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Dimitrije Bužarovski

(b Veles, March 29, 1934; d Skopje, Jan 14, 2000). Macedonian composer and educator. His compositions are among the first large-scale orchestral works (Sinfonietta in Es, Sinfonietta in Si, and Fantasia corale) which, in the 1950s and 1960s, moved Macedonian music toward the contemporary occidental music styles. Both his compositional and educational activities essentially influenced the developement of Macedonian music at the end of the 20th century.

His family was known for the fresco painting artisans (zograf) in the 19th century. He studied at Skopje Music School and Belgrade Music School and graduated from Milenko Zivković’s composition class at the Academy of Music in Belgrade in 1961. After working as a teacher at Skopje Music School and a music journalist for Radio Skopje, he became professor (1967) and dean (1970–71; 1977–9) of Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Music....


Lyudmila Kovnatskaya

(b Taganrog, 24 Feb/March 7, 1872 (?1873); d Moscow, May 25, 1964). Russian composer and teacher. He was the son of an employee from the Taganrog Tobacco Factory. In Rostov-on-Don in 1883 he was elected by the commission for the Court Cappella Choristers to sing in the boys’ choir. He studied with Balakirev and Lyadov at the court chapel in St Petersburg, where his gifts as a composer became apparent (under the influence of Balakirev, with whom he studied composition from 1883 to 1887, he wrote a symphony, completed 70 years later in 1962; he dedicated it to the memory of Balakirev and Rimsky-Korsakov). He continued his musical education with Rimsky-Korsakov at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1898–1900), where he won the Rubinstein Prize for his cantata Ray i Peri (‘Paradise and Peri’), which was presented as his graduation work. In 1902 he wrote his ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...


Yelena Zin′kevich


(b Goloskovo, Nikolayev province, March 2, 1953). Ukrainian composer. He studied at the Gnesin Music College in Moscow (1969–71), then at Kiev Conservatory (the bayan with V.V. Besfail′ny, composition with Skoryk and conducting with Viktor Gnedash, graduating 1976–9). From 1976 he appeared in various countries as a bayan soloist, and later was president of the Ukrainian Association of Accordion Players (1988–95). He has also taught in the faculty of composition at the Kiev Conservatory (1990–94) of Kiev. He has won prizes in the Helsinki bayan and accordion competition (1975, first prize), the UNESCO composing competition ‘Young people for peace’ (Bydgoszcz, 1985, special prize and second prize), the Ivanna and Mar′yan Kots′ Competition (1991, third prize) and has been awarded the N. Ostrovsky Prize (1986), the N.V. Lysenko Prize (1994), and the title Honoured Representative of the Arts of Ukraine (...


Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...


Barbara A. Peterson

revised by Theresa Koenig

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Nov 14, 1932). American Composer. He studied with Vincent Persichetti at the Juilliard School (BS 1956, BM 1957). He received a Fulbright grant that enabled him to study with Karl Schiske at the Vienna Academy of Music (1958–9) and with Michael Gottfried Koenig at the University of Utrecht, spending a total of five years in Europe. Additionally, he studied with Aaron Copland, with Otto Luening, and at Columbia University, where he learned about electronic music. Zupko was a Ford Foundation/MENC composer-in-residence in Lubbock, Texas (1961–2), and then in Joliet, Illinois (1966–7). After these residencies ended, Zupko taught theory and founded the first Electronic Music Studio in Chicago at the Chicago Musical College at Roosevelt University (1967–71). From 1971 to 1997, he was a member of the faculty at Western Michigan University, where he taught composition and theory and founded and directed the Studio for Electronic and Computer Music. Zupko’s music first came to international prominence when his Violin Concerto won first prize in the Premio Città di Trieste in ...


Miroslav K. Černý

revised by Jitka Ludvová

(b Kublov, nr Beroun, Bohemia, Jan 22, 1824; d Prague, Nov 23, 1865). Czech writer on music, teacher and composer . He completed his early schooling through the help of a priest, who also instructed him in music theory. Having concluded his studies with Pitsch at the organ school in Prague, he became an assistant there, teaching plainsong as well as the organ, and later served briefly as the school's director. In 1860 he accepted the post of director at the Žofín Academy, where he founded courses for training women as singers and piano teachers. He also taught at various girls' high schools and ran courses for young working people.

After composing some music to German texts, in 1848 Zvonař associated himself with the Czech national movement. He wrote reviews for a Prague newspaper and later in the journals Dalibor and Slavoj. One of the founders and leading members of the choral society Hlahol and the artists' society Umělecká Beseda, he also gave private composition lessons, with Bendl and probably Dvořák among his pupils....


Jacqueline Avila

(b Mexico City, June 21, 1956). American composer and professor, born in Mexico. Zyman began his training in Mexico City, where he studied with flutist Héctor Jaramillo and pianist José Calatayud. He later studied piano and conducting at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música del INBA and composition with Humberto Hernández Medrano, earning a diploma in piano performance in 1980. He continued his musical studies in New York at the Juilliard School (MM 1984, DMA 1987) under the guidance of Stanley Wolfe, Roger Sessions, and David Diamond. Since 1987 Zyman has been on the Juilliard faculty in the department of Literature and Materials of Music. His musical works include two symphonies; concertos for piano, guitar, and harp; several symphonic pieces and chamber works; pieces for voice; and a sonata for solo guitar. Zyman also composed an original symphonic score to the film La otra conquista (The other conquest, ...


Zofia Chechlińska

[Živný; Vojtěch, Zhyvny, Ziwny, Żiwny, Zwiny]

(b Bohemia, May 13, 1756; d Warsaw, Feb 21, 1842). Polish piano teacher and composer of Bohemian origin. He studied the violin, the piano, harmony and counterpoint with Jan Kuchař in Bohemia, where his earliest compositions were also written. After a probable stay in Stuttgart and Zweibrücken, he arrived in Poland some time during the reign of Stanisław August (1764–95). For three years he worked at the court of Prince Kazimierz Sapieha; he then moved to Warsaw, where within a short time he became one of the most successful piano teachers. Of the large number of pianists who studied with Żywny, the most famous was Chopin, whom Żywny taught from 1816 until 1822. Chopin thought highly of him, saying that, ‘with Żywny and Elsner the greatest ass would learn’; and the greatness of the pupil helped to spread the fame of the teacher. It was Żywny who eventually decided to discontinue Chopin’s lessons, feeling that there was nothing further he could teach him. Żywny wrote a number of works for the piano, including sonatas, preludes and polonaises, as well as lieder and overtures. None of his works were published and nearly all are lost. (...