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Sven Hansell and Robert L. Kendrick

(b Milan, Oct 17, 1720; d Milan, Jan 19, 1795). Italian composer. As a girl she performed in her home while her elder sister Maria Gaetana (1718–99; she became a distinguished mathematician) lectured and debated in Latin. Charles de Brosses, who heard them on 16 July 1739 and was highly impressed, reported that Maria Teresa performed harpsichord pieces by Rameau and sang and played compositions of her own invention. Her first cantata, Il restauro d’Arcadia, was written in honour of the Austrian govenor Gian-Luca Pallavicini in Milan in 1747. In the following years, she sent La Sofonisba to Vienna for possible performance on Empress Maria Theresa’s nameday. At about this time she dedicated collections of her arias and instrumental pieces to the rulers of Saxony and Austria; according to Simonetti the Empress Maria Theresa sang arias that Agnesi had given her. She married Pier Antonio Pinottini on ...


E. Eugene Helm

revised by Darrell Berg

(b Dobitschen, Saxe-Altenburg, Jan 4, 1720; d Berlin, Dec 2, 1774). German musicographer, composer, organist, singing master and conductor. His father occupied an important post as government agent and jurist in Dobitschen. Burney, who visited the Agricolas in 1772, reported that Johann Friedrich’s mother, born Maria Magdalena Manke, ‘was a near relation of the late Mr Handel, and in correspondence with him till the time of his death’; but later Handel research has failed to substantiate this claim.

Agricola began his study of music as a young child. In 1738 he entered the University of Leipzig, where he studied law; during this time he was a pupil of J.S. Bach and visited Dresden, where he heard performances of Passion oratorios and Easter music by Hasse. In 1741 he moved to Berlin, became a pupil of Quantz, made the acquaintance of C.P.E. Bach, C.H. Graun and other musicians, and embarked on a career that touched many aspects of Berlin’s musical life. He became keenly interested in music criticism and theoretical speculation in Berlin, and his work as a musicographer has proved to be his most lasting accomplishment. In ...



Roger J.V. Cotte

[Atis; first name unknown]

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...


[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...


Elizabeth Keitel

(b Vernon, Eure, March 31, 1722; d after 1779). French violinist, composer and teacher. He was the son of Nicole Picot and Antoine Branche, a dancing-master and possibly the musician who was active in Lyons in 1732. In 1748 Branche dedicated his Première livre de sonates à violon seul et basse (Paris) to his patron, the Marquis de Caraman. The following year he was first violinist at the Comédie-Française, playing with, among others, Piffet, Chartier, Perrin, Sénéchal and Blondeau until his retirement in 1764. He continued to teach the violin until 1779 after which his name no longer appears. He had contemporaries with the same surname: a first violinist in a 1767 concert at Orleans, and a woman who in 1771 published a book of airs and a sonata for harpsichord; it is not clear whether they were related.

Although the accompaniment to Branche’s Concerto à violon principal...


Alan Tyson and Leon Plantinga

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and teacher, music publisher and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

Leon Plantinga

The oldest of seven children of Nicolo Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena, née Kaiser, Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90) and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


Sven Hansell

revised by Kay Lipton

(b Venice, c1730; d Venice, after 1794). Italian singer, teacher, and composer. DeMezzo specialized in serious operatic roles and sang sacred music. Although described as both a baritone and a tenor in contemporary writings, he was often classified as a tenor, singing roles that exploited his ability to execute coloratura passages. Some of his roles were also notated in tenor clef instead of bass clef. In Pampani’s Astianatte (Venice, 1755) he is labelled a baritone, but by the late 1750s and early 60s he is referred to as a tenor (in Traetta’s Ippolito ed Aricia in 1759, in Piccinni’s Tigrane and Christian Bach’s Artaserse in 1761, and in Guglielmi’s L’Olimpiade in 1763). Heartz described him as ‘a fine singer whose baritone had a tenor extension’. This vocal profile was not unusual. During the 1740s and 50s a new type of tenor emerged, one whose vocal and dramatic profile was expanded; very often high baritones became tenors, and with this came an ability to sing coloratura passages and sustain a higher tessitura. There were a number of male opera singers who sang both tenor and high baritone roles, as commonly required in comic operas during the second half of the 18th century. Other well known ...


(b mid-18th century; d Paris, 1815). French composer, dancer and teacher. He first acquired fame as a dancer. He danced at least once at the Comédie-Française in 1762 and was ballet-master there by 1764; he was an adjoint at the Opéra in 1774. In 1777 he made his début as a composer at the Concert Spirituel, and during the following ten years his compositions were performed there 25 times – the fourth-largest number of presentations of works by a native composer in that period. He was dismayed by the foreign domination of French musical life and, in response to an unfavourable review of his oratorio Les Macchabées (1780), wrote ‘It is unfortunate for a French musician to have been born in his own country’. He was master of dance at the Ecole Royale de Chant from its establishment in 1784 and made his début as an opera composer the following year with ...


