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Article

Julie Anne Sadie

(b Lyons, 1687; d Paris, Dec 3, 1747). French soprano. Trained as a singer and actress by Marthe le Rochois, she made her début at the Opéra in the 1711 revival of Michel de la Barre’s La vénitienne (1705). For the next 30 years she sang major roles in up to five productions each season, and she retired with a generous pension at Easter 1741. After her début she was immediately given important roles in new productions beginning with Campra’s Idomenée (1712) and Salomon’s Médée et Jason (1713); 23 years later she sang the same role, Cléone, in a revival of the Salomon opera and was warmly praised by the Mercure (Dec 1736). Antier appeared in almost two dozen Lully revivals; at one performance of the 1713–14 revival of Armide (1686) she had the honour of presenting the victorious Marshal of Villars with a laurel crown. In ...

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

(‘Antigone’)

Opera seria in three acts by Tommaso Traetta to a libretto by Marco Coltellini; St Petersburg, Imperial Theatre, 11 November 1772.

A terrifying introduction, combining pantomime, dance, recitative and chorus, opens each act: in Act 1 Antigone’s brothers engage in mortal combat; in Act 2 Antigone (soprano) prepares a secret, nocturnal funeral; and in Act 3, condemned by Creon (tenor), Antigone prepares for her death. Unusual for an opera seria are the trios (in Acts 1 and 2), the arias that merge into ensembles, and the duet for the hero, Emone (alto castrato), and Antigone’s sister Ismene (soprano), replacing the usual love duet at the close of Act 1. The opera has French-inspired elements, including many choruses and dances within the action, arias with chorus and a joyous final chorus and ballet. The music, especially rich in the expressive use of wind instruments (including clarinet and bassoon), reveals Traetta in full command of his mature powers. Passages of orchestrally accompanied recitative reach levels of profound dramatic expression. For both Traetta and Coltellini, this masterpiece represented the culmination of a decade of effort to breathe new life into Italian opera through a Franco-Italian synthesis as envisioned in Algarotti’s ...

Article

Erik Levi

(‘Antigone’)

Tragedy in five acts by Carl Orff to Sophocles’ drama translated into German by Friedrich Hölderlin; Salzburg, Felsenreitsschule, 9 August 1949.

After the death of Oedipus, King of Thebes, his sons Eteocles and Polyneices were supposed to share the throne. But the brothers quarrelled and Polyneices fled to Argos to organize an army in order to occupy Thebes. The revolt was suppressed when the brothers killed each other. The opera begins as Creon (baritone) succeeds to the throne. He decrees that anyone who contemplates burying Polyneices will be put to death. But Oedipus’s daughter Antigone (dramatic soprano) is determined to accord her brother the true rites of burial. She attempts to enlist the support of her sister Ismene (soprano), but Ismene, fearful of the consequences, tries to discourage Antigone. Antigone ignores her and visits her brother’s corpse alone. As she scatters earth on the body she is seized by soldiers and taken prisoner by Creon. Ismene, ashamed of her former cowardice, admits complicity in the deed and is also imprisoned. Creon’s son Haemon (tenor), to whom Antigone is betrothed, goes to the king to plead for mercy, threatening to kill himself if either of the sisters is put to death. But while Creon releases Ismene he condemns Antigone to solitary confinement. The blind soothsayer Tiresias (tenor) appears and prophesies disaster for the king if he does not release Antigone and give Polyneices an honourable burial. Creon bows to this pressure but is unable to forestall a dreadful sequence of events. Antigone has already hanged herself with her sash and Haemon, clinging to her body, kills himself with his sword. When Creon’s wife Euridice [Eurydice] (contralto) hears this news, she also takes her own life. Creon is now in despair and longs for death, but is unable to effect complete absolution. The final words in the opera are reserved for the Chorus: only in wisdom can there be peace of mind and man should not profane the teachings of the gods....

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

Libretto subject used chiefly in the 18th century, derived from plays by Sophocles and Euripides . Italian librettos on the subject were entitled Antigona or occasionally Creonte.

The plot concerns Antigone, daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. Her brothers Polynices and Eteocles have died, each at the other’s hand; their maternal uncle Creon, who is acting as regent in Oedipus’s absence, has forbidden the proper burial of Polynices, but Antigone defiantly attempts to bury him. In Sophocles’ version of the story Creon inters her alive in a vault and her betrothed Haemon kills himself; in Euripides’ version Creon hands Antigone over to Haemon to be executed, but instead he hides her among shepherds and she bears his child.

