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Blake Howe


(b Prague, Aug 24, 1825; d New York, May 12, 1906). Bohemian pianist, organist, composer, and teacher, active in the USA. At age 19 Wels began piano, harmony, and composition studies with Wenzel Johann Tomaschek at his private conservatory in Prague (among the other students were Eduard Hanslick, Alexander Dreyschock, and Julius Schulhoff). In 1847 he moved to Leipzig, where he met Ignaz Moscheles, the dedicatee of Wels’s op. 1. He then moved to Poland as a court pianist and music instructor for several years; then to Dresden, where he worked as a music instructor to an aristocratic family and made the acquaintance of Liszt and Wagner; then back to Prague. He immigrated to the USA in 1849, living in New York and working primarily as a piano teacher. His students included L.B. Whitney and Louis Bonn. He performed occasionally in concert as organist and pianist, both in the city and beyond; his piano duet concerts with Gottschalk seem to have been particularly successful. Among his many compositions are three masses, several hymns and anthems, an overture for orchestra, and a funeral march played by Dodsworth’s Band at funeral proceedings for Zachary Taylor. He also composed extensively for the piano, including a concerto and a large collection of technical studies and etudes; among these piano pieces is a four-hand arrangement of arias from ...


Joanna C. Lee

revised by Edward Green

(b Yantai, China, July 28, 1923). Composer, scholar, and teacher of Chinese birth; naturalized American. As a young man, he was devoted to the study of the violin; however, in response to the Japanese invasion of his homeland, out of patriotism and a desire to help the war effort, he completed, during those tumultuous years, a full course of study as a civil engineer. Arriving in the United States (1946) to study architecture at Yale University, after just one week Chou changed his plans and enrolled at New England Conservatory, where he studied with Carl McKinley, nicolas Slonimsky , and others. In 1949 he moved to New York and took private lessons from bohuslav Martinů (1949) and edgard Varèse (1949–54), while completing his MA in composition (1954) at Columbia University—where he also studied with otto Luening . Between 1955 and 1957 he directed a research program at Columbia, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, on classical Chinese music and drama. Working for many years as the assistant to Varèse, Chou was entrusted by the composer shortly before his death with his musical legacy. In that capacity, he completed ...


Erik H.A. Jakobsen

(b Copenhagen, Feb 21, 1937). Danish composer and teacher. After completing studies in Danish and music at Copenhagen University in 1964, he worked until 1970 as programme secretary at Danish Radio. As a composer he was a late starter and essentially self-taught: he had one of his first compositions, the wind quintet Jubilus, accepted for performance at the 1968 Palermo festival. He was principal of the Fyn Conservatory in Odense between 1974 and 1989, during which period he founded the organization Funen Young Musicians (1982), and briefly, together with Poul Nielsen, edited the Dansk Musiktidsskrift (1972–4). He also served as a member of the National Music Council (1983–91), and from 1992 as chairman of the state-sponsored record company DaCapo.

Werner’s extensive involvement in administration and in Danish cultural and musical debate has limited the volume of his production. His output nonetheless contains many substantial and personal works. While the most prominent influences on his music are those of Stockhausen and the Polish avant garde, Lutosławski especially, his works incorporate a variety of stylistic elements, and cover a wide range of genres. He has written works for both television (...


Dena J. Epstein

revised by Joanna R. Smolko

(b Bowling Green, VA, Feb 23, 1848; d Chicago, IL, April 19, 1923). American composer, bandmaster, and music teacher. Westendorf spent much of his life working as a bandmaster and teacher in reform schools, including those located in Kentucky, Indiana, and Washington. He composed approximately 300 songs and a similar number of instrumental works within the genres of parlor songs, minstrel songs, and popular dances. I’ll Take You Home Again, Kathleen, composed in 1875 and published in 1876, was his most popular and enduring work, received with great acclaim during his lifetime. It apparently was composed as a response to the song Barney, Take Me Home Again, (1875) dedicated to Westendorf by its composer, George W. Persley. The song, particularly in its use of the name Kathleen, evokes the stylized Irish balladry popular in America during the period. Its popularity continued into the 20th century through numerous arrangements, and by its inclusion in several motion pictures, including ...


Kirk MacKenzie

(b Osnabrück, April 8, 1946). Canadian composer, teacher and soundscape researcher, of German origin. She emigrated to Canada in 1968 and settled in Vancouver where she studied at the University of British Columbia (BMus 1972) and at the Department of Communication, Simon Fraser University (MA 1988). She began to teach courses in acoustic communication at Simon Fraser in 1982. In 1972 she married the Canadian poet and playwright Norbert Ruebsaat, with whom she has collaborated on a number of projects. Her contact (c1969) with R. Murray Schafer through the World Soundscape Project (WSP), a research group at Simon Fraser University dedicated to exploring the sonic landscape, has been very important to her creative work. She joined the WSP as a research assistant in 1973. In 1991 she began the Soundscape Newsletter, which was later adopted as the official publication of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology, an international, interdisciplinary organization formed in ...


