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Sven Hansell and Robert L. Kendrick

(b Milan, Oct 17, 1720; d Milan, Jan 19, 1795). Italian composer. As a girl she performed in her home while her elder sister Maria Gaetana (1718–99; she became a distinguished mathematician) lectured and debated in Latin. Charles de Brosses, who heard them on 16 July 1739 and was highly impressed, reported that Maria Teresa performed harpsichord pieces by Rameau and sang and played compositions of her own invention. Her first cantata, Il restauro d’Arcadia, was written in honour of the Austrian govenor Gian-Luca Pallavicini in Milan in 1747. In the following years, she sent La Sofonisba to Vienna for possible performance on Empress Maria Theresa’s nameday. At about this time she dedicated collections of her arias and instrumental pieces to the rulers of Saxony and Austria; according to Simonetti the Empress Maria Theresa sang arias that Agnesi had given her. She married Pier Antonio Pinottini on ...


Edward H. Tarr

(b Weissenfels, June 15, 1734; d Bitterfeld, May 14, 1801). German trumpeter, organist and teacher. Son of Johann Caspar Altenburg, he was sworn into apprenticeship by his father at two years of age and was released from his articles as a trumpeter 16 years later. Because of the decline of Baroque social order, however, he was never able to find a position as a trumpeter. He became a secretary to a friend of his father's, a royal Polish stablemaster, then studied the organ and composition with Johann Theodor Römhild in Merseburg until 1757 and (briefly) with Bach's son-in-law, Johann Christoph Altnickol, in Naumburg. In 1757 he joined the French army as a field trumpeter and participated in the Seven Years War, then travelled to various German states, returning to Weissenfels in 1766. In 1767 he found a position as an organist in Landsberg, and in 1769 in the then small village of Bitterfeld. He auditioned unsuccessfully for better positions and died embittered and impoverished....



Roger J.V. Cotte

[Atis; first name unknown]

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...


Philip H. Peter

[Christopher Frederick]

(b c1729; d London, Aug 3, 1798). English bassoonist and teacher, probably of German birth. He was in England at least as early as 1750, when he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians. In 1754 and 1758 he took part in the Foundling Hospital performances of Messiah. He played at the Three Choirs festivals in Gloucester in 1763, Worcester in 1764 and Hereford in 1765 and was among the four principal bassoonists at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in 1784 and in subsequent years; he was also bassoonist at the King’s Theatre between 1760 and 1785. He appeared in concert at the Pantheon as late as 1790–91. Baumgarten’s name occurs for the last time in the membership book of the Royal Society of Musicians in 1792, after which he retired to Hampstead. The fourth of his 12 children, Charlotte, was the mother of Cipriani Potter; there is no evidence that he was related to Karl Friedrich Baumgarten....


[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...


Elizabeth Keitel

(b Vernon, Eure, March 31, 1722; d after 1779). French violinist, composer and teacher. He was the son of Nicole Picot and Antoine Branche, a dancing-master and possibly the musician who was active in Lyons in 1732. In 1748 Branche dedicated his Première livre de sonates à violon seul et basse (Paris) to his patron, the Marquis de Caraman. The following year he was first violinist at the Comédie-Française, playing with, among others, Piffet, Chartier, Perrin, Sénéchal and Blondeau until his retirement in 1764. He continued to teach the violin until 1779 after which his name no longer appears. He had contemporaries with the same surname: a first violinist in a 1767 concert at Orleans, and a woman who in 1771 published a book of airs and a sonata for harpsichord; it is not clear whether they were related.

Although the accompaniment to Branche’s Concerto à violon principal...



(b Versailles, Feb 5, 1754; d Paris, March 4, 1811). French cellist, teacher and engraver, son of Jean-Baptiste Chrétien. He gained the survivance of his father’s position as a cellist in the chambre du roi in 1760, and after the Revolution was a musician at Napoleon’s court. He had the reputation of a brilliant though expressionless performer. As a teacher of cello and solfège, he was well in advance of his time. He valued a child-like spontaneous invention over the traditional scholastic rudiments, promoted a strictly tempered tuning and was the first to recommend audio-visual methods. His novel vocabulary was undoubtedly misunderstood by his contemporaries, who showed little enthusiasm for his theories. Many of his ideas were expressed in his posthumously published La musique étudiée comme science naturelle, certaine et comme art, ou Grammaire et dictionnaire musical (Paris, 1811). He was also a skilful engraver of music and portraits, and invented the ...


Alan Tyson and Leon Plantinga

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and teacher, music publisher and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

Leon Plantinga

The oldest of seven children of Nicolo Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena, née Kaiser, Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90) and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


William Montgomery

(b Joinville, Haute-Marne, Jan 31, 1759; d Paris, Sept 5, 1803). French flautist, bassoonist, composer and teacher. He was the seventh of eight children born to Pierre Devienne and his second wife Marie Petit. Two obituaries published in 1803, which have since been proved apocryphal, claimed that when he was ten he wrote a mass which was performed by the musicians of the Royal Cravate cavalry regiment. He probably received his earliest training from the organist Morizot in Joinville, and continued his education with his elder brother and godfather, François Memmie, in Deux Ponts (now Zweibrücken) from 1776 to 1778. He left Deux Ponts on 15 May 1778 and may have spent some time with the Royal Cravate regiment during the following year. He joined the Paris Opéra orchestra as last chair bassoonist in autumn 1779 for one season, and studied the flute with the orchestra's principal flautist, Félix Rault. It is likely that Devienne entered the service of Cardinal de Rohan as a chamber musician in spring ...