Early operas on the subject take up the story when Antigone’s daughter is a young woman. The earliest libretto may be Benedetto Pasqualigo’s Antigona in five acts, for G. M. Orlandini (1718), much performed early in the century. At the beginning of the opera, Antigone’s daughter Jocasta has appeared after a long absence and is not recognized. Creonte [Creon] has ordered Antigone’s husband, here called Osmene, to marry Jocasta, not knowing she is his daughter. Antigone returns to Thebes, identifies herself and attempts to stab Creon. Osmene is again ordered to kill his wife, but Creon dies in a popular insurrection and the couple are reunited with their daughter....

Article

Don Neville

(‘Antigonus’)

Libretto by Pietro Metastasio , first set by Johann Adolf Hasse (1743, Hubertus burg). The title Alessandro, rè d’Epiro was used for a later version of the libretto.

Act1 Princess Berenice of Egypt is engaged to Antigonus, King of Macedonia, but loves his son Demetrio [Demetrius]. Antigonus banishes Demetrius who returns to warn his father that King Alessandro [Alexander] of Epirus, previously spurned by Berenice, seeks revenge in a campaign against the Macedonians. Ismene, Antigonus’s daughter, confesses to Berenice her love for Alexander. During the battle, Demetrius disobeys his father in order to ensure the safety of Berenice, and the Macedonians are defeated. Antigonus, after banishing his son, is captured by Alexander along with Ismene and Berenice who steadfastly resists her captor’s protestations of love.

Act2 Demetrius begs Alexander to release Antigonus, offering himself in his father’s place. Alexander accepts, provided Berenice becomes his consort, a condition that Demetrius must persuade her to accept. This Demetrius does, but not before he and Berenice have renewed their vow of mutual love. Antigonus, however, is still held hostage, a situation that remains unchanged even after a victory won bythe reorganized Macedonian army....

Article

Patricia Brown

(Henry)

(b Sydney, April 8, 1904; d Sydney, Dec 29, 1986). Australian composer. At the age of ten Antill joined St Andrew's Cathedral Choir School, Sydney, and later trained as an apprenticed mechanical draghtsman with the NSW Government Railways. He studied composition with Alfred Hill at the NSW Conservatorium, and in 1932 he joined the J.C. Williamson Imperial Opera Company as a tenor and rehearsal conductor. He began work with the ABC in 1936 and was to remain there until his retirement 33 years later. In 1949 he was appointed federal music editor, in which capacity he became arbiter in the selection of new Australian and overseas compositions submitted for broadcasting. He supported many musical organizations and was made an OBE (1971) and a CMG (1981) for his services to music.

Antill's achievement rests primarily but securely on the significance of Corroboree. Though it was originally conceived as a ballet, it was in its more focussed form as a concert suite that the work was first performed in ...

Article

A term used to refer to a type of jazz, current in the swing era, that incorporated elements of the music of the francophone Caribbean, in particular the Martinique beguine. The music of Martinique, and to a lesser extent of Guadeloupe and Haiti, shares several characteristics with that of Creole New Orleans; it was therefore natural that the practitioners of these styles should associate when they came into contact with one another in Paris in the 1920s. Over the next 30 years musicians from the Caribbean took part in recording sessions devoted to jazz, and expatriate African Americans made recordings of Caribbean music. Some elements of jazz are evident in the work of the Martinique clarinetist Alexandre Stellio and the tenor saxophonist Félix Valvert, but the earliest jazz recordings to show the distinctive Creole coloration are by a band led by Flavius Notte (for example, ’Tain’t No Sin, 1931, Ultraphone AP121). Further notable recordings in the style were made by Sam Castandet, André Siobud, Bertin Salnave, Robert Mavounzy, the trumpeter Abel Beauregard, and the guitarist and pianist Claude Martial. Antillean jazz was particularly popular during the Nazi occupation of Paris, when the black French nationals from the Antilles were the only substantial group of African Americans in the city; a major entrepreneurial role was played by Fredy Jumbo, a German-speaking drummer from Togo, whose ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

