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Article

Idzdjai  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Ìgbìn  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Amanda Villepastour

Set of thick, squat cylindrical or slightly barrel-shaped drums of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria. Each has three feet and a single head affixed by a securing ring and large wooden pegs. Names of individual drums vary according to locality, for example in Ọ̀yọ́, in descending order of size, ìyá igbin, jagba, and apele (or ìyá ńlá); in Ẹdẹ the terms are ìyá gan, keke, and afere. The accompanying drums may more generally be called omele akọ and omele abo (male and female). The largest drum is played with a stick held by the right hand and muted by the the palm, fist, or fingers of the left; the other drums are played with two straight sticks. The drums are sacred to the deity of creativity, Ọbàtálá (or Òrìṣàńlá). Linked with ìgbìn is ìpẹ̀sẹ̀ music, the two names being alternatives for the same kind of drum according to context and instrumental group. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Indang  

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Gini Gorlinski

Frame drum of the Minangkabau people of western Sumatra, Indonesia. Its goatskin head is tacked on to the frame and typically measures 20 to 25 cm in diameter. Some indang have metal jingles, typically affixed loosely within two openings in the frame. The head is slapped with the palm or tapped lightly with the fingers. Players normally hold the indang in the left hand and strike it with the right. The indang most notably accompanies an animated song-dance genre of the same name, performed by a group of men and, more recently, women, often in separate groups. The singer-dancers sit cross-legged in a long row while playing a variety of interlocking rhythms on the indang, singing songs with Muslim or political themes, and swinging their arms and upper body synchronously in all directions. In Pariaman and some other parts of the Minangkabau area the indang is known as rapa’i; as such, it is sometimes played with gongs, drums, and occasionally, a flute or reed instrument in the ...

Article

Amanda Villepastour

[àpẹ̀ṣì]

Set of three single-headed, footed drums of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria. Pegs tension and tune the skins and the ensemble (used by the Ifá divination cult) is accompanied by a bell (agogo). In the Ẹdẹ area this set consists of ìpẹ̀sẹ̀ or agbagbule (the conical, principal drum), ...

Article

J. Richard Haefer

(Apache: ísal, ‘pot’ or ‘bucket’; ‘bucket bound around’)

Water drum of the Apache people of Arizona and New Mexico. A large iron pot or kettle with the handle removed is partially filled with water and sacred materials (corn pollen and ash). A buckskin head (or nowadays sometimes rubber from a truck tire inner tube) is lashed tightly over the opening with buckskin thongs or strips of cloth or inner-tube rubber, with the excess skin or rubber draped around the pot. Historically a large pottery vessel was used; there is no evidence for use of a wooden vessel. The drumstick, of pine, is wrapped in buckskin at the distal end.

The drum accompanies singing, secular and religious (na-i-es, girl’s puberty ceremony; edotal, diagnostic; gojital, curing). It is usually played in groups of four with the performers standing and holding the drums under the left elbow, but in the curing rites it is held in the lap of a seated player. The earliest representation of the drum is a painting by George Catlin of ...

Article

Jiangu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Large barrel drum of the Han Chinese. The jiangu (‘mounted drum’) has a moderately convex shell about 100 cm long, and two heads of cowhide about 70 to 80 cm in diameter secured to the shell by circumferential rows of tacks. The drum is mounted horizontally on a post anchored in a base of bronze or wood. The post passes through the shell, holding the drum approximately 170 cm above the base. Historically the drum was covered with an elaborate canopy, with tassels hanging from its corners, a feature retained in the main Confucian shrine drums and in the Korean kŏn’go. The drum is struck with two wooden beaters on one head only. A related drum of similar size is the yinggu (‘responding drum’), known in Korea as Ūnggo.

The jiangu is one of the most ancient Chinese drums. A similar drum is depicted in c12th-century bce oracle bone inscriptions, and a ...

Article

Jidur  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Article

Mireille Helffer

revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

[jor nagarā]

Pair of kettle drums of Nepal. They are made of copper or clay, the smaller 15 cm deep and 20 cm in diameter, the larger 25 cm deep and 23 cm in diameter, with goatskin heads. They are played with two sticks by the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley as part of Bhajan ...

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

revised by J. Richard Haefer

[kana’tsio:wi] (Seneca: ‘covered keg’ or ‘bucket’)

Water drum of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy peoples of northeastern North America. It is called gana’atso [gä no jo’ o] in Cayugan. The drum is a small wooden vessel covered with a soft-tanned hide which is held taut by a cloth-wound wooden hoop. Water is kept in it at all times and before being played it is inverted to soak the skin, which is then tightened until a characteristic high ‘pinging’ tone is heard when it is tapped lightly with a wooden beater. The body can be carved from a solid block of wood, in which case a binding ring is wrapped around it to prevent it from splitting, or it can be made from a staved wooden nail keg. The drums are usually 13 to 15 cm in diameter and 11 to 13 cm deep. A bung hole about halfway up the side allows water to be added without removing the head; if allowed to dry, solid-bodied drums tend to split and staved drums loosen and could collapse. The drumstick (...

Article

Kabile  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Mirliton of the Mbae people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from a hollow stem (about 30 cm long) of the umbrella tree, one end of which is covered with a dried leaf or a thick spider web. The other end is left open. The player sings or shouts into a lateral hole. Used in connection with initiation rituals, it is said to produce the voice of the spirit Kabile. (...