William Montgomery

(b Joinville, Haute-Marne, Jan 31, 1759; d Paris, Sept 5, 1803). French flautist, bassoonist, composer and teacher. He was the seventh of eight children born to Pierre Devienne and his second wife Marie Petit. Two obituaries published in 1803, which have since been proved apocryphal, claimed that when he was ten he wrote a mass which was performed by the musicians of the Royal Cravate cavalry regiment. He probably received his earliest training from the organist Morizot in Joinville, and continued his education with his elder brother and godfather, François Memmie, in Deux Ponts (now Zweibrücken) from 1776 to 1778. He left Deux Ponts on 15 May 1778 and may have spent some time with the Royal Cravate regiment during the following year. He joined the Paris Opéra orchestra as last chair bassoonist in autumn 1779 for one season, and studied the flute with the orchestra's principal flautist, Félix Rault. It is likely that Devienne entered the service of Cardinal de Rohan as a chamber musician in spring ...


(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than 1770 he settled in Prague, where he became very influential as a music teacher and pianist. The most outstanding of his pupils were Leopold Kozeluch, Jan Vitásek and Vincenc Mašek. As a composer he appears to have had some connection with the orchestras of Count Pachta and Count Clam-Gallas. Dušek's house was an important centre of Prague musical life and was visited by many musicians from abroad. He and his wife Josefa were probably among those who invited Mozart to witness the Prague success of Le nozze di Figaro...


Ruth M. Wilson

revised by Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Eschwege, Germany, Nov 24, 1757; d Charleston, SC, Nov 10, 1833). Organist, pianist, composer, and teacher of German birth. He came to the United States as a musician with Hessian troops. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Richmond, Virginia, where he probably was organist at St. John’s Episcopal Church. He moved to Charleston in 1786 as clerk, organist, and schoolmaster of St. John’s Lutheran Church, then in 1809 became organist of St. Michael’s Episcopal Church, a post he held until his death. His son Jacob Eckhard Jr. later succeeded him at St. John’s; when he died in 1833, he was succeeded in turn by another son, George Eckhard, formerly organist of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church. Eckhard also directed the anniversary music at the Charleston Orphan House from the institution’s inception in 1790 until relinquishing that duty to his sons in the early 19th century.

In addition, Eckhard performed as a pianist in sonatas, concerti, and chamber works at a number of concerts in Charleston over a span of four decades. He also appeared in concert as a vocalist, violist, and conductor. Eckhard led the performance of a “grand overture” by Ludwig van Beethoven on ...


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Brussels, Belgium, April 8, 1756; d United States, c1820). American flemish violinist, composer, and pedagogue active in England and the United States. After touring France and Germany he was from about 1780 a violin virtuoso in London, where he published two instrumental instruction books; a theoretical treatise on harmony, counterpoint, and figured bass; various string quartets, trios, and duos; and theatrical pieces for the Royal Circus and the Royal Grove (1787, 1789). He apparently played in the orchestra organized by Johann Peter Salomon for Joseph Haydn’s visit in 1791. The following year Gehot and his companions James Hewitt, B. Bergman, William Young, and Phillips immigrated to the United States, where they advertised themselves as “professors of music from the opera house, Hanoversquare, and Professional concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, etc. London.” Their first benefit concert in New York (21 September 1792...


Philippe Vendrix

(b Brussels, April 8, 1756; d USA, after 1795). Flemish violinist, composer and teacher, active in England and the USA. At the age of 11 he was presented to Prince Charles of Lorraine, then staying in Brussels. He was entrusted to the care of Pierre van Maldere, whose early death did not, however, interrupt his apprenticeship; he continued to be supported by Charles of Lorraine until 1780. Gehot seems to have had the job of helping to organize the soirées held at Mariemont, the governor's hunting lodge. According to Fétis, he soon began doing concert tours in Germany and France. The only evidence of his success is the interest taken by publishers in his early works, some of which were printed by more than one publisher. His early tours in England in 1780 were also successful. Gehot seems to have benefited from the protection of the Duke of Pembroke, to whom he dedicated the London edition of his early works. As his reputation grew his works were published in Berlin, as well as London, and his theoretical and practical treatises on the violin, harmony, counterpoint and figured bass were also published....


(b Sedlec, nr Sedlčany, Dec 3, 1758; d Vienna, April 13, 1825). Czech composer, pianist and piano teacher. He studied music at Sedlec and at the Jesuit college at Svatá Hora, near Příbram. At Prague, where he attended the university, he studied the organ and composition with J.N. Seger, whom he also assisted as organist. In 1783 he entered the Prague general seminary, and in 1786 was ordained priest. According to Dlabač, Gelinek met Mozart during the latter’s visit to Prague in 1787, and after successfully improvising on a theme by Mozart in the composer’s presence at the house of Count Philipp Kinsky, he was recommended by Mozart to the count. (This episode is not documented in the Mozart literature.) Gelinek went with Kinsky to Vienna (probably as early as 1789 but not later than 1792), where for about 15 years he was a domestic chaplain, piano teacher and tutor for the Kinsky family. He spent the rest of his life as a domestic chaplain to Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy....


