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Otto E. Albrecht

revised by Martha Furman Schleifer

(b Stendal, Germany, April 30, 1850; d Philadelphia, PA, Dec 31, 1922). American teacher, organist, and composer, of German birth. Zeckwer studied at the Stendal Gymnasium, Leipzig University, and the Leipzig Conservatory with Ignaz Moscheles, Moritz Hauptmann, Ernst Richter, and Carl Reinecke. He immigrated to the USA in ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Grodkowice, nr Kraków, July 6, 1837; d Kraków, Jan 23, 1921). Polish composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. He studied in Kraków with Jan Germasz (piano) and Franciszek Mirecki (harmony), then (from 1859) in Prague with Alexander Dreyschock (piano) and Joseph Krejčí (composition). From 1866 to 1870 he studied composition in Paris with Henri Reber and Berthold Demcke. He had earlier studied philosophy at the University of Kraków and in 1862 received the PhD from the University of Prague. In 1871 he returned to Poland. He was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the Warsaw Music Institute (1872–8) and became director of the Warsaw Music Society (1878). In 1881 he moved to Kraków, where he was initially a teacher of theory at the music school. In 1888 he helped to establish the conservatory of the music society in Kraków, and became its director. He also conducted symphony concerts and wrote articles for the Kraków journal ...


Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Berlin, Dec 11, 1758; d Berlin, May 15, 1832). German composer, conductor and teacher. His father George, a mason from Saxony, settled about 1750 in Berlin, where he worked as a building contractor and married Anna Dorothea Hintze, daughter of a cloth-worker; Carl Friedrich was the second of two sons of this marriage. Zelter was first taught at home and then attended the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium. At his father’s wish, he trained as a mason, becoming in 1783 a master mason and partner in his father’s business, which he took over in 1787; he remained a member of the Berlin masons’ guild until 1815. In 1787 Zelter married Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, née Kappel, who had three children by her first marriage and bore him eight more but died in 1795. A year later he married the singer Juliane Pappritz (d 1806), who bore him two children....


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Prishtina, Kosovo, April 1, 1984). Kosovar composer. She studied at the Prenke Jakova Music School in Prishtina from 1997 to 2002. She continued her music studies at the University of Prishtina, Faculty of Arts, studying composition with Mendi Mengjiqi, and graduated in 2007. She obtained the Master’s degree at the Ss. Cyril and Methidius Faculty of Arts at the University of Skopje and graduated in 2011. In 2007 she started teaching at the Faculty of Arts in Prishtina.

She is a founder and supervisor of the NGO Kosovar Women in Music ‘Neo Musica’, which is affiliated with the Adkins Chiti Foundation (member of UNESCO’s International Music Council and the European Music Council) in Italy (2009). In 2009 she became a member of the NGO International Alliance for Women in Music, USA.

Her compositional output ranges from songs to large orchestral works. Her compositional style is typical of the 20th century....


George Leotsakos

revised by Katerina Levidou


(b Cairo, Dec 17, 1947). Greek composer and musicologist. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, he settled in Athens in 1961, where he studied theory and piano at the Hellenic Conservatory (1975–7), and composition with Yannis Ioannidis (1977–81) as well as physics at the University of Athens. He then went to Paris, where he studied musicology and the aesthetics of music at the Sorbonne, Panthéon Paris 1, with Michel Guiomar and Daniel Charles, as well as ‘musique formelle’ with Xenakis. He also attended Boulez’s seminars at the Collège de France (1982–3) and spent time at IRCAM. He has taught musicology at the Athens University Faculty of Music Studies since 1995, where he is currently Permanent Assistant Professor.

Zervos is anything but a prolific composer. His work, late-romantic and expressionistic in style, reflects his musicological interest in the Second Viennese School. Meticulously conceived and elaborated, his atonal and 12-tone writing (with occasional tonal references, though), illustrated in such works as ...