(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than 1770 he settled in Prague, where he became very influential as a music teacher and pianist. The most outstanding of his pupils were Leopold Kozeluch, Jan Vitásek and Vincenc Mašek. As a composer he appears to have had some connection with the orchestras of Count Pachta and Count Clam-Gallas. Dušek's house was an important centre of Prague musical life and was visited by many musicians from abroad. He and his wife Josefa were probably among those who invited Mozart to witness the Prague success of Le nozze di Figaro...


Ruth M. Wilson

revised by Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Eschwege, Germany, Nov 24, 1757; d Charleston, SC, Nov 10, 1833). Organist, pianist, composer, and teacher of German birth. He came to the United States as a musician with Hessian troops. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Richmond, Virginia, where he probably was organist at St. John’s Episcopal Church. He moved to Charleston in 1786 as clerk, organist, and schoolmaster of St. John’s Lutheran Church, then in 1809 became organist of St. Michael’s Episcopal Church, a post he held until his death. His son Jacob Eckhard Jr. later succeeded him at St. John’s; when he died in 1833, he was succeeded in turn by another son, George Eckhard, formerly organist of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church. Eckhard also directed the anniversary music at the Charleston Orphan House from the institution’s inception in 1790 until relinquishing that duty to his sons in the early 19th century.

In addition, Eckhard performed as a pianist in sonatas, concerti, and chamber works at a number of concerts in Charleston over a span of four decades. He also appeared in concert as a vocalist, violist, and conductor. Eckhard led the performance of a “grand overture” by Ludwig van Beethoven on ...


Richard Jackson

(b Paris, France, 1781; d New York, NY, Jan 17, 1859). American pianist, teacher, and conductor. He was a student of François-Adrien Boieldieu and Charles-Simon Catel and recipient of the first prize in both piano and accompaniment at the Paris Conservatoire in 1800 before immigrating to the United States in 1814 or 1815. He probably performed and taught in various American cities, and in September 1816 was in Boston, where he published a piece for piano, Battle of New Orleans, before settling in New York. He is mentioned from 1818 until 1835 in directories of New York, where he maintained a leading position in the musical community. In 1824 he was chosen to be the permanent conductor of the newly founded Philharmonic Society; he also played the piano in the orchestra of the first Italian opera season in New York (which began on 29 November 1825) and conducted Weber’s ...


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Brussels, Belgium, April 8, 1756; d United States, c1820). American flemish violinist, composer, and pedagogue active in England and the United States. After touring France and Germany he was from about 1780 a violin virtuoso in London, where he published two instrumental instruction books; a theoretical treatise on harmony, counterpoint, and figured bass; various string quartets, trios, and duos; and theatrical pieces for the Royal Circus and the Royal Grove (1787, 1789). He apparently played in the orchestra organized by Johann Peter Salomon for Joseph Haydn’s visit in 1791. The following year Gehot and his companions James Hewitt, B. Bergman, William Young, and Phillips immigrated to the United States, where they advertised themselves as “professors of music from the opera house, Hanoversquare, and Professional concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, etc. London.” Their first benefit concert in New York (21 September 1792...


Philippe Vendrix

(b Brussels, April 8, 1756; d USA, after 1795). Flemish violinist, composer and teacher, active in England and the USA. At the age of 11 he was presented to Prince Charles of Lorraine, then staying in Brussels. He was entrusted to the care of Pierre van Maldere, whose early death did not, however, interrupt his apprenticeship; he continued to be supported by Charles of Lorraine until 1780. Gehot seems to have had the job of helping to organize the soirées held at Mariemont, the governor's hunting lodge. According to Fétis, he soon began doing concert tours in Germany and France. The only evidence of his success is the interest taken by publishers in his early works, some of which were printed by more than one publisher. His early tours in England in 1780 were also successful. Gehot seems to have benefited from the protection of the Duke of Pembroke, to whom he dedicated the London edition of his early works. As his reputation grew his works were published in Berlin, as well as London, and his theoretical and practical treatises on the violin, harmony, counterpoint and figured bass were also published....


