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Anne-Marie Riessauw and Jean Hargot

(b Huysse, nr Oudenaarde, July 31, 1828; d Brussels, Dec 24, 1908). Belgian musicologist, teacher and composer. He first studied music with the organist J.-B. Christiaens, a relative, and gave early evidence of an exceptional gift. At the age of 13 he entered the Ghent Conservatory to study the piano with De Somere and harmony with Mengal. Two years later he became a piano teacher himself; subsequently he was the organist at the Jesuit college in Ghent. In 1847 his Flemish cantata België won first prize in a competition organized by the Société des Beaux-Arts de Gand, and in the same year his cantata Le roi Lear won him the Belgian Prix de Rome. Because of his age he was permitted to postpone his foreign tour for two years, during which time he composed the operas Hugues de Zomerghem and La comédie à la ville. They were both published by the Gevaert family, who ran a music printing shop first in Huysse and later in Ghent. From ...


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Bydgoszcz, Feb 6, 1878; d Warsaw, Sept 27, 1943). Polish musicologist, conductor and composer. Ordained priest in 1902, he studied music at Regensburg with Haberl and Haller and musicology with Kinkeldey in Breslau (Wrocław) and with Wolf and Kretzschmar in Berlin. He took the doctorate at Breslau in 1913 with a dissertation on a 15th-century treatise. From 1925 to 1939 he was an assistant professor at the University of Poznań. He also taught at the Poznań Conservatory and at the theological seminary. From 1916 he was conductor of the Poznań Cathedral Choir and succeeded in making it one of the finest choirs in Poland between the wars. His main interest was church music, both early and contemporary. He was responsible for several editions and composed a number of church works himself.

Die ‘Musica Magistri Szydlovite’: ein polnischer Choraltraktat des XV. Jahrhunderts und seine Stellung in der Choraltheorie des Mittelalters...


Georgina Boyes

(b Manchester, Dec 8, 1863; d Lancaster, July 24, 1954). English musical antiquary and authority on folk music, psalmody and hymnody. Trained at the Royal Academy of Music, she began research in folklore in 1895, when she noted similarities between newly discovered folksongs and the modal tunes of 16th- and 17th-century hymns. Between 1895 and 1910 she collected folklore in south-eastern and northern England; her main interest, however, was historical research and fellow scholars benefited particularly from her expertise in sourcing tunes. She joined the Folk-Song Society in 1905 as part of a new wave of collector-musicians associated with its revitalization and contributed numerous articles and notes to the Journal of the Folk-Song Society and its successor the Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society; from 1906 until her death she also served as a member of the editorial board, where she worked closely with Frank Kidson and Lucy Broadwood. A liberal Presbyterian, her attention to nonconformist religious music was unusual among contemporary folklorists and was reflected in articles for ...


Sue Carole DeVale

(b New York, Feb 19, 1852; d Boston, March 18, 1933). American psychologist and ethnomusicologist. He studied at Williams College (AB 1872) and did postgraduate work as a Fellow in Logic at Johns Hopkins University (1881–2); he then attended the University of Berlin (1882), was a graduate student in psychology at Harvard (1883–5) and in 1886 studied at the University of Paris. He lectured at Princeton, Columbia and Harvard on the psychology of music (1890–92) and was assistant professor of psychology at Clark University (1892–3). He then became secretary of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts until his retirement in 1925.

Much of Gilman’s musical research was given impetus by Mary Hemenway, who commissioned an expedition to study the Pueblo Indians; in 1890 she entrusted the study of the songs to Gilman, who was the first to scientifically analyse Amerindian melodies through recordings. He held that the Amerindians had their own set of conscious norms for intervallic relationships and, in his article on Zuñi melodies (...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Riga, Oct 3, 1847; d Riga, April 14, 1915). German writer on music. He was educated in Riga and in Dorpat, where he studied linguistics, classical philology and the history of art. He taught in Pernau (now Pärnu) from 1873 to 1875, when he returned to Riga, where he remained as a teacher of language and literature until 1912. At the age of 16 he had heard Wagner’s works in Riga, and while still a student began assembling material for a biography; the first volume was ready by 1876, and Glasenapp was able to take it to show Wagner at the first Bayreuth Festival. He became a trusted member of the Wagner circle, and was given access by Cosima to much information and material. A dedicated and painstaking enthusiast, he made use of a vast amount of documentary evidence and brought it into systematic order; but his loyalty to the ideal of Wagner as presented to him by Cosima and the inner Wahnfried circle led him to accept an ‘authorized’ view of Wagner and in that interest to suppress and even alter evidence when it was deemed ‘unnecessary’ to the official portrait of Wagner. This unreliability was quickly observed, and Glasenapp was vigorously defended by another partisan, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his own book on Wagner (...