Anne Dhu McLucas

(b ?England, 1770; d Philadelphia, PA, Sept 16, 1826). American violinist, conductor, music teacher, and composer. He was active in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York from 1793 to 1826. He is said to have played at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in 1784 and was advertised in Philadelphia as “the celebrated violinist from London.” In 1793 he was brought over from England by Thomas Wignell and Alexander Reinagle to lead the orchestra at the Chestnut Street Theater, which they founded and operated. He performed frequently in concerts with Benjamin Carr, Rayner Taylor, and Reinagle, sometimes appearing as “leader of the band,” while Reinagle was listed as “conductor”; his repertory included concertos and duets, which he usually performed with the cellist Menel. In 1814, although still living in Philadelphia, Gillingham appeared at Vauxhall Gardens in New York, and in 1816 he conducted a performance of Messiah with the New York Handel and Haydn Society. By ...


Ludwig Finscher

revised by Giacomo Fornari

(b Livorno, c1760; d Florence, after 1818). Italian composer and conductor. He studied in Florence with Pietro Nardini (violin) and Bartolomeo Felici (counterpoint), and from 1783 to 1798 led the orchestra at the Teatro degli Intrepidi there. He also lectured in music and declamation at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, where one of his pupils was the composer Ferdinando Giorgetti. He was apparently based in Florence for the rest of his life.

Giuliani is one of the few lesser Italian masters of the late 18th century who was able to make a living as an instrumental composer in his own country and was not forced either to travel elsewhere or to compose church and theatre music, although he did write a two-act intermezzo and three ballets. The principal characteristics of his instrumental music are, on the one hand, a marked influence from Haydn and, on the other – at least as far as his solo concertos are concerned – excessive Classical rigour, on the model of Nardini’s works, from which Giuliani was only occasionally able to free himself....


(b Bohemia, 1710/11; d Dresden, March 30, 1771). Bohemian horn player, teacher, inventor and composer. He was appointed second horn of the Dresden Hofkapelle in 1737 and continued in that capacity until about 1768, being paired initially with J.G. Knechtel, later with Carl Haudek. Hampel contributed to the development of both the instrument and its technique, and his innovations were widely imitated. He extended the horn's range downwards by developing the middle and low registers. During his tenure at Dresden, second horn parts became more independent of first parts and a new idiomatic second horn style appeared, the latter characterized by rapid arpeggios and wide leaps, sometimes extending down to the second harmonic, with occasional factitious tones in the low register (e.g. e, f and f ). This new style was soon imitated elsewhere, and from it developed a species of second horn player (...


Sherwood Dudley

[le jeune]

(b Paris, 1761; d Paris, 18 Sept 1803). French flautist, teacher and composer. A pupil of Atys, he played frequently at the Concert Spirituel in the 1780s, establishing a reputation as a brilliant performer. Throughout the 1790s he played first flute in the celebrated orchestra of the Théâtre-Italien (Théâtre Feydeau). He joined the National Guard band in 1793, and became a flute teacher at the Paris Conservatoire on its establishment in 1795. He died before finishing the Conservatoire’s official method, which his colleague J.-G. Wunderlich later completed. Hugot’s concertos are not as virtuoso or as well crafted as those of his more famous contemporary, François Devienne. The sonatas, while less technically demanding than the concertos, rise to greater refinement in the typical galant style.

all works published, in Paris and/or Leipzig, mostly with no date


Richard Crawford

(b Windham, CT, Nov 17, 1771; d St. Louis, MO, July 29, 1838). American composer, singer, and singing master. Although it is unknown at what schools he taught before 1808, Huntington is said to have been a singing master for all his working life, which was spent until about 1804 in and around his hometown, and thereafter in Troy, New York (1806), Northampton, Massachusetts (1807–11), Boston (1812–29), and St. Louis. On 10 May 1808 he advertised in Northampton, Massachusetts: “Musical Instruments. For sale, and instructions given by J. Huntington”; in 1818 and 1820 he advertised both singing-schools and flute lessons in Boston. His tunebook The Apollo Harmony (Northampton, MA, 1807) contained instructions for “Violincello, and German Flute.”

Huntington’s career as a compiler illustrates the shift in taste that took place in New England between 1790 and 1820. The Albany Collection (...


[Jan Antonín, Ioannes Antonius]

(b Velvary, June 26, 1747; d Vienna, May 7, 1818). Bohemian composer, pianist, music teacher and publisher. He was baptized Jan Antonín, but began (not later than 1773) to use the name Leopold to differentiate himself from his older cousin of that name. He received his basic music education in Velvary and then studied music in Prague with his cousin, who probably gave him a thorough grounding in counterpoint and vocal writing, and with F.X. Dušek, whose piano and composition school prepared him mainly for writing symphonies and piano sonatas. After the success of his first ballets and pantomimes (performed in Prague, 1771–8), Kozeluch abandoned his law studies for a career as a musician. In 1778 he went to Vienna, where he quickly made a reputation as an excellent pianist, teacher and composer. By 1781 he was so well established there that he could refuse an offer to succeed Mozart as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. By ...