low (don) notes of the instrument, is related to the word chindonya, which denotes a group of street performers who help with advertising local businesses; ...

Article

Chunggo  

Robert C. Provine

Obsolete large barrel drum of Korea (chung: ‘centre’; go: ‘drum’). It closely resembled the kyobanggo except that the body was about twice as deep. The last surviving traditional chunggo, long out of use, was destroyed in the Korean War (1950–53), and current examples are reconstructions based on memory and photographs. The ...

Article

Chwago  

Robert C. Provine

Korean barrel drum, suspended in a wooden frame (chwa: ‘seat’; go: ‘drum’). Of medium size, it has two tacked heads of cowhide, and the depth of the wooden body is about half the diameter of the heads. The heads are decorated with a yin/yang symbol in the centre and a multicoloured pattern around the edge; the body is also brightly painted in several colours. The drum hangs (with the heads vertical) from three metal rings set in a wooden frame with two support posts and a cross-member. The player sits and strikes the drum on one head only, with a large soft-headed mallet. The sound is loud and deep with a comparatively long reverberation....

Article

Clavia  

Brandon Smith

Swedish producer of virtual analogue synthesizers and digital organ and electric piano emulations. The company was founded in 1983 in Stockholm by Hans Nordelius (b1949) and Mikael Carlsson, and it sells its products under the brand name Nord. Clavia’s first product, the Digital Percussion Plate 1, introduced in ...

Article

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume

A Mechanical instrument of the Orchestrion type, invented by Diederich Nikolaus Winkel in 1821. Winkel's instrument, which survives at the Brussels Conservatory, comprises wooden and metal organ pipes, a triangle and a drum, all activated by two pinned wooden barrels. It also includes a device for automatically sequencing two-bar units of music from each barrel in turn in order to produce endless variations on a single theme....

Article

James Blades and James Holland

Afro-Cuban barrel drum (see Drum, §I, 2, (ii), (b)). It is classified as a membranophone: struck drum. It has a long, barrel-shaped shell, of wood or fibreglass, about 76 cm deep and a single head between 25 and 33 cm in diameter. Early types had thick vellum pegged or nailed to the shell; on later instruments the drumhead is screw-tensioned, with the hoop well below the rim of the shell (as with bongos) to allow free action of the fingers. The pitch can be raised by applying pressure to the drumhead, from edge to centre, with the heel of the hand. Congas were integral to the Latin-American dance bands of the 1930s and have since become one of the main rhythm drums in all types of music. They are usually used in sets of two to four, of different sizes: the largest drum is the ...

Article

Nolan Warden

Barrel-shaped Afro-Cuban drum usually played with the hands, around 30″ tall with a head diameter commonly 11 to 12.5″. Manufacturers often use the terms quinto, conga, and tumba for head diameters (small to large, respectively), although the terms were not historically used for that purpose. Until the mid-20th century, congas had mule or cowhide heads tacked to the shell. By the 1950s, metal screw-tension tuning systems began to predominate. At the same time in the United States, manufacturers started making fiberglass congas. By the end of the 20th century, it was common to mass-produce congas in Asia for American markets, leading to decreased cost and increased availability. In the 1990s, synthetic heads that approximated the sound of animal skin were developed in the United States, though most congas are still made of wood staves and animal hides....

Article

Coperti  

Indication for a Mute to be used in drum music. The term originated in the practice of covering drums (especially timpani) with cloth to damp the sound.

Article

Cuíca  

John M. Schechter

Brazilian Friction drum with a remarkable pitch range. A wooden stick, fastened at one end inside a drum in the centre of the drumhead, is rosined and rubbed with a cloth. The instrument’s large range is produced by changing tension on the head by pressing with the hand. Its origin is difficult to determine. It was introduced into Brazil probably by Bantu slaves, but it has also been known in Spain for centuries and is believed to have been brought to sub-Saharan Africa by Muslims. The ...

Article

Da-man  

Mireille Helffer

Paired copper kettledrums of the be-da musicians of Ladakh. They are joined together with a leather strap to facilitate carrying and are struck simultaneously with wooden sticks (dam-shing) held by a single player. Some sources report that both drums are carried by one person, one slung before, the other behind the bearer, who beats the front drum while a following person beats the other. The heads are laced on to the bowls, and their tension is adjusted by a metal ring at the base. They are tuned in 5ths and accompany an oboe (...

Article

Daff  

R. Conway Morris, Cvjetko Rihtman, Christian Poché and Veronica Doubleday

Round single-headed frame drum connected with Muslim cultures. In varying forms it is found in West Asia, the Caucasus, the Iranian plateau, Central Asia and south-eastern Europe. The drum is used in a wide variety of settings: folk music, art music, entertainment and dance music and Sufi religious rituals....

Article

Henry Johnson

Drum of Japan. Dai means ‘big’ and byōshi/hyōshi means ‘rhythm’. It is a double-headed, rope-tensioned cylindrical drum with a head diameter of about 24 to 60 cm. The body, made from wooden planks, is usually about 45 to 50 cm long, although larger instruments are sometimes made. When the head diameters exceed 60 cm the instrument is usually called ...

Article

Daiero  

Small single-headed closed barrel drum of the Bitonga of the Inhambane region, Mozambique. They are joined in pairs like Latin American bongos, which they imitate, and are used with the bombo drum (see Bombo (iii) ) and other percussion instruments to accompany dancing.

Article

Dāira  

Vergilij Atanassov and Veronica Doubleday

Round single-headed frame drum (see Drum, §I, 2, (vi)) found in Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, the Central Asian republics, the Caucasus, south-eastern Europe and parts of India. The term, derived from Arabic (da'ira: ‘circle’), has many variant spellings and transliterations. In many areas there is some overlap with the term ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval Sanskrit term for a waisted or hourglass drum. Drums of this type, either gently waisted or with the hourglass shape proper (with a very narrow waist and two hemispherical chambers) have been traced in ancient Indian sculpture from about the 2nd century bce, the latter type having some priority. Mostly laced, they were played in various ways: held by a shoulder strap or the hand and beaten with the hand or sticks on one or both heads, or held in the armpit or hand and pressed in the middle for variable tension (for the latter type, ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval drum of India. It was only about 10 cm long and 8 cm in diameter and was made of bell metal, cow horn, or ivory. Two thin animal skins covered with a paste of beeswax were stretched on metal hoops and braced with cotton lacings, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was held between forefinger and thumb, and the ring finger was curled under the cross-lacing....

Article

Daluka  

Goblet drum of Sudan. It is traditionally made of clay and played by women, notably by the main singer during spirit possession ceremonies. The Arabic name daluka, of Nubian origin, denotes a small drum beaten by the hand; in a bowl excavated from Tumulus VI at Hobagi, Meroe, one such drum is shown hanging from the drummer’s neck....