Razia Sultanova

(b St Petersburg, 28 Jan/Feb 10, 1908; d Tashkent, Dec 30, 1981). Russian composer and teacher. He studied with Steinberg at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1927–31) and then taught there (1933–9) before moving to Central Asia and the Caucasus where he spent the rest of his life helping to establish and develop professional composition in Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. Zeydman instilled in Uzbek traditional musicians a feeling for and understanding of the principles of Western genres. After a spell in the Baku Conservatory, he was appointed in 1957 to teach at Tashkent Conservatory where he remained until his death. His creativity includes compositions from many different genres, including chamber pieces, opera and ballet. He was a co-founder of Uzbek's composer's school. His students included Amirov, Kazhlayev, Mukhatov, Khalilov, Kurbanov and Saydaminova. He has received numerous awards including that of People's Artist of Uzbekistan....


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kursk, 6/Oct 18, 1881; d Jan 20, 1938). Russian critic, composer and teacher. A member of the London Geographic Society. Zhilyayev first studied with Taneyev (1896–1900) and was one of his favourite pupils; he later studied with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1905. His activity as a composer was limited to the period 1905–9, and several of his works were published by Jurgenson. After a round-the-world trip during which he visited Grieg at his house in Troldhaugen (1907), he appeared as a pianist with the singer M. Deysha-Sionitskaya at the Muzïkal′nïye vïstavki (‘Musical Exhibitions’) in Moscow. He was active as a music critic and wrote for the journals Zolotoye runo (‘The Golden Fleece’), Moskovskiy yezhenedel′nik (‘Moscow Weekly’), Muzïka (‘Music’) and for the newspaper Rul′ (‘The Rudder’) (in which he used the pseudonym Peer Gynt). One of Skryabin’s close friends, Zhilyayev made editorial corrections to a number of his works during the composer’s final years, including the piano sonatas nos.8, 9 and 10. Not long before World War I Zhilyayev began teaching; among his first pupils were Stanchinsky, Feinberg and Anatoly Aleksandrov; as a member of the editorial board of the Music Sector of Gosizdat during the 1920s and 30s, he edited Skryabin’s complete works (in ...


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kherson, Ukraine, 11/May 23, 1881; d Leningrad, Dec 16, 1937). Russian composer and teacher. He studied the violin under Ye. Mlïnarsky in Odessa (1892–97) and under K. Prill in Vienna (1898–1900) where he also attended a course in composition and the piano. In the 1900s he entered the St Petersburg Conservatory, studying under Rimsky-Korsakov (orchestration and composition) and Lyadov, graduating in 1910. He later taught there (1915–37) and in 1919 he became a professor. Many outstanding musicians graduated from his class including Andrey Balanchivadze, Mikhail Chulaki, Aleksandr Gauk, Khristofor Kushnaryov, Aleksandr Melik-Pashayev and Mikhail Yudin.


Joshua Rifkin

revised by Konrad Küster

(b Leipzig, bap. June 30, 1695; d Frankfurt an der Oder, May 1, 1760). German poet and cantata librettist . The daughter of a prominent Leipzig family, she began to pursue a professional literary career in her late twenties after she had been widowed twice and lost the children of both marriages. Johann Christoph Gottsched became her mentor and principal sponsor. She published her first collection of verse, Versuch in gebundener Schreib-Art, in 1728; a second volume followed a year later. In 1731 she brought out a collection of letters and became a member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft in Leipzig, whose prize for poetry she won in 1732 and 1734. In 1733, at Gottsched’s recommendation, the Faculty of Philosophy of Wittenberg University elected her imperial poet laureate. Ziegler’s last publication, Vermischte Schriften in gebundener und ungebundener Rede – probably a revised version of a lost collection announced in the Leipzig fair catalogue of ...


Roberto Pagano

(b Palermo, Nov 11, 1909; d Rome, Feb 1, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and teacher. He was director of the conservatories of Palermo, Naples and Rome, and a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia. He was also director of two important musical institutions from the time of their foundation: the Teatro Lirico Sperimentale in Spoleto and the Orchestra Sinfonica Siciliana, with which he produced interesting series of concerts, of which the Giornate di Musica Contemporanea deserve special mention. In writing his Ricordi di un musicista (Palermo, 1994) at the end of his busy career, Ziino declared that compared with other aspects of his multiple artistic personality, he considered composition to be his main musical activity. A pupil of Antonio Savasta, an exceptional teacher who instilled in him a love of counterpoint, Ziino completed his studies under Pizzetti (composition) and Bernardino Molinari (conducting). He was an active, highly competent conductor, with a repertory which ranged from orchestral music of every period and style to opera; this repertory allowed him to assimilate contemporary idioms, which he did with discernment, never merely copying famous models. A prolific composer, his melodic style – while based on Sicilian folksong – avoids the explicit quotation of folk material; his pieces show a contrast between lively, rhythmic movements and spare-textured calm adagios. Among his most important works are the ...