Article

Alastair Dick

Large clay or wooden kettledrum of Bengal (eastern India and Bangladesh). Its head is braced with rope or leather straps, and it is hung around the neck and struck with wooden sticks at festival or martial occasions. It is similar to the ṭikārā of Bengal and Orissa, but larger.

B.K. Roy Choudhury...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed drum of India, probably cylindrical. It is described as having been about 42 to 48 cm long, 24 to 28 cm in diameter, and 5 mm thick in the shell, which was made of citrus wood. The close-fitting heads were attached with thread and skin to iron hoops which had 14 holes; the threads passed through every second hole to form a net lacing (...

Article

Kazagi  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Amanda Villepastour

Open single-headed hourglass drum of fixed pitch, of the Hausa and Bolewa people of Nigeria. The body (kango), approximately 22 cm long, 14 cm in diameter at the ends, and 9 cm in diameter at the waist, is carved from k’irya wood, with a head of gazelle skin laced on; the head has a snare (zaga). The drum is either suspended upright from the player’s neck at hip level and played with two beaters (’ya’yan kazagi) made from wire wrapped in cloth and bound with leather, or hung obliquely across the left shoulder and beaten with a hooked stick (maka’di). Its main function is as supporting instrument to cylindrical drums such as the ganga, gangan noma, or dundufa in accompanying girls’ dancing, the performance of praise songs for farmers, and among the Maguzawa (non-Muslim Hausa) at marriages, feasts, and other ceremonies.

See also...

Article

Kbandu  

J. Richard Haefer

Cylindrical single-headed drum of Jamaica. Possibly derived from the Konda mbanda, it is made from a hollow cedro amargo (Simarouba amara) or breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum) log 60 to 70 cm long and about 35 cm in diameter. It has a male goatskin head that is normally held by a hoop tied to the bottom of the drum with a twisted ligature; occasionally the head is nailed on. The head from a ritually sacrificed ram is cured in rum, dried, then moistened in water before being stretched over the drum body. The performer sits astride the instrument on the ground playing a steady beat, and a second player uses a pair of katta (sticks) to beat another pattern on the body of the drum. The heel of one foot on the head is used to vary the sound of the drum; more than one kbandu may be used....

Article

Henry Johnson

[keiko, keirō]

Double-headed barrel drum of Japan. The heads are nailed to the wooden body. It is usually about 15 to 21 cm long and 18 cm in diameter. Two rings are attached to opposite sides of the drum, through which a cord is tied and worn around the player’s neck so that the drum hangs upright; the upper head is struck with a single wooden beater. The keirōko is used in gagaku (court music) and is colourfully painted, as are other gagaku drums. The performer is a dancer who uses the instrument as a prop, and the instrument is used in conjunction with another drum, furitsuzumi, in the bugaku dance ‘Ikkyoku’. The furitsuzumi is held in the left hand, and the beater for the keirōko in the right hand. The instrument was introduced to Japan with gagaku from Tang-dynasty China.

E. Kikkawa, ed.: Zusetsu nihon no gakki [Japanese musical instruments, illustrated] (Tokyo, 1992)....

Article

Kempli  

Andrew C. McGraw

(1) Bronze bossed gong of Bali. It is used in several ensembles including the gamelan gong gede, gamelan gong kebyar, gamelan bebonangan, and gamelan beleganjur. It rests horizontally in a wooden stand and is approximately 30 cm in diameter and 20 cm deep. It is beaten with a lightly padded mallet (panggul). In the lelambatan repertoire the kempli marks melodic subsections (palet). In gong kebyar repertoire it may be played on every beat, struck with a mallet in the right hand while the left hand rests on the body of the instrument, producing a short, staccato sound. When played in this way, the kempli may be referred to as a kajar, although the latter term typically refers to a different type of instrument with its own unique playing style.

(2) Tube zither of Bali.

(3) Frame drum of Java.

See also Guntang; Kajar; Terbang.

C. McPhee...

Article

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Patricia Matusky

[kromong]

Gong chime of Sumatra and Malaysia. In northern Jambi province (Kuala Tungkal), Sumatra, it consists of nine small, thin-rimmed, bossed gongs in a single-row frame. The term also denotes an ensemble comprising a keromong, a pair of gendang panjang (cylindrical drums), and a pair of gongs. It accompanies ceremonial dances and is said to have originated in South Sumatra, where the name is also used.

In the gamelan Trengganu in Peninsular Malaysia it has two rows each of five bronze bossed gongs set horizontally on thick cords strung in parallel in a wooden rack about 30 to 35 cm above ground level. The player, sitting on the floor in front of the rack, strikes the bosses with a pair of padded beaters. All gongs are tuned in the five-tone joget gamelan scale system (pitches 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6), with the row of low-octave gongs closer to the player. The ...

Article

Patricia Matusky

[katebong]

Drum of the Ibans of Sarawak. The wooden body is more than 1 metre long. It is tapered slightly at the middle creating the ‘waist’ and then gradually expands at the open foot. Its single head is often made of snake skin that is attached with rattan laces running from the edge of the skin to a rattan brace located at the waist. Small wooden wedges are inserted between the laces and the body to tighten the head, which is struck by the player’s hands. The ketebong is usually played in a horizontal position as the seated player cradles the head in his lap. It is used in the Iban engkerumong ensemble to support the rhythmic patterns played on the engkerumong gong chime, and it is also played with several other ketebong in a drum ensemble.

P. Matusky and S.B. Tan: The Music of Malaysia, the Classical, Folk and Syncretic Traditions...

Article

Khánh  

Nguyen Thuyet Phong