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Paul C. Echols

(b Detroit, MI, Feb 19, 1803; d New Haven, CT, Dec 23, 1881). American author of hymn texts and hymnbook compiler. The son of a missionary to the Native Americans, he was educated at Yale University and Andover Theological Seminary. While at Andover he compiled a small pamphlet containing 101 missionary hymns, three of them his own: entitled Hymns and Sacred Songs; for the Monthly Concert (Andover, MA, 1823), it was intended for use at missionary prayer meetings and was the first such collection to be published in the United States. In 1825 Bacon was ordained and became pastor of the Center Church, New Haven, where he served until he joined the faculty of the Yale Divinity School in 1866. In 1833 he published in New Haven a revision of Timothy Dwight’s edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns, to which he appended the collection Additional Hymns, Designed as a Supplement to Dwight’s Psalms & Hymns...


Mary Berry

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255 he entered the order of friars minor. Guy de Foulques (later Pope Clement IV), then Archbishop of Narbonne, wrote about 1265 asking him to outline a syllabus for the reform of learning – a sign of the high esteem in which Bacon and his teaching were held. Bacon responded by composing the three summaries known as the Opus maius, the Opus minor and the Opus tertium, submitting them to the pope in 1268. Clement died, however, that same year, before he had had time to study or implement them. During the next decade Bacon produced further writings on mathematics, science and language, including Greek and Hebrew grammars and a ...


Harald Herresthal


(b Drammen, Aug 31, 1908; d Oslo, June 12, 1989). Norwegian composer and teacher. He graduated as an organist from the Oslo Conservatory in 1931 and then studied in Leipzig (1931–2), with later periods of study with Rivier in Paris (1950) and Hanns Jelinek in Vienna (1965). In 1932 he became an organist in Drammen; he held organ recitals and was also active as a choirmaster, accompanist and music critic for several newspapers. He taught theory and composition at the Oslo Conservatory (1948–73) and continued there until 1978 as a lecturer when the institution became the Norges Musikkhøgskole.

The first public performance of his works in 1946 revealed his thorough knowledge of classical forms allied to a national Romantic style. A strong interest in the polyphony of Palestrina is reflected in the Mass (1949) and other vocal works. In Paris he became acquainted with French neo-classicism, and with Hindemith’s compositional technique as his background, Baden composed two symphonies, a concertino for clarinet and orchestra and chamber music that was frequently performed, such as the Wind Trio no.1. In the 1960s he ventured into 12-note technique (seen in his themes and his increasingly bold use of dissonance), and although he only used it extensively in the chamber work ...


John Gillespie

revised by Laura Moore Pruett

[Bärmann, Karl ]

(b Munich, Germany, July 9, 1839; d Newton, MA, Jan 17, 1913). Pianist, teacher, and composer of German birth. His father, Carl Bärmann (1810–85), and his grandfather, Heinrich Joseph Bärmann (1784–1847), were both renowned clarinetists; the latter was an intimate friend of Weber and Mendelssohn, both of whom composed works for him. Carl Baermann studied in Munich with Franz Lachner and Peter Cornelius and later became a pupil and close friend of Franz Liszt. He taught for many years at the Königliche Musikschule in Munich, becoming a professor in 1876, then in 1881 came to the United States. He made a successful debut as pianist in Boston (22 December 1881). Having decided to remain, he became prominent there as a performer, playing Beethoven’s “Emperor” concerto with the Boston Symphony Orchestra during its first season in 1882. He was also highly esteemed as a teacher: ...


Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....


Paula Morgan

(b Flint, MI, June 21, 1937; d Naples, FL, July 6, 2012). American musicologist. He received the BA from Dartmouth College in 1959. Following a year of study at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Munich, he began graduate work in musicology at Princeton University. He studied piano with Eduard Steuermann during this time, and his Princeton professors included Oliver Strunk and Milton Babbitt; he received the MFA from Princeton in 1962 and the PhD in 1969. Bailey taught at Yale University from 1964 to 1977. He was on the faculty of the Eastman School of Music, first as associate professor (1977–85) and then as professor (1985–6); in 1986 he was appointed Carroll and Milton Petrie Professor of Music at New York University and a member of the graduate faculty of the Juilliard School.

In his research, Bailey concentrated on German music of the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly Wagner, Brahms and Mahler, and on 19th-century musical autographs. In addition to his more strictly academic activities, he lectured on Wagner at the Bayreuth Festival (...