Charlotte Erwin

(b Gleiwitz, upper Silesia [now Gliwice, Poland], Feb 26, 1875; d Erfurt, Jan 16, 1935). German composer and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory but soon moved to Munich, where he studied privately with Thuille (1899–1900) and attended lectures at the university. After two years as Kapellmeister in the theatres of Stralsund and Barmen he returned to Leipzig. In 1906 he moved permanently to Erfurt, where he took over the direction of the Musikverein and the Singakademie. He taught composition and music history at the Erfurt Conservatory (1911–14) and at the Weimar Musikhochschule (after 1916). In 1920 he was made professor and in 1928 he was elected, alongside Stravinsky, to the Berlin Akademie der Künste.

Wetz’s earlier music was strongly influenced by Wagner and Liszt, but his initial encounter with Bruckner during the first years of the 20th century caused him to modify his outlook and adopt an increasingly conservative position within German musical life. The First Symphony (...


Buell E. Cobb and Harry Eskew

(b nr Spartanburg, SC, Sept 20, 1800; dAtlanta, GA, Dec 5, 1879). American singing- school teacher, composer and tune book compiler (seeShape-note hymnody §2). A self-taught musician, he wrote three-part tunes using four-shape notation. In collaboration with Elisha J. King he published The Sacred Harp ([Hamilton, GA] Philadelphia, 1844, 3/1859/R, 4/1869), one of the most significant shape-note tune books of the pre-Civil War South and the longest-lived tune book in four-shape notation. Several editions were produced in White's lifetime, and the book is still used, in a number of revised versions, at singing conventions in the South and has also spread to other areas. His brother-in-law was William Walker, whose Southern Harmony (1835) and Christian Harmony (1867) were the chief rivals of The Sacred Harp.

G.P. Jackson: ‘Benjamin Franklin White of Georgia and his Associates’, ...


Graham George

revised by Kelly Rice


(b Peterborough, July 10, 1887; d Amherst, NS, April 1, 1974). Canadian organist, choir director, composer and teacher of English birth. Taught by C.C. Francis and Haydn Keeton, both of Peterborough Cathedral, and later by A.E. Hull, he moved in 1912 to Canada, where his chief posts were at St Peter’s, Sherbrooke (1915–22), Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal (1922–47) and Trinity-St Stephen’s United Church, Amherst (1953–71). From 1947 until his retirement in 1953 he was head of music at Mount Allison University, New Brunswick. He took the degrees of BMus (Toronto) and DMus (McGill), and the diplomas of FRCO (with which he was awarded the Lafontaine Prize) and FCGO (1913, the first Fellow by examination in the new guild, which had been formed in 1909 and some ten years later became a college), and was awarded several honorary degrees. He was president of the (Royal) Canadian College of Organists (...


Elaine Moohan

(b Horn, nr Hamburg, Sept 13, 1836; d Horn, March 19, 1906). German teacher and composer . She worked in Hamburg and in Manchester, where Slater’s Directory lists her (1887–96) as a teacher of singing, music and harmony; she returned to Hamburg in 1896. Her published music seems to have been primarily teaching material and salon music. It includes Consecrated Melodies, being Favourite Secular Tunes with Sacred Words (London, 1897) – arrangements and adaptations of 41 folksongs, ten Schubert songs and other pieces. That 25 ein- und zweist. Lieder für kleine und grosse Kinder (Leipzig and London, n.d.) is op.43 illustrates the size of her output. Most of this collection is in Twenty-Two Songs in One and Two Parts for Children Old and Young (translated by Lady Macfarren, Miss Marie Liebert and others; London, 1883). Her success is borne out by Alte und neue Weihnachtslieder für Schule und Haus...


Jocelyn Mackey

(b Schwäbisch Hall, bap. Sept 15, 1572; d Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Oct 31, 1634). German composer, organist, instrumentalist, teacher and poet.

