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Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Berlin, May 30, 1872; d Berlin, Jan 24, 1926). German physician and psychologist. He graduated in medicine at Berlin University in 1894, and thereafter dedicated himself primarily to psychoacoustics and the physiology of music. From 1896 to 1905 he was assistant professor under Carl Stumpf at the Psychological Institute of Berlin University (which