(b Ewell, Surrey, Feb 28, 1865; d Ewell, June 3, 1946). English organist and musicologist. She studied the organ, violin and viola privately in London with Yorke Trotter and C.J. Frost. She was among the earliest English writers to specialize in the study of 16th- and 17th-century English keyboard music; her most comprehensive work, About Elizabethan Virginal Music and its Composers (1924), was an important and influential contribution to musical literature. It was boldly claimed to be ‘based on experience of all Virginal Manuscripts and a collation of a considerable part of their contents’; subsequent research has queried many of her conclusions but has not detracted from her pioneering achievement. Her edition of Gibbons’s keyboard music (the first) was not superseded for over 35 years. Margaret Glyn composed six symphonies, six orchestral suites, two overtures, songs and organ music.

trans.: R. Wagner: Parsifal (London, 1890, 2/1914)...


Anne-Marie Riessauw

(Jean Marie André)

(b Antwerp, May 25, 1847; d Brussels, Dec 25, 1922). Belgian musicologist and composer. His grandfather was a poet and his father, an enthusiastic amateur musician, gave him his first musical instruction. After studying humanities at the Jesuits’ College in Antwerp, he was forced to take a post in a business concern to help his family out of financial difficulties. On the advice of Peter Benoit and Léon de Burbure, he devoted all his spare time to music and became secretary to the jury of the Flemish school of music in Antwerp. In 1866 he was appointed librarian of the Antwerp Town Library and archivist at the Royal Archives in Brussels. He subsequently took a post in the archives of the province of Brabant and later of Antwerp, where he was also inspector. He was appointed general keeper of the Royal Archives in 1898, a post he held until he was pensioned in ...


Stephen D. Winick

(b Bangor, ME, Sept 2, 1888; d Washington, DC, March 26, 1961). American folklorist and folksong collector. He was a pioneer in making audio recordings of folksongs on wax cylinders. He studied English at Harvard under the ballad scholar George Lyman Kittredge. He was hired by the University of California, Berkeley in 1918. While in California, he spent time on the San Francisco and Oakland docks learning sea shanties, eventually documenting over a thousand of them, at least 300 of which he recorded on cylinders. In 1923, he began writing the column “Old Songs That Men Have Sung” in the pulp magazine Adventure. In the column, he printed verses of folksongs and solicited new songs and new verses from readers. In this way, he amassed a large collection of songs and a wide network of correspondents. This did not help him in his academic career, however, and he lost his position at Berkeley in ...


Ruth Smith


(b Mainz, Oct 11, 1889; d Mainz, Oct 29, 1971). German musicologist. He studied history, German and art history at the universities of Freiburg and Giessen (where he took the doctorate in 1911) and theology at the universities of Freiburg and Innsbruck and the Mainz seminary (where he was ordained in 1917); concurrently he directed several school and university choirs and orchestras. He worked as a schoolteacher in Darmstadt and Mainz, where he became responsible for the church choirs in the diocese (1933–62).

Gottron was editor of the musical publications of the New Germany Youth Movement and later founded and edited (1947–52) the journal Musik und Altar; he also founded the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mittelrheinische Musikgeschichte (1961), publishing many of his own articles in its Mitteilungen. The University of Mainz awarded him an honorary chair (1960–70) and doctorate (...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Kęty, nr Kraków, Dec 7, 1782; d Kraków, July 4, 1868). Polish bookseller and historian. In 1797 he began working in Groebel’s bookshop in Kraków, and there came into contact with a number of leading historians who aroused his fascination in the subject. After 20 years Grabowski opened his own bookshop, which he eventually closed in 1837 in order to devote himself exclusively to collecting historical material. His work in this field resulted in several books between 1840 and 1854, and also a number of articles published mainly in Biblioteka Warszawska (1850–65). These writings contain information on general Polish history, art history and the history of Kraków, and also a great deal of valuable material derived from primary sources concerning music and musicians in Poland. It was through Grabowski that historical interest in musical matters was first aroused in Poland. (PSB, K. Estreicher)

Dawne zabytki miasta Krakowa...