Record label. It was established around 1980 as an independently run subsidiary of the record company Island and intially recorded such artists and groups as JoAnne Brackeen, Bireli Lagrene, the Heath Brothers, Phil Woods, Anthony Braxton, and Air. It had released approximately 20 recordings by around 1984 and then apparently ceased operation for a few years. In 1987 the label was revived as Antilles/New Directions and was dedicated to contemporary music of all types, but by 1988 it was again operating as Antilles; among its jazz releases were albums by Andy Sheppard, Laszlo Gardony, and the trio Power Tools, comprising Bill Frisell, Melvin Gibbs, and Ronald Shannon Jackson. In 1989 Polygram acquired Island, but Antilles retained its independence, and in the early 1990s it recorded Peter Apfelbaum, Johnny Griffin, Randy Weston, Frank Morgan, James Clay, Steve Turre, and Michael White (ii). Having moved away from Island’s emphasis on popular music, the label was transferred in ...

Article

Murray Lefkowitz

A comic or grotesque interlude in a Masque , normally preceding the terminal dances of the masquers. There were usually more than one and they consisted of a variety of spoken dialogue, pantomime, singing and dancing. Unlike the grand masquing dances, which were performed by a group of nobility from the floor of the hall, antimasques were usually danced by professional actors from the stage.

In contrast to the serious matter of the main masque (allegory, mythology, deus ex machina) the themes of the antimasques concentrated on mundane humour and the bizarre: the low-class comedy of beggars, cripples and drunkards, housewives and shopkeepers, barmaids and chimney-sweeps, foreigners, criminals, soldiers and common labourers; the pantomimed antics of dancing birds, bears, cats, apes and baboons; and the fantastical capers of furies, witches, spirits, sprites, satyrs and other magical beings. The spoken burlesques, usually in low prose, often imitated folk characters and situations, as well as ...

Article

Winton Dean

(b Bologna, c 1697; d Florence, ?March 1734). Italian tenor. He sang in Rome (Giovanni Bononcini’s Etearco, 1719), Ferrara (1724), Bologna (1724, 1731), Milan (1724, 1727) and other Italian cities, and was engaged on Owen Swiney’s recommendation by the Royal Academy in London, replacing Francesco Borosini in revivals of Elpidia (by Vinci and Orlandini) and Rodelinda (Handel) in 1725, and appearing in the unsuccessful pasticcio Elisa in 1726. Handel composed the parts of Laelius in Scipione and Leonatus in Alessandro (only one aria) for him and evidently had little confidence in his powers, but Fétis described him as a fine singer with an excellent method. The compass is d to a′, the tessitura fairly high. Antinori sang in Venice (1726 in Porpora’s Imeneo in Atene, 1731), Livorno (1725, 1730–31), Turin (1728), Genoa (1728...

Article

Antioch  

Article

Michel Huglo and Joan Halmo

In Latin Christian chant generally, a liturgical chant with a prose text, sung in association with a psalm. In Gregorian psalmody, for example, psalms and canticles are usually preceded and followed by a single antiphon, and the psalm tone used for the recitation of the psalm itself is often musically incomplete without the antiphon. Antiphons of this kind may be regarded as typical and are represented above all by the Gregorian antiphons to the psalms of Matins, Lauds and Vespers in the Divine Office. There are also other categories of antiphon, some of which may lack psalmody or have versified texts.

The antiphon and responsory are the two musical genres with Latin prose texts that occur in all the Western liturgies and are the most abundant within the chant repertory. A given medieval Office source might have as many as 1500 antiphons, and even up to 2000; such a large number could occur in a monastic usage, whereas the secular (or canons') repertory would generally have fewer (see §4 below)....

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (i) Overview.: Ex.1 (a) Original version (b) ‘Corrected’ version

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (ii) Adaptation.: Ex.2 Antiphons for Passion Sunday

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (ii) Adaptation.: Ex.3

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (ii) Adaptation.: Ex.4

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (ii) Adaptation.: Ex.5

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (iii) Centonization.: Ex.10

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (iii) Centonization.: Ex.11

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Antiphon 3. Origins and composition of melodies. (iii) Centonization.: Ex.12 A similar melodic fragment appearing in antiphons of both Mass and Office: (a) the antiphon Spiritus Domini, CAO, iii, no.4998; and the introit Spiritus Domini, in Hesbert, Antiphonale missarum sextuplex, no.106; (b) with the phrases ‘hoc autem’ and ‘hoc facite’ from the antiphon Solvite templum, CAO, iii, no.4982; and the communions Ultimo and Hoc corpus, in Antiphonale missarum sextuplex, nos.105 and 67b...