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Pierluigi Petrobelli

(b Pirano, Istria [now Piran, Istra, Slovenia], April 8, 1692; d Padua, Feb 26, 1770). Italian composer, violinist, teacher and theorist.

Tartini's father Giovanni Antonio, of Florentine origin, was general manager of the salt mills in Pirano. Giuseppe, destined for the church by his pious parents, was to have been first a minore conventuale, a branch of the Franciscan order, and subsequently a full priest. To this end he was educated in his native town and then in nearby Capodistria (now Koper, Slovenia) at the scuole pie; as well as the humanities and rhetoric, he studied the rudiments of music. In 1708 he left his native region, never to live there again, but carrying in his memory the peculiarities of the local musical folklore. He enrolled as a law student at Padua University, where he devoted most of his time, always dressed as a priest, to improving his fencing, a practice in which, according to contemporary accounts, few could compete with him. This account of Tartini's youth has been questioned (see, for instance, Capri), but it is supported by contemporary evidence and is consistent with the later development of his personality, characterized by a fiery and stubborn temperament with a strong tendency towards mysticism. These qualities are equally evident in his writings – both letters and theoretical works – and in his compositions....


Denise Von Glahn

(b Boston, MA, Oct 22, 1923; d Boston, Oct 4, 2011). American music scholar, composer, and teacher. Tawa attended Harvard University (BA 1945, PhD 1974). Beginning in 1965, he taught courses on music history and research at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. As an early champion of American music, Tawa co-founded the Sonneck Society for American Music (now Society for American Music) in 1975 and was its first vice-president. He edited the society’s first newsletter and was instrumental in promoting the inclusive approach to American music studies. Tawa published 15 books and numerous articles on the American popular music tradition including Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790–1860 (Bowling Green, OH, 1980), A Music for the Millions: Antebellum Democratic Attitudes and the Birth of American Popular Music (Hillsdale, NY, 1984), The Way to Tin Pan Alley (New York, 1990), Arthur Foote: A Musician in the Frame of Time and Place...


Jocelyn Mackey

(b Naumburg, July 29, 1646; d Naumburg, bur. June 24, 1724). German composer, theorist and teacher. He is noted particularly for his sacred music, and he was a specially skilful contrapuntist.

Theile received his first musical training from Johann Scheffler, Kantor of Magdeburg, and attained enough skill to support himself as a law student at the University of Leipzig from 1666 until about 1672. Friends helped to pay for his first publication, Weltliche Arien … (1667), a set of student songs. Membership of the university's collegium musicum gave him musical experience and contacts, and some time between 1666 and 1672 he studied with Schütz. It is doubtful whether he completed his legal studies. He may have taught in Stettin before moving to Lübeck, where he was living in 1673, numbering among his friends Reincken and Buxtehude.

In 1673 Theile was appointed Kapellmeister at Gottorf. There he may have written his first operas or opera-like works, as Duke Christian Albrecht spent money on ‘musical entertainments’ as well as plays. Political developments soon interrupted the duke's promising reign: he was kidnapped and forced to cede territory, and in ...


Evi Nika-Sampson

(b Thessaloniki, 1931). Greek composer and musicologist. He is the son of the poet George (Georgios) Themelis. He studied violin and advanced theory at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki and continued his studies with a scholarship (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) in Munich. There, he studied violin with Professor Kurt Stiehler and musicology and Byzantine and ancient history at the University of Munich and received the PhD diploma.

He served as director of the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki (1971–85) and since 1985 as professor of musicology at the school of music studies of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), for which he was the head of department four times. He also served as dean of the faculty of fine arts of AUTh and chairman of the art committee of the State Orchestra of Thessaloniki. Since September 1998 Themelis has been emeritus professor of AUTh. He is a member of the Greek Composers Union, the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, the International Musicological Society, the International Organization of Folk Art, and an active member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He was liaison officer in Greece of the International Council for Traditional Music. In ...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

(b Simeria, 17/May 30, 1908; d Cluj, July 3, 1991). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. At the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1926–30, didactic section; 1930–35, composition department), he studied harmony and counterpoint with M. Negrea and piano with E. Fotino-Negru; he continued his studies at the Santa Cecilia Academy (1936–8) with Pizzetti (composition) and Casella (piano), and was awarded the doctorate in musicology by the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, Rome, with a study of the manuscripts of G.F. Anerio (1938). In 1946 he was appointed professor of theory, harmony, and composition at the Cluj Conservatory, of which he was rector from 1962 until 1965 and from which he retired in 1973. As mentor to a gifted group of young composers, Toduţă established Cluj as Romania’s second musical centre; he was made managing director of the Cluj State PO in 1971, and was a principal supporter of the Cluj Autumn Festival....