Erik Levi

(b Czernowitz [now Chernovtsy, Ukraine], Oct 26, 1888; d Vienna, Oct 12, 1960). Austrian theatre historian and librettist . He went to Vienna in 1907, studying German, philosophy and musicology (under Guido Adler) at the university and practical music at the academy. In 1908 he became a private pupil of Robert Fuchs and also studied operatic production at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1910 he became Max Reinhardt’s assistant for a production of the second part of Goethe’s Faust at the Deutsche Theater, Berlin. After war service he was appointed librarian at the Austrian National Library, where he founded a theatre archive in 1922 and a film archive in 1929; he initiated studies in theatre history at Vienna University in 1947. During the last years of his life he was accorded many national and international awards.

Although Gregor left important monographs on the history of Vienna’s theatres, on Richard Strauss’s operas and on the broad cultural history of theatre and of opera, he is probably best known as the librettist of Richard Strauss’s ...


Mark Hoffman


(b Peine, Dec 10, 1782; d Brunswick, April 6, 1849). German music scholar. At Göttingen he studied philosophy and pedagogy principally with J.F. Herbart, and music theory, the organ and the piano with J.N. Forkel. In 1808 he was appointed to the Fellenberg Institute in Hofwyl, where he taught German language and literature and led the musical life of the community. He returned to Brunswick in 1816 and taught in the Catherineum. In 1821 he was also appointed lecturer in philosophy and fine arts at the Carolineum, becoming professor in 1825. In 1828 he became concurrently teacher of German language and literature, mathematics and philosophy in the Gymnasium in Brunswick.

His musical importance rests on his activities promoting the works of J.S. Bach, copies of which he had received from Forkel. He performed the B minor Mass and other choral works in Brunswick, apparently before Zelter and Mendelssohn. With the harpsichordist F.A. Roitzsch he published the keyboard works of Bach (Leipzig, ...


Owain Edwards

(b Cwm-y-glo, Caernarvonshire, 1877; d Old Colwyn, Oct 21, 1958). Welsh music historian. He was one of a large musical family; brothers of his were organists at Cwm-y-glo, Tregarth and Bethesda. In 1890 he moved with his parents to Bethesda, where he took up the viola and from the age of 15 started holding music classes. He believed firmly in the tonic sol-fa system as a valuable means of learning music, particularly of developing a good sense of relative pitch. He was elected precentor at Jerusalem Chapel, Bethesda, in 1906 and three years later had established an 80-voice mixed choir which gave regular performances of oratorios. Subsequently he conducted many other amateur music societies, including the Bethesda Choral Society (from 1921) and the Colwyn Bay and District Choral Society (1929–36), and was a guest conductor at singing Festivals in nonconformist chapels. He earned his living as a salesman for a paint company. Griffith wrote extensively on Welsh music and musicians, concentrating on church music especially in his ...


Owain Edwards

(b Llangernyw, March 1, 1847; d Manchester, Oct 9, 1911). Welsh music historian. A carpenter by profession, he served his apprenticeship in Llanrwst and began work there. In 1872 he moved to Manchester where he worked as a carpenter for the Lancashire and Cheshire Railway Co. and lodged with the renowned Welsh harpist Idris Fychan, who taught him to play the harp and the art of penillion singing. Griffith devoted a lifetime’s research to this form of music, the fruits of which were published in Llyfr Cerdd Dannau (‘The Book of Cerdd Dannau’) (Caernarvon, 1913). This history of the instruments and the performing practice of Welsh folk music is an important secondary source for historians in this field.

R. Griffith: Autobiography (MS, University College of North Wales, Bangor) R.D. Griffith: ‘Griffith, Robert’, The Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940, ed. J.E. Lloyd and R.T. Jenkins (London, 1959)...