Boris Schwarz

(Alexandrovich )

(b Rostov-na-Donu, April 9, 1890; d Reno, NV, Feb 22, 1985). American violinist, composer and teacher of Russian birth . His father, a professional violinist and conductor of the Rostov Opera, taught him for the first few years. In 1901 Zimbalist joined Auer's class at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and received the Gold Medal and the Rubinstein Prize on his graduation in 1907. That year he made his débuts in Berlin (7 November) and London (9 December). He made a memorable appearance at the Leipzig Gewandhaus on 1 January 1910 under Nikisch, playing the Tchaikovsky Concerto. At his American début in Boston on 27 October 1911 Zimbalist introduced Glazunov’s Concerto. His success made him decide to settle in the USA. He married twice, in 1914 the singer Alma Gluck with whom he frequently appeared in joint recitals as a violinist and also as an expert accompanist, and in 1943...


Vladimír Zvara

(b Ružomberk, May 16, 1926; d Bratislava, Jan 21, 1993). Slovak composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the organ, the piano with Anna Kafendová (from 1941) and composition with Suchoň at the Bratislava Conservatory before continuing his studies in composition under Farkas at the Budapest Music Academy (1948–9) and in Salzburg (1949). From 1945 to 1948 he contributed to Czechoslovak radio and, for the next four years, taught theory and the piano at the Bratislava Conservatory. Thereafter he devoted his time to composition and, exceptionally, to performance as a concert pianist.

His compositional style had its roots in the work of Suchoň, manifested by his emphasis on concise structure (based mostly on Classical or Romantic forms) and in the use of modally extended tonality, with elements of dodecaphony in works of the 1960s. After an early period of compositional constructivism and sober emotionality (as in the Concerto grosso, ...


Chris Walton

(b Berne, Aug 7, 1927). Swiss composer and teacher. She studied the piano and music theory in Berne, Lausanne and Paris. Her first composition teacher was Arthur Honegger; she later studied composition and conducting at the Milan Conservatory. She has received many commissions and several works have been recorded for radio and on disc. In 1987 she won second prize at the first international competition for women composers at Unna in Germany. Zimmermann describes her style as ‘atonal, but traditional’, though in her search for new timbres she often employs techniques such as cluster glissandos and quarter-tones that are more commonly associated with a progressive aesthetic.

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(b Paris, ?March 19, 1785; d Paris, Oct 29, 1853). French pianist, teacher and composer. The son of a Paris piano maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798 to study piano with Boieldieu and harmony with J.-B. Rey and then Catel. In 1800 he won a premier prix for piano (over Kalkbrenner) and in 1802 a premier prix in harmony; later he studied composition with Cherubini. From 1811 he assisted in teaching the piano at the Conservatoire and in 1816 was appointed professor. In 1821 he was selected to succeed A.-F. Eler as professor of counterpoint and fugue, but decided to teach the piano only and the vacant post went to Fétis. He was one of the most influential French keyboard teachers of his time; his pupils included Franck, Alkan, Louis Lacombe, Ambroise Thomas, Bizet and A.-F. Marmontel (who succeeded him in 1848). He also taught Gounod (who became his son-in-law). He retired early from public performance in order to devote himself to teaching and composition. His ...


Friedrich Spangemacher

(b Schwabach, Franconia, April 15, 1949). German composer. He studied with Heider in Nuremberg (1968–70) and performed as a pianist in the ars-nova-ensemble. In 1970 he went to Cologne, where he attended courses on new music given by Kagel. Largely self-taught as a composer, he later studied at the Institute of Sonology, Utrecht (1970–73) with Otto Laske, at the Jaap-Kunst ethnological centre, Amsterdam, and at the Alexander Hamilton Institute, USA (1974), where he took a computer studies course. In 1977 he founded the Beginner-Studio in Cologne, where he organized concerts for a number of years. He has lectured at the Darmstadt summer courses (1982–4) and taught at the Royal Conservatory, The Hague, the Karlsruhe Musikhochschule and the Essen Folkwang-schule. In 1993 he was appointed professor of composition at the Berlin Hochschule der Künste. His honours include the Förderpreis of the city of Cologne (...