(b Sedlec, nr Sedlčany, Dec 3, 1758; d Vienna, April 13, 1825). Czech composer, pianist and piano teacher. He studied music at Sedlec and at the Jesuit college at Svatá Hora, near Příbram. At Prague, where he attended the university, he studied the organ and composition with J.N. Seger, whom he also assisted as organist. In 1783 he entered the Prague general seminary, and in 1786 was ordained priest. According to Dlabač, Gelinek met Mozart during the latter’s visit to Prague in 1787, and after successfully improvising on a theme by Mozart in the composer’s presence at the house of Count Philipp Kinsky, he was recommended by Mozart to the count. (This episode is not documented in the Mozart literature.) Gelinek went with Kinsky to Vienna (probably as early as 1789 but not later than 1792), where for about 15 years he was a domestic chaplain, piano teacher and tutor for the Kinsky family. He spent the rest of his life as a domestic chaplain to Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy....


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b ?England, 1770; d Philadelphia, PA, Sept 16, 1826). American violinist, conductor, music teacher, and composer. He was active in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York from 1793 to 1826. He is said to have played at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in 1784 and was advertised in Philadelphia as “the celebrated violinist from London.” In 1793 he was brought over from England by Thomas Wignell and Alexander Reinagle to lead the orchestra at the Chestnut Street Theater, which they founded and operated. He performed frequently in concerts with Benjamin Carr, Rayner Taylor, and Reinagle, sometimes appearing as “leader of the band,” while Reinagle was listed as “conductor”; his repertory included concertos and duets, which he usually performed with the cellist Menel. In 1814, although still living in Philadelphia, Gillingham appeared at Vauxhall Gardens in New York, and in 1816 he conducted a performance of Messiah with the New York Handel and Haydn Society. By ...


Helmut Kallmann

[Johann Friedrich Conrad; Frédéric]

(b Hanover, Aug 10, 1759; d Quebec, 12/Jan 13, 1836). Canadian musician of German birth. The son of a military band musician, he is reported to have been a violin prodigy. In 1777 he enlisted in one of the Brunswick regiments destined for Canada. Discharged in 1783, he settled in Quebec, where he made a living as instrumentalist, teacher, tuner, repairman, and importer of instruments and sheet music. He was probably the first full-time musician in Canada who left a mark both immediate and lasting. His activities, probably as a director and conductor, enhanced the holding of subscription concerts in Quebec in the 1790s, featuring orchestral and chamber music by J.C. Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Pleyel and others. Many of the printed parts assumed to have been supplied by Glackemeyer are still preserved. Prince Edward (later Duke of Kent), in Quebec 1791–4, is said to have appointed him a regimental bandmaster....


(b Bohemia, 1710/11; d Dresden, March 30, 1771). Bohemian horn player, teacher, inventor and composer. He was appointed second horn of the Dresden Hofkapelle in 1737 and continued in that capacity until about 1768, being paired initially with J.G. Knechtel, later with Carl Haudek. Hampel contributed to the development of both the instrument and its technique, and his innovations were widely imitated. He extended the horn's range downwards by developing the middle and low registers. During his tenure at Dresden, second horn parts became more independent of first parts and a new idiomatic second horn style appeared, the latter characterized by rapid arpeggios and wide leaps, sometimes extending down to the second harmonic, with occasional factitious tones in the low register (e.g. e, f and f ). This new style was soon imitated elsewhere, and from it developed a species of second horn player (...


Reginald Morley-Pegge

revised by Horace Fitzpatrick and Thomas Hiebert


(b Dobřiš, Nov 1721; d Dresden, July 25, 1802). Bohemian horn player and teacher. From 1738 to 1744 he studied with Johann Schindelárž [Jan Šindelář], who was principal horn player at Prince Mannsfeld’s court at Prague. Haudek joined Count Kinsky’s orchestra in 1744 and became Konzertmeister to Prince J.A. von Auersperg in 1746. He was appointed third horn player in the Dresden Hofkapelle in 1747, becoming first horn about 1756 (Marpurg), probably succeeding J.G. Knechtel. The second horn player at Dresden was Anton Joseph Hampel, with whom Haudek worked to develop the technique of hand-stopping for playing chromatic scales.

According to Dlabacž, Haudek and Hampel performed the most difficult Duettkonzerte in front of the entire Dresden court. Haudek’s 28 horn Duetts (ed. C. Larkins London, 1994), require a well-developed hand-stopping technique for both horn parts. Dlabacž also mentioned solos, Duettkonzerte and partitas written by Haudek for his many pupils (among whom were Franz Wiesbach and Giovanni Punto). Haudek became ill in ...


Sherwood Dudley

[le jeune]

(b Paris, 1761; d Paris, 18 Sept 1803). French flautist, teacher and composer. A pupil of Atys, he played frequently at the Concert Spirituel in the 1780s, establishing a reputation as a brilliant performer. Throughout the 1790s he played first flute in the celebrated orchestra of the Théâtre-Italien (Théâtre Feydeau). He joined the National Guard band in 1793, and became a flute teacher at the Paris Conservatoire on its establishment in 1795. He died before finishing the Conservatoire’s official method, which his colleague J.-G. Wunderlich later completed. Hugot’s concertos are not as virtuoso or as well crafted as those of his more famous contemporary, François Devienne. The sonatas, while less technically demanding than the concertos, rise to greater refinement in the typical galant style.

all works published, in Paris and/or Leipzig, mostly with no date