David Tunley

(b c1720; d Paris, c1798). French publisher, composer and teacher. On 27 April 1765 he took over the music publishing house known as A la Règle d’Or, which comprised businesses once owned by Boivin, Ballard and Bayard. During some 30 years he issued many works by both French and foreign composers, the latter including not only early masters like Corelli and Vivaldi, but also some of those who were influential in the development of the emerging Classical school: Carl Stamitz, Haydn, Piccinni, Paisiello, Cimarosa, Boccherini and Clementi. French composers included Gossec, Davaux, Monsigny and Brassac, and some of the earlier generation, Lully, Lalande and Campra. One of his major publications was the Journal d’ariettes des plus célèbres compositeurs, comprising 240 works issued in 63 volumes (scores and parts) from 1779 to 1788. Bailleux’s adoption of the royal privilege granted to the Ballard family led to his imprisonment during the Terror. He was released after the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (...


Patrick J. Smith

revised by Keith Cochran


(b Shawville, Québec, Canada, Jan 20, 1908; d Bloomington, IN, March 7, 1997). American music educator and administrator of Canadian birth. He was educated at Houghton College (BA 1929), Westminster Choir College (BMus 1931), and New York University (MA 1936, EdD 1938). He was head of the Music Department at Wesleyan Methodist College in Central, South Carolina (1929–30), head of voice and choral music at Houghton College (1931–8), dean of the School of Music at North Texas State University (1938–47), and dean of the School of Music at Indiana University (1947–73). After retiring he became artistic director of the Opera Theater at Indiana University. The eminence of the Indiana University School of Music, especially its excellent facilities for operatic production, is largely due to his efforts, and he was instrumental in enticing professional artists to join the faculty, including the mezzo-soprano Margaret Harshaw and cellist János Starker. He was also active in music education nationally, and was a chairman of the United States Information Agency Music Advisory Panel....


Lucy Robinson


(b Oxford, April 11, 1917; d Ballydehob, Cork, April 4, 1999). English double bass player, viol player and teacher, brother of Anthony C(uthbert) Baines. He studied at the RCM, London (including composition with Herbert Howells), and became principal double bass of the Boyd Neel Orchestra and, later, the Philomusica, performing on an instrument by Nicolas Amati. In the 1970s he played with the newly formed period-instrument orchestras such as the Academy of Ancient Music. In 1959, with his wife June, he founded the Jaye consort of viols, which gave over 70 broadcasts. To popularize the Jaye Consort in its early days, Baines would also perform medieval music on medieval bagpipes, harp, pipe and tabor, and shawm. The Baines's sweet and lyrical treble-viol playing, modelled on the English choral tradition, heralded a new approach to the instrument. However, Baines's greatest legacy is perhaps as a teacher. He had an intuitive feel for period instruments which made them come to life for a generation of students, notably those studying at the RCM where he founded and directed the (conductorless) Baroque orchestra. The debt felt to him by the early music fraternity was demonstrated by the ‘Concert to remember Francis and June Baines’ on ...


David Tunley

revised by Michael Jones


(b London, Feb 14, 1880; d Sydney, Dec 8, 1956). English composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the RCM under Stanford and Franklin Taylor. In 1901 he was appointed to teach the piano and composition at the Newcastle Conservatory of which he became principal a few years later. He was on the Continent at the outbreak of World War I and was interned at Ruhleben. On his return to Newcastle he resumed his activities as teacher, pianist, conductor and composer until the end of 1933, when he was appointed director of the New South Wales State Conservatorium, Sydney. Immediately before his departure he was elected an FRCM and awarded an honorary DMus by the University of Durham. In Sydney he exercised a strong influence on the development of musical life, particularly through his fine conducting. His symphony ‘Before Sunrise’ won a Carnegie Award in 1917. Bainton was less affected by the modality of English folksong than were many contemporaries, although much of his work has a pastoral tone. He was drawn to late-Romantic harmony, yet even his richest writing never obscures the direct lyrical impulse. His works have clarity of form and show a high degree of craftsmanship. One of his major works, ...