R.M. Longyear

revised by Rodobaldo Tibaldi

(b Naples, April 4, 1752; d Torre del Greco, nr Naples, May 5, 1837). Italian composer and teacher. Left fatherless at the age of seven, Zingarelli was enrolled in the Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto, where his father had taught singing, and studied with Fenaroli, Speranza, Anfossi and Sacchini. After his graduation in 1772 he became organist and violin teacher at Torre Annunziata. When his first patron the Duchess of Castelpagano gave him her support, however, he began his career as an opera composer, in the theatres of northern Italy, Florence and Rome. His first cantata was performed in 1778 and his first opera, Montezuma, in 1781. Although Haydn did not praise this work as highly as once was supposed, he nevertheless produced it (and later Alsinda) at Eszterháza. Between 1785 and 1803 Zingarelli was principally known as an opera composer.

In 1790 he visited Paris, where his opera ...


E. Fred Flindell

(b Frankfurt, June 20, 1914; d Freiburg, Oct 7, 1997). German composer, teacher and organist. In 1933 he attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, where he studied the organ with Walcha and composition with Sekles, and also studied at the university of Frankfurt. From 1934 to 1938 he continued his studies at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musikerziehung und Kirchenmusik in Berlin-Charlottenburg, where his teacher of composition was Armin Knab. Under Knab’s influence Zipp developed a keen and lasting interest in German and international folk music and particularly the treasury of old chorale tunes. He learnt to compose with the most archaic musical elements, convinced that they would best convey his personal musical expression. From 1938 until his war service (1941–5) he was active in Frankfurt as an organist and teacher. In 1947 he was appointed lecturer in composition at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt, later becoming a professor (...


Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Roman, July 14, 1883; d Sibiu, March 23, 1946). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. He was a Romantic composer and a representative of the national Romanian school (through language and ethos). He studied at the Iaşi Conservatory (1902–5) with G. Musicescu, T. Cerne (harmony), and E. Mezzetti (singing), and then took composition lessons with C. Gatti at the Milan Conservatory (1905–7, 1909–11), and became Magister in composition (1911). Returning to the Iaşi Conservatory to teach harmony (1907–9, 1911–25, 1931–40), he directed the institution from 1922 until 1924, and he was also professor of harmony and singing and director of the Cernăuţi Conservatory (1925–31, now Chernovtsy, Ukraine); in these appointments he established a reputation as a remarkable teacher.

As a composer he was above all attracted to the theatre. Most of his six stage works are based on episodes in Romanian history, and all attest to his supreme handling of the dramatic-lyrical genre of which (together with Caudella, Drăgoi, Nottara, and Stephănescu) he was an originator. His greatest achievements in this manner were the opera ...


Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Angelina Petrova

(b Ruse, Bulgaria, April 23, 1905; d Sofia, Bulgaria, March 29, 1977). Bulgarian composer and voice pedagogue. In his endeavour to create a pronouncedly Bulgarian vocal colour he composed some of the most popular works in Bulgaria during the 1930s and 1940s. Among others, ‘Sevdana’ and ‘Pastoral’ deserve a special mention.

He began his music education studying the piano at the Music Academy in Sofia (under Ivan Torchanov); he later studied voice in Vienna under T. Lirhamer (1925–9), and composition under Josef Marxs (1927); he was also Lirhamer’s assistant between 1936 and 1938. He taught at the Imperial Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna (1936–8). In 1944 he became a teacher of classical singing, and in 1971 a professor in the State Bulgarian Conservatoire, Sofia. He was a well-known voice pedagogue and his name is often connected with prominent performers, such as Lyuba Velich and Lyubomir Pantchev (in the first half of the 20th century), and Anna Tomova-Sintova and Alexandrina Miltcheva (in the second half of the 20th century)....