George Leotsakos

(b Përmet, Albania, Nov 22, 1963). Albanian composer, ethnomusicologist, and administrator. After early musical training in Përmet and Korça, he studied at the Tirana Conservatory (1984–7), where his teachers included Gaqi, Kushta, Lara, Simoni, and Shupo. Between 1988 and 1991 he worked in Përmet as music director at the Naïm Frashëri Palace of Culture and as artistic director of the Elena Gjika ensemble. He was appointed to teach ethnomusicology and composition at the Tirana Conservatory (now the music faculty of the Academy of Arts) in 1991. In 1993 he founded the New Albanian Music association and in 1997 the Ton de Leeuw International Competition for New Music in Tirana. After receiving the doctorate in ethnomusicology in 1994, he undertook further composition studies with Hufschmidt at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen (1994–5), followed by postdoctoral studies at Athens University (1996). In 1997 he was appointed director of the Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Tirana, and of the State Ensemble of Folk Songs and Dances. He resigned in ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Oviedo, April 8, 1888; d London, Feb 17, 1955). Spanish folklorist, writer on music and literature, teacher, choral conductor and composer . He began his musical education in Oviedo, studied the piano and composition at the Madrid Conservatory (1907–10), and, after two years in Oviedo conducting research on traditional Asturian music, went to the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1912–14), where he studied composition with d’Indy; he also went to lectures by Tiersot (who had influenced him earlier) at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales. He was invited by Ramón Menéndez Pidal to work at the Madrid Centro de Estudios Históricos in 1916, and was one of the remarkable group of artists living at the Residencia de Estudiantes which included Bal y Gay, Falla, Turina, Adolfo Salazar, Sainz de la Maza, Lorca, J. Ramón Jiménez, Buñuel and Dali. Later he dedicated to the institution his ...


Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Sibiu, Romania, March 27, 1940). Romanian composer, professor, and musicologist of German ancestry. His works are inspired by the folklore and academic art of the Transylvanian Saxons, while also manifesting a moderate tendency to assimilate modern idioms. Published especially by German and Swiss houses, his compositions gained him international prestige within German-language circles. Additionally, he pursued his vocation as a researcher by analysing the works of J.S. Bach and of Transylvanian musicians, especially Gabriel Reilich and Paul Richter. He studied at the Conservatory of Cluj (1959–65) with Sigismund Toduţă (composition), Cornel Tăranu (harmony), and Vasile Herman (musical forms). He took the Ph.D. in musicology from the Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca (1978) with a thesis called Contradominanta în creaţia lui W.A. Mozart (‘The Counter-Dominant in the Works of W.A. Mozart’). As a professor in the harmony/composition department of the Cluj-Napoca Conservatory, Türk developed significant treatises and courses, including the book ...


Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Reval [now Tallinn], 14/Dec 26, 1893; d Moscow, May 8, 1978). Russian musicologist, theoretician and composer. He studied mathematics (later switching to law) at St Petersburg University (1912–17); at the same time he attended the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied with Kalafati, Sokolov and Tcherepnin. He was awarded the doctorate from the Conservatory in 1937 for his dissertation on harmony. From 1921 he lectured at the Institute for the History of the Arts, with which he was periodically associated as a scientific officer until 1958, and worked at the Experimental Monumental Studio Theatre (Mamont) attached to the State Academic Theatre (Mariinsky). He taught at the Leningrad State Conservatory (1925–67), the Tashkent Conservatory (1948–50), the Gnesin State Institute for Musical Education (1970–75) and the Moscow Conservatory (1971–8).

