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Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...

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Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...

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Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

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Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....

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Nicholas Tawa

(William )

(b Salem, MA, March 5, 1853; d Boston, MA, April 8, 1937). American composer, pianist, organist, and music theorist. Arthur Foote was the first noted American composer of art music to receive his musical education entirely in the United States. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His father was editor of the Salem Gazette. His mother died while he was still a child, and an older sister, Mary Wilder (Foote) Tiletson, saw to his upbringing. An older brother, Henry Wilder Foote, was a noted Unitarian minister. Arthur began piano lessons with a local teacher, fanny Paine, at the age of twelve. Two years later, he started studying theory with stephen albert Emery at the New England Conservatory. In 1870 he enrolled at Harvard, with john knowles Paine as his teacher in music composition. He intended to study law and was not yet bent toward a musical vocation. After graduation he took keyboard lessons with ...

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Douglas A. Lee

(Clopton)

(b Macon, GA, Feb 3, 1842; d Lynn, NC, Sept 7, 1881). American poet, writer, flautist and composer. Descended from a family of musicians associated with the English court of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, he became proficient on many instruments as a child, later proclaiming himself self-taught in most musical matters. He graduated from Oglethorpe University in 1860, served in the Confederate Army and then spent several years in business ventures, but ultimately resolved to devote his time and energy to literary and musical pursuits.

Lanier is best known for his sensitive poetry, much of which has been set to music, but he also produced significant books and scholarly essays on music, a translation of Wagner’s Das Rheingold and a libretto for Dudley Buck’s cantata The Centennial Meditation of Columbia (1876), and lectured on music and literature at Johns Hopkins University. As a flautist he was known particularly for his facile technique and skill in sight-reading; his appointment to the Peabody Orchestra in Baltimore, as well as brief visits to New York, introduced him to the repertory and the progressive musical thought of the late 19th century. His compositions are generated more by idiomatic instrumental qualities than by a mature grasp of musical composition....

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Martina Bratić

(b Kuče, Croatia, March 31, 1889; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 16, 1972). Croatian composer, organist, music theorist, and educator. He finished his education in 1909 at the music school of the Croatian Music Institute in Zagreb, where he acquired compositional and theoretical knowledge in music and developed his organ playing skills; he also simultaneously finished teacher-training school. From 1918 to 1927 Lučić was a district prefect of Turopolje County, where he initiated significant cultural and educational progress. He became an organ professor and taught counterpoint at the Zagreb Music Academy (1921–61) and was appointed a dean (1944–5; 1952–61). On his initiative a private music school, called Polyhymnia, was founded in Zagreb and Lučić was named its head principal (1932–41). He occasionally played the organ at the Zagreb Cathedral. Lučić’s oeuvre comprises orchestral pieces, chamber and vocal music, sacred works, and pedagogical instrumental exercises, but his most notable contribution as a composer lies in his organ music, where he presented his mastery of the laws of counterpoint, composing many fugues, fantasias, preludes, and the like. Lučić is also considered to be one of the first Croatian composers (together with Dora Pejačević) to create larger symphonies in a modern sense (Symphony in f-minor, ...

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Laura Otilia Vasiliu

[ Karol ]

( b Chernivtsi, [now in Ukraine], Oct 20, 1819; d Lviv, Ukraine, May 21, 1897). Armenian-Polish-Romanian pianist, composer, folklorist, and teacher .

He studied the piano in Paris with Frédéric Chopin and composition with Anton Reicha (1844–7). He toured as a concert pianist in Austria, France, Italy, and Russia. He was a professor at and head of the Lviv Conservatory from 1858 to 1888. He then founded his own school. Among his students were the Romanians Ciprian Porumbescu, Paul Ciuntu, and Constantin Gros, but also the musician pianists of Lviv that would be his disciples—Raoul Koczalski, Moriz Rosenthal, and Aleksander Michałowski. He collected, notated, and processed Romanian and Polish folk songs (1848–54). He published a 17-volume critical edition of Chopin’s work (Leipzig, 1879). He used several verified sources, most of which were written or corrected by Chopin himself. His editions of Chopin’s works were first published in America in ...