Fatima Hadžić


(b Mostar, Bosnia, July 31, 1890; d Kasindo (near Sarajevo), 1951). Bosnian composer, choir conductor, and music educator. He attended the private school of music Glasbena škola F. Matějovský in Sarajevo. His music studies at the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts in Vienna (1910–11) and his studies in composition at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music in Budapest (1911–13) were interrupted due to his financial problems. In Sarajevo, he conducted the choirs of the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Sloga’ (1914–32), the Jewish singing society, ‘Lira’ (1927–31), and the Singing Society of Railwaymen, ‘Jedinstvo’. In 1920, he founded and conducted the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Petar Veliki Oslobodioc’, in Novo Sarajevo. From its foundation in 1920 until 1941 he worked as a teacher of piano and music theory in the District School of Music. He also worked as a music teacher in the First Gymnasium (...


William E. Boswell

(b Wenham, MA, July 10, 1811; d Boston, MA, March 11, 1889). American teacher, singer, and composer. He sang, directed choirs, and taught music in Salem, Massachusetts, and in 1833 toured the country with a concert company. He then settled in Bangor, Maine, as a businessman, but moved to Boston in 1837 to study music with John Paddon. He was director of music at W.E. Channing’s church for eight years, and succeeded Lowell Mason as superintendent of musical instruction in the Boston public schools in 1841. Also in that year he began holding “musical conventions,” which led to many appearances as soloist with the Handel and Haydn Society, of which he later became vice-president. He founded the Boston Music School and served as principal and head of the singing department until 1868, when he retired and the school closed. He was editor of the Boston Musical Journal for several years. Baker collaborated in compiling over 25 collections of songs, hymns, anthems, and glees, including ...


James Bash

(b Lenoir, NC, Apr 12, 1948). American composer and educator. He began his musical training with his junior high school band, playing first the euphonium, and later switching to trombone, which became his principal instrument. After graduating from East Carolina University (BM, 1970), Baker studied composition with SAMUEL ADLER and WARREN BENSON at the Eastman School of Music where he received his Masters in 1973 and Doctorate in 1975. Baker taught music at the University of Georgia (1974–1976) and the University of Louisville (1976–1988) before joining the faculty of the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University in 1988. In 2007, he was appointed to the rank of Chancellor’s Professor at Indiana University.

At age 21, he wrote his first composition, a duo for flute and clarinet. Since that time he has received numerous commissions from around the world, but he is chiefly noted for his orchestral works. From ...


Timothy M. Crain


(b Indianapolis, IN, Dec 21, 1931). American composer and jazz cellist. He received both the BME (1953) and MME (1954) degrees from Indiana University and studied privately with J.J. JOHNSON, BOB BROOKMEYER, GEORGE RUSSELL, JANOS STARKER, JOHN LEWIS, and GUNTHER SCHULLER, among others. Unable to play the trombone professionally following a 1953 accident, Baker turned exclusively to the cello and pioneered the use of that instrument in jazz with such artists as Maynard Ferguson, Quincy Jones, George Russell, John Montgomery, and Lionel Hampton. He has taught at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri, at Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, and in the Indianapolis public schools. In 1966 he joined the faculty of Indiana University, where he now serves as Distinguished Professor of Music and Chairperson of the Jazz Department. At IU, he established the 21st-Century Bebop Band, a student group dedicated to the preservation of bebop literature. He has received honorary doctorates from Wabash College, Oberlin College, and the New England Conservatory of Music. In ...


Karen Monson

revised by Karen M. Bryan

(b Cleveland, OH, Sep 23, 1915; d Brewster, NY, Aug 6, 2003). American flutist and teacher. Baker studied with William Kincaid before serving as principal flutist with the Pittsburgh SO (1941–3), CBS SO (1943–50), Chicago SO (1951–3), and New York PO (1964–83). He taught at the Juilliard School (1954–81) and Curtis Institute (1980–2003). Upon his retirement from the New York PO he concertized and taught throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia, conducting more than two dozen master classes. His students included Paula Robison, Jeffrey Khaner, Eugenia Zukerman, Gary Schocker, and Jeanne Baxtresser. Baker performed with the Bach Aria Group (1946–64), developing an affinity for Baroque music that resulted in a published collection of flute solos from Bach’s cantatas, oratorios, and Passions (1972). His recordings include the complete works for flute by Bach and Handel, as well as the Mozart flute concertos....


Vernon Gotwals

revised by Judi Caldwell

(b Pontiac, IL, July 7, 1916; d Hamden, CT, Jan 24, 2005). American organist and teacher. He graduated from Illinois Wesleyan University in 1938 and received the DSM degree from the Union Theological Seminary School of Sacred Music, New York, in 1944. His teachers included Clarence Dickinson, Tertius Noble, Frederick Stock, and David McK. Williams. He taught at the school from 1946. After a 1947 début at the national convention of the American Guild of Organists in St Louis, he quickly established himself as an outstanding recitalist. In 1957 he gave the opening recital in the First International Congress of Organists at Temple Church in London; and in 1966 he was one of two American organists to play during the 900th anniversary celebration season at Westminster Abbey. He served as organist and choirmaster at various churches including Fifth Avenue Presbyterian, Temple Emanu-El, St James’ Episcopal, and First Presbyterian in New York. He was dean of the School of Sacred Music at Union Seminary from ...


Jacqueline Avila and David Wright

(b Barcelona, Spain, Sept 22, 1933). Composer and teacher of Spanish birth. He began his musical studies at the Conservatorio del Liceu during the 1950s. In 1956, he won a scholarship to travel to New York to continue his musical education at the Juilliard School where he studied conducting with Igor Markevitch and composition with Aaron Copland, Norman Dello Joio, and Vincent Persichetti. After finishing his studies in 1960, he collaborated with painter Salvador Dalí in New York on a film satire about painter Piet Mondrian, which was realized for US television. Balada also developed his career as a teacher, accepting posts at the Walden School and the United Nations International School. In 1970, he accepted the position at Carnegie Mellon University as a professor of composition. Balada’s compositional style went through several stages throughout his career, influenced by experimental styles, folklore, drama, and the plastic arts. His works during the late 1960s follow a dramatic avant-garde style, exemplified in ...


Stuart Campbell

( b Nizhniy Novgorod, Dec 21, 1836/Jan 2, 1837; d St Petersburg, 16/May 29, 1910). Russian composer, conductor, teacher and pianist .

Balakirev was the son of a minor government official. His musical education began with his mother’s piano tuition and proceeded to a course of summer lessons in Moscow with Aleksandr Dubuque. At that time the leading musical figure and patron in Nizhniy Novgorod (and author of books on Mozart and Beethoven) was Aleksandr Ulïbïshev, and it was through his household pianist and musical organizer Karl Eisrich that Balakirev’s induction to music, embracing the crucial discoveries of Chopin and Glinka, continued. Eisrich and Ulïbïshev provided Balakirev with further opportunities to play, read and listen to music, and to rehearse other musicians in orchestral and choral works, including, when he was 14, Mozart’s Requiem. His first surviving compositions date from the age of 15. Balakirev’s formal education began at the Gymnasium in Nizhniy Novgorod and continued after his mother’s death in ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Florinela Popa

(b Turnu-Măgurele, March 11, 1929). Romanian musicologist. He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1950–55) and later pursued a doctorate in musical aesthetics in Moscow (1957–61), where he defended his thesis Despre conținutul filosofic al muzicii (‘On the Philosophic Content of Music’), which was published in Russian (Moscow, 1962). He was musical editor at the Contemporanul magazine in Bucharest (1951–7, 1961–3) and taught at the Bucharest Conservatory (1955–75) and the Faculty of Theology in Sibiu (1975–7). In 1977 he moved to Germany, where he later founded and ran Musicosophia International School in Sankt-Peter/Schwarzwald (1979), an aesthetic movement based on the technique of creative music listening. He has given lectures in Romania, Germany, Spain, France, England, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and the USA. Many of his writings engage directly with his understanding of Musicosophia.

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[Gyorgy Melitonovich ]

(b St. Petersburg, Russia, Jan 22, 1904; d New York, NY, April 30, 1983). Dancer, choreographer, teacher, and ballet company director of Russian birth, active in the United States. He was trained at the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg, where he created his first choreography. He also studied piano and music theory at the Petrograd Conservatory of Music, gaining a firm musical foundation. After graduating in 1921, he danced in the ballet company of the State Theater of Opera and Ballet, and choreographed for his own ensemble, the Young Ballet. In 1924 he left Russia for western Europe, where he joined Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. After the company disbanded following Diaghilev’s death in 1929, he worked in Europe until 1933, when he came to the United States at the invitation of Lincoln Kirstein. The two founded the School of American Ballet in New York in 1934, and together formed four successive companies with the dancers trained there: the American Ballet (...