Widmann came of a well-educated family. The Lateinschule at Schwäbisch Hall provided a good musical training in the 1580s under Johannes Crusius, and young Widmann ‘sang a good discant’ there and learnt to play the organ, harpsichord, lute, zither, viol, flute and trombone. On 28 April 1589 he entered the University of Tübingen and passed his bachelor’s examinations in 1590; at the university, students could study plainsong, notation and polyphony. Widmann is next heard of as an organist at Eisenerz, Styria, in 1595, and from 1596 until 1598 he held a similar position at Graz. He was a Lutheran, but since the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Protestantism had spread in Austria, and during the 1570s it was even tolerated. In 1598, however, on the orders of Duke Ferdinand, Lutheran ministers were given two weeks to leave. Moreover, in the same year Widmann almost lost his position because of trouble with women: two young women accused him of breach of promise, while he professed to wish to marry a third (he married Margarethe Ehetreiber on 12 June). Because of the action against Lutherans he returned in late ...


Gerard Béhague

(b Aarau, April 25, 1927; d Aarau, Jan 3, 1990). Brazilian composer and teacher of Swiss birth. He studied with Burkhard, Frey and Hoerler at the Zurich Conservatory, graduating in composition, piano and music education in 1950. After working as a private teacher and choral conductor in Switzerland he went to Salvador, Bahia, in 1956 on the invitation of Koellreutter, director of the Seminários Livres de Música. There he taught the piano, composition, orchestration and music literature, also conducting the Bahia University Madrigal Group (1958–67). On Koellruetter’s departure from Bahia in 1963, Widmer was appointed chief composition professor at the Federal University of Bahia, and took up the directorship of the Seminários (1963–5, 1967–9, 1976–80), later renamed the Escola de Música e Artes Cênicas then the Escola de Música. He had a pivotal role in making the city of Salvador one of the most important centres of new music activity from the 1960s to the 80s. As a teacher he exerted a profound influence on his students, many of whom became successful composers, and he espoused the rejection of all principles in order to cultivate independent development in the Grupo de Compositores da Bahia, which he founded in ...


Félix Raugel and Andrew Thomson

(b Lyons, Feb 21, 1844; d Paris, March 12, 1937). French organist, composer and teacher known primarily for his organ symphonies.

Félix Raugel

His mother was of Italian ancestry, and his paternal grandfather was an organ builder of Hungarian descent; his father was both an organ builder and performer who gave Widor his first lessons. The boy showed great ability and at the age of 11 became the organist at the lycée in Lyons. Upon the recommendation of Cavaillé-Coll, Widor went to Brussels, where he studied composition with Fétis and the organ with J.-N. Lemmens. Lemmens, who was the most recent member of a line of teachers connected directly to Bach, taught him traditional German interpretations of Bach to which he remained loyal for the rest of his life. He played the organ at St François in Lyons from 1860 and performed frequently in the provinces until 1870...


Alena Němcová

(b Ivanovice na Hané, Nov 10, 1883; d Prague, Nov 5, 1951). Czech organist and composer. He studied at the theological faculty in Olomouc (1904–8), occasionally deputizing for the organist or the conductor of the choir at Olomouc Cathedral. He abandoned his theological studies to concentrate on music and studied the organ at the Prague Conservatory with Josef Klička (until 1909) and composition with Vítězslav Novák (1909–10). He was organist at Brno Cathedral (1910–11), at the Emmaus monastery in Prague (1911–17), and was director of the choir at Prague University (1917–19). At the same time he played the viola with the Czech PO. From 1917 he taught at the Prague Conservatory and from 1944 at the Masters School there; he was professor at the Prague Academy of Arts from 1946. He made his début in 1905 and after his arrival in Prague he gave regular recitals at the Emmaus monastery and, in the years ...


Rolf Haglund

(b Buvika, nr Trondheim, Norway, June 13, 1927). Swedish pedagogue, administrator and composer. As well as studying the piano with G. Boon and H. Leygraf and composition with Blomdahl, he completed a business course, and composing has always taken second place to his administrative work. Up until 1962 he taught the piano, including in Darmstadt (1953–5). As the energetic chairman of Fylkingen (1959–69) he established an electronic music studio for the Workers’ Educational Association and organized the congresses ‘Art and Technology’ (1966) and ‘Music and Technology’ (1970) in Stockholm. With technical assistance he invented Music Box, a programme for computer music generation, and the Music Machine no.1, which produced random, complex sound structures and gave birth to the idea of a much larger Music Machine no.2. In 1964 he was commissioned by Swedish radio to build up an advanced electronic music workshop (known from ...


David Cope

revised by Anders Tobiason

(b Caterham, Surrey, England, Oct 9, 1922; d Kewaunee, WI, Aug 24, 2001). American composer, photographer, and digital artist of English birth. He attended the Juilliard School (1947–9) and studied composition privately with Jerzy Fitelberg; at the New England Conservatory (BM 1951, MM 1953) he was a pupil of Judd Cooke. During the summers of 1950–52, he studied at the Berkshire Music Center, where his teachers included Jacques Ibert, aaron Copland, and Luigi Dallapiccola. He received a DMA from Boston University, where his principal teacher was Gardner Read (1960–62). From 1951 to 1956, he was producer and director for FM radio and television at WGBH, Boston. He taught at Cardinal Cushing College, Boston (1958–9), and Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland (1960–67) before joining the faculty of DePaul University, Chicago, where he became full professor in 1979. During the bicentennial year, he recorded a daily radio series for WFMT in Chicago entitled ...