Tyulin became known particularly for his innovatory theory of harmony, which he described as ‘a logically differentiated system of the qualitative interrelation of tones’ and in which he regarded mode as the basis of all musical thought. Based on psychophysiology and acoustics, Tyulin saw mode as a multi-level and historically mobile system of direct communication, characterized by the unity of functional organization of all levels and components. For him, the system, with its origins in ...


Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

[Gomidas Vartabed; Soghomonian, Soghomon]

(b Kütahya, Turkey, Oct 8, 1869; d Paris, Oct 22, 1935). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist, choral conductor, singer and teacher. One of the first Armenians to have a classical Western musical education, as well as instruction in the music of his own people, he laid the foundations for a distinctive national style in his many songs and choruses, all of which are deeply influenced by the folk and church traditions of Armenia. His work on Armenian folksong is also of musicological importance.

Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan

Both of his parents (his father Gevorg Soghomonian was a cobbler) had gifts for music and poetry; in 1881, however, the boy was orphaned and sent to Armenia to study at the Gevork’ian Theological Seminary in Vagharshapat (now Edjmiadzine), and was ordained as a celibate priest in 1894, being given the name Komitas (a 7th-century Catholicos who was also a hymn composer). There his beautiful voice and his musical talents attracted notice, and under Sahak Amatuni’s guidance he mastered the theory and practice of Armenian liturgical singing. He also made decisive contact with folksong, to the collection and study of which he gave himself wholeheartedly. When he had only just learnt Armenian modern notation he set about recording the songs of the Ararat valley peasants and immigrant Armenians of other regions. Although he had no knowledge of European music theory, he harmonized these songs for performance with a student choir at the academy. His earliest surviving collection of folk melodies dates from ...


Inna Barsova

revised by Detlef Gojowy

(b Balta, nr Odessa, 11/June 23, 1899; d Moscow, Oct 13, 1958). Russian composer and musicologist. He went to school in Warsaw, then studied the piano under Wendling at the Leipzig Conservatory until 1914; he then continued his studies with N.A. Dubasov (piano, 1914–17) and A.M. Zhitomirsky (composition, 1917–20) at the St Petersburg Conservatory. He was a pupil of Myaskovsky at the Moscow Conservatory (1920–23), where he then taught orchestration (1923–41), and was made a professor in 1930 and head of faculty from 1938. He was later professor at conservatories in Sverdlovsk and Saratov (1942). On his return to Moscow in 1943 he resumed composition and research.

Veprik was a reformer of musical education in the 1920s, when he joined a faction of ‘Red Professors’. In 1925 he initiated the invitation to Arnold Schoenberg to head the composition class at Moscow Conservatory (which he refused); in ...


Dragotin Cvetko

revised by Zdravko Blažeković

(b Subotica, Oct 1, 1914; d Zagreb, April 18, 1964). Croatian musicologist and composer. He studied composition and musicology at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome. From 1942 he was choirmaster at Zagreb Cathedral and editor of the church music journal Sv. Cecilija (1942–5, 1946), from 1951 professor of aesthetics and church music at the theology faculty at Zagreb. In 1963 he founded the Institute of Church Music. Vidaković was one of the most important Croatian musicologists. His systematic examination of Croatian music, for instance in his detailed analysis of Jelić’s works in the introduction to his edition of Parnassia militia or in his book on Križanić, where he discussed the Croatian musical theorists of the 17th century, are well known. His compositions consist mainly of vocal music and include a number of masses which, although written on the polyphonic basis, seek to capture the spirit of Croatian folk music....


Enrique Franco

(b León, Nov 13, 1875; d Madrid, Nov 4, 1937). Spanish composer, teacher and musicologist. A follower of nationalism in its most direct phase, he investigated the folk music of his native region and at once used popular rhythms and melodies in orchestral, vocal, chamber and piano works; however, in some of his songs, settings of classical and Romantic Spanish poets, he cultivated an elegant and refined salon style. Two of his three quartets are based on Leónese folk music, whose characteristics brought out Villar's innate lyricism, melancholy and nostalgia, qualities for which he became known as ‘the Spanish Grieg’. From 1919 until the beginning of the Civil War (1936–9) he was a professor at the Madrid Conservatory, where he defended the Spanish music of his generation. In 1928 he founded the magazine Ritmo, in which, as in his books and essays, he inveighed against the most recent musical trends, supporting tonality, melody as the basis of all music, and the essentiality of a functional modal harmony derived from national folk music. Nevertheless, he was an ardent defender of Falla and of his most daring work, the Concerto for harpsichord and five instruments....


