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Noël Goodwin

revised by Heather Wiebe

Annual music festival inaugurated in 1948 and held each June. It was established around Benjamin Britten and based on the small Suffolk coastal town where he lived from 1947 (and which is the historical setting for his Peter Grimes). Britten’s taste, imagination, and personality helped to give it a distinctive character. His own music formed an important element in the programmes, particularly in the first years of the Festival, but it has also been a forum for new music by other British composers. Today it is an eclectic event, retaining an emphasis on early music and 20th- and 21st-century works.

The festival was born from a suggestion by Peter Pears and set out to provide a focus of cultural events in East Anglia. It also secured an outlet for productions by the English Opera Group, which Britten and Pears helped to found. Britten and Pears were named as artistic directors in ...

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Founded in 1981 by New York-based composer, theorist, bassoonist, and author Johnny Reinhard (b 1956), the American Festival of Microtonal Music, otherwise referred to as AFMM (http://www.afmm.org) provides an international forum for composers, theorists, and performers whose work is concerned with just intonation and microtonality. Originally founded as an outlet for Reinhard’s in-depth studies in microtonality, the AFMM has gone on to produce an ongoing concert series that presents a vast array of music from contemporary composers. Programming has broadened to include works of composers such as Partch, Cage, Varèse, and Charles Ives. The AFMM also presents works of J.S. Bach, Andreas Werckmeister and others performed in historical tunings and temperaments. The AFMM has produced many significant and successful premieres including a realization of Ives’s Universe Symphony (1996). Their concerts have featured solo and chamber works, including the loosely connected American Festival of Microtonal Music ensemble. The AFMM has archived these concerts since around ...

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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (See Pleasure garden.) Another important part of early amusement park soundscapes was the mechanical organ, which was used by street performers as early as the 18th century and was frequently built into carousel rides by the end of the 19th century. Over the course of the 19th century, the popularity of amusement parks skyrocketed, especially in the United States, where large tracts of land were available for development. Bandstands and pavilions devoted explicitly to musical performances were common in the 19th century, in part influenced by the popular World’s Fairs, which were industrial and cultural expositions that featured specific stages devoted to performers from around the world. A change came with the ...

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