Giles Bryant

(b Balham, London, Oct 12, 1880; d Toronto, Feb 16, 1968). Canadian composer, teacher, organist and choirmaster. Particularly influential as a teacher, he also wrote many choral and organ works that have been frequently performed across North America.

His early education was undertaken privately. At the age of eight he entered St Saviour’s Choir School, Eastbourne, where he studied until 1895. Several positions as organist and choirmaster in and around London culminated in his appointment to St John the Baptist, Holland Road, in 1903. After further studies with W.S. Hoyte, he gained the FRCO in 1899. A close association with Francis Burgess led to membership in the London Gregorian Association in 1910.

In 1913 Willan was appointed head of theory at the Toronto Conservatory and organist of St Paul’s. In the next year he became a lecturer in music at the University of Toronto. He later served as vice-principal of the conservatory (...


Susana Salgado

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 23, 1862; d Buenos Aires, June 17, 1952). Argentine composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. Born into a family of musicians, he began to compose very early. His first piano lessons were with Pedro Beck; he also attended the Colegio S Martin and, from its foundation, the Escuela de Música de la Provincia, where he studied with Luis Bernasconi (piano) and Nicolás Bassi (harmony). While still a pupil at the school he played works by Paer and Liszt at the Teatro Colón; one of his first public performances was in 1879 at a Sociedad del Cuarteto concert organized by Bernasconi. Two years later he published his first work, the mazurka Ensueño de juventud. A scholarship took him in 1882 to the Paris Conservatoire, and there he was a pupil of Georges Mathías (piano), Emile Durand (harmony) and Benjamin Godard (instrumental ensemble), also studying composition with Franck. In Paris the piano works ...


Jan ten Bokum

(bap. Witzhelden, nr Solingen, March 30, 1772; d Amsterdam, July 19, 1847). Dutch composer of German birth . He received some lessons in piano and theory from his father and his eldest brother; he later studied the flute. In 1791 he went to Amsterdam, where he became a piano teacher. He was second flautist in the orchestras Felix Meritis and Eruditio Musica, where as a pianist he also introduced concertos by Mozart and Beethoven. He became one of the most important musicians in the Netherlands, being on several committees, including the music faculty of the Koninklijk Nederlandsch Instituut voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schoone Kunsten in Amsterdam (1808–47), and the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst (1829–41). He served on the juries of composition competitions, examined organists for church appointments and was Amsterdam correspondent of AMZ (1814–15). From 1823 to 1846 he was the organist at the United Baptist Church in Amsterdam....


Elaine Keillor


(b Toronto, May 8, 1931). Canadian composer and choral conductor. He studied composition with Godfrey Ridout at the University of Toronto where he earned both the BMus (1952) and the doctorate (1956). Additional study at Tanglewood included lessons with Foss, Copland and Chavez. In 1954 he became actively involved with choral music. He served as the organist and choirmaster at Chalmer United Church, Guelph, Ontario (1954–64), founded and conducted the Guelph Light Opera and Oratorio Company (1955–1974), conducted the Bach-Elgar Choir of Hamilton (1962–74) and was the chorus master of the Canadian Opera Company (1973–81). In 1979 he was appointed to the faculty of music at the University of Guelph where he later became composer-in-residence and the director of the electronic music studio. He retired in 1994. Although his early compositions were primarily instrumental, he produced much vocal music later in his career, including an oratorio, ...


George N. Heller

revised by Debra L. Spurgeon

(b Salina, KS, May 18, 1901; d Carmel, NY, Sept 24, 1968). American music educator, conductor, and composer. He attended Kansas State Agricultural College (BM 1926) and taught music in the Eureka (Kansas) public schools (1926–9) before enrolling at Columbia University Teachers College (MA 1932, EdD 1938). He taught choral music in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York (1932–4), and directed choral organizations at Teachers College (1936–66), where he also served as chairman of the music and music education departments (1958–66). His book entitled Music in the High School (1941) was widely used in teacher education programs during the 1940s and 1950s. He was an active member of Music Educators National Conference and American Choral Directors Association (ACDA). He was a member of the founding ACDA steering committee in 1959, and is attributed with authorship of the final version of the organization’s statement of philosophy called “The Ten Purposes.” Wilson was inducted into the Music Educators Hall of Fame in ...