Margaret Grave

[Abbé Vogler]

(b Würzburg, June 15, 1749; d Darmstadt, May 6, 1814). German theorist, teacher, keyboard player, organ designer and composer. His theory of harmony influenced 19th-century approaches to music analysis, and he anticipated the Romantic period in his chromatic harmony, colouristic orchestration and melodic borrowings from folk tradition and exotic cultures. His radical concept of organ design aroused widespread interest and controversy; his writings on the reform of sacred music foreshadowed the Cecilian movement.

The son of a Würzburg instrument maker, Vogler attended a Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in humanistic studies at Würzburg University in 1763. Subsequently he studied common and canon law, first at Würzburg, then at Bamberg. During his student years he composed ballet and theatre music for university performances. In 1770 he obtained a post as almoner at the Mannheim court of Carl Theodor, the Elector Palatine. Politically resourceful, he soon attained prominence in the court’s musical life, secured the elector’s favour, and was granted the financial means to pursue musical study in Italy (from ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...


Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...


Caroline Cepin Benser


(b Vienna, Oct 21, 1885; d Oxford, Nov 9, 1974). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher. His importance as a composer rests chiefly on his stage works and symphonies. While his creative career was divided between Vienna and Oxford, his musical style was unpredictable, showing his affection for beautiful melody often with wide leaps and angular in profile. As a musicologist, he did pioneer work on Byzantine chant.

Wellesz was born into comfortable circumstances in the Schottengasse. His father Samú Wellesz was in the textile business; his mother Ilona Lovenyi met and married her husband in Vienna after they had each come from the Hungarian part of the empire. Wellesz inherited his musical inclinations from his mother, who had once studied the piano with Carl Frühling, to whom she sent her son. Even so, his parents had expected him to study law and follow in his father's business; however, on his 13th birthday he heard Mahler conduct ...


Joanna C. Lee

revised by Edward Green

(b Yantai, China, July 28, 1923). Composer, scholar, and teacher of Chinese birth; naturalized American. As a young man, he was devoted to the study of the violin; however, in response to the Japanese invasion of his homeland, out of patriotism and a desire to help the war effort, he completed, during those tumultuous years, a full course of study as a civil engineer. Arriving in the United States (1946) to study architecture at Yale University, after just one week Chou changed his plans and enrolled at New England Conservatory, where he studied with Carl McKinley, nicolas Slonimsky , and others. In 1949 he moved to New York and took private lessons from bohuslav Martinů (1949) and edgard Varèse (1949–54), while completing his MA in composition (1954) at Columbia University—where he also studied with otto Luening . Between 1955 and 1957 he directed a research program at Columbia, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, on classical Chinese music and drama. Working for many years as the assistant to Varèse, Chou was entrusted by the composer shortly before his death with his musical legacy. In that capacity, he completed ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....


George Leotsakos

revised by Katerina Levidou


(b Cairo, Dec 17, 1947). Greek composer and musicologist. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, he settled in Athens in 1961, where he studied theory and piano at the Hellenic Conservatory (1975–7), and composition with Yannis Ioannidis (1977–81) as well as physics at the University of Athens. He then went to Paris, where he studied musicology and the aesthetics of music at the Sorbonne, Panthéon Paris 1, with Michel Guiomar and Daniel Charles, as well as ‘musique formelle’ with Xenakis. He also attended Boulez’s seminars at the Collège de France (1982–3) and spent time at IRCAM. He has taught musicology at the Athens University Faculty of Music Studies since 1995, where he is currently Permanent Assistant Professor.

Zervos is anything but a prolific composer. His work, late-romantic and expressionistic in style, reflects his musicological interest in the Second Viennese School. Meticulously conceived and elaborated, his atonal and 12-tone writing (with occasional tonal references, though), illustrated in such works as ...