Article

Jean Mongrédien

revised by Katharine Ellis

( b Paris, Oct 4, 1772; d Laon, May 26, 1832). French music historian, composer, singer and double bass player . He sang in the parish church choir of St Jacques-de-la-Boucherie in Paris, taking music lessons from the choirmaster, the Abbé d’Haudimont. He sang in the chorus of the Opéra from 1792 until 1799, then played the double bass in the Opéra orchestra until 1816. He was appointed professor of harmony at the Conservatoire in 1813, having worked as Catel’s assistant from 1811. In 1815 he was entrusted with the administration of the Conservatoire, serving as inspector general from 1816 to 1822 and succeeding the Abbé Roze as librarian in 1819. He also played the double bass in the orchestra of the Tuileries chapel from its reopening in 1802. He retired in 1822 to the département of Aisne, where he continued private studies until his death.

Perne is best known for his writings on the history of music. He took an early interest in both Greek and medieval music and, as a tireless researcher, brought together an impressive number of documents. In an age in which composers and theorists alike tackled their problems uncritically and were indiscriminate in repeating or commenting on the opinions of others, Perne insisted on going back to the ancient and medieval texts and studying them in their original languages. He lacked the time – and perhaps the talent – needed to put them into proper form and to construct informed theories from them. He took a particular interest in the problems of the notation of Greek music and read a paper on this subject at the Institut de France in ...

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[Smyth]

(b North Cheam, Surrey, Jan 5, 1823; d London, July 2, 1895). English music historian, composer, teacher and pianist. Baptized at Morden church in the name of Rackstraw, he used an older form of his surname from 1846. His first teacher was the blind organist John Purkis and he received tuition in composition and piano from William Sterndale Bennett. His earliest work to be performed in public was the song Soon shall chilling fear assail thee, sung by Joseph Staudigl at Franz Cramer's farewell concert in London on 27 June 1844. From 20 May 1845 to 24 June 1846 he studied at the Leipzig Conservatory with Mendelssohn (composition and piano), Moritz Hauptmann (theory) and Louis Plaidy (piano).

On his return to London Rockstro gave lessons in piano and singing, and was the regular accompanist at the Wednesday Concerts. In the early 1860s he moved to Torquay and in ...

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Christina Bashford

(Kensington)

(b London, March 3, 1814; d London, June 23, 1901). English pianist, composer and scholar. His ancestors were of German-Dutch origin. After piano lessons from his mother and S.F. Rimbault, he studied at the RAM, 1824–6, and subsequently with Charles Neate, who became a lifelong friend. In 1828–9 he received lessons from Henri Herz in Paris. He gave annual concerts in London, 1833–7, performed in the Concerti da Camera (the first West End chamber music concerts) in 1835 and held Classical Chamber Concerts at his own home in 1844. He was also active as a composer: in 1830 he was commissioned to write an ode for the Shakespeare commemoration in Stratford-upon-Avon (the work was also performed in London), and in the late 1830s his first sets of songs were published. In 1838 and 1840 Salaman performed in Salzburg, Vienna, Munich and other European cities, and from 1846 to 1848...

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Michael Tilmouth

(Francis)

(b Eton, July 17, 1875; d Edinburgh, July 10, 1940). English music scholar, composer and pianist. Son of an Eton master, the Rev. Duncan Crooks Tovey, he was educated, both musically and generally, by Sophie Weisse, who trained him for the career of a pianist. (Later he had advice and help from Deppe, but was never his pupil.) As a schoolboy Tovey already had a vast knowledge of the classical repertory and he had begun to compose at the age of eight. He received instruction in counterpoint from Walter Parratt and subsequently studied with James Higgs and Parry. In June 1894 he was elected Lewis Nettleship scholar at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated in classical honours in 1898, more than satisfying the examiners in philosophy and ethics but making no impression at all in ancient history.

In 1894 began his association on the concert platform with Joachim, with whose quartet he appeared as pianist until ...

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Francisco J. Albo

(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...

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Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....