(b Wilster, Holstein, Oct 15, 1761; d Copenhagen, Dec 30, 1825). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer of German birth. After studying in Kiel (1782–5), where he came to know C.F. Cramer, Grønland took up a post as an official of the German chancellery in Copenhagen. Though he remained a civil servant all his life, his musical activities covered a wide field: he was the teacher of C.E.F. Weyse and acted as correspondent for a number of German and Danish music periodicals. His most important work, however, was concerned with the preservation of Scandinavian folksongs. In about 1810 work on a wide scale had begun in Denmark to rescue extant traditions from the oblivion threatened by the development of communications, especially roads. A valuable outcome of this work was the recording of folksongs, both texts and tunes, and particularly their publication in five volumes (1812–14) by Abrahamson, Nyerup and Rahbek. This newly aroused interest in folksong further resulted in a number of piano arrangements of folktunes. Grønland’s contributions include two manuscript collections, in the Royal Library of Copenhagen, and his publication (...


Sigurd Berg


(b Copenhagen, Sept 9, 1824; d Copenhagen, July 14, 1883). Danish folklorist. He was the son of the well-known poet and hymn writer Bishop N.F.S. Grundtvig. He was educated by his father and matriculated at the University of Copenhagen in 1846. As a boy he took a great interest in Danish medieval folk ballads, and at the age of 18 he published translations of related English and Scottish folksongs. In 1847 he produced a project for a new Danish edition of folksongs, based on a critical evaluation of extensive musical and textual material. His expert knowledge upheld his theories in the face of contemporary attacks, and from 1853 until his death he completed five volumes of his important Danmarks gamle folkeviser. The collection was continued by other folklorists from 1898 and comprises 11 large volumes. The systematic nature of this Danish work was of pioneering importance for several later collections in the field, for example Child’s ...


Christoph Wolff

(b Dresden, March 1, 1889; d Freiburg, Dec 15, 1963). German music historian. Son of the architect and art historian Cornelius Gurlitt (1850–1938), he studied at Heidelberg and Leipzig universities (1908–14), where his principal teachers included Riemann and Schering. He obtained the doctorate in 1914 with a dissertation on Praetorius. In 1919 he accepted a post as lecturer in music at Freiburg University, where he was appointed reader in music and director of the newly founded institute of musicology in 1920; he became full professor in 1929 and stayed in Freiburg until his retirement in 1958 despite offers from other universities. From 1937 to 1945 he was removed from his office by the Nazi government. In 1950 he was elected a member of the Mainz Academy of Science and Literature, and received an honorary degree in theology from Leipzig University. He also held offices in various learned societies and academic institutions....


William J. Gatens

(b Hersham, March 23, 1847; d Brighton, June 23, 1888). English writer on music, philosophy and psychology. His family moved to London while he was an infant. In 1866 he gained a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he did well enough in classical studies to share the Porson prize in 1870 and win a fellowship at his college in 1872. His chief interest, however, was music, and he studied both the violin and the piano, but by 1875 he recognized he would not become a professional instrumentalist. About this time he was also writing on musical subjects, including an essay in 1876 ‘On some disputed points in music’ for the Fortnightly Review, his first published work.

In 1877 Gurney began medical studies, but discontinued them in 1881. This training and a general scientific bent together with his musical studies and an active interest in philosophy, physics, psychology and the physiology of sound gave him the unique combination of insights needed to write his most important work, ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Zofingen, canton of Aargau, Feb 18, 1888; d Zürich, March 5, 1967). Swiss music critic and musicologist. He began his musical studies at the Basle Conservatory and subsequently studied musicology and art history at the universities of Zürich, Berne and Berlin. In 1921 he completed the Habilitation...


Erkki Salmenhaara


(b Karvia, May 15, 1889; d Asikkala, July 22, 1950). Finnish musicologist and conductor. He studied the violin and music theory in Helsinki (1907–11), Berlin (1921) and Paris (1924) and musicology with Ilmari Krohn at the University of Helsinki (MA 1918), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the manuscripts in neumatic notation in the university library. After a period as a violinist, violist and conductor of various orchestras in Helsinki and Turku, he was head of the music department of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (1929–46) and chief conductor of the Finnish RO (1929–50). He was also a lecturer (1925–46) and professor extra ordinis of musicology (1946–50) at the University of Helsinki. As a conductor, broadcast programme planner, lecturer, administrator, music critic and writer he did much to promote Finnish music in Finland and abroad. His research was mainly concerned with early Finnish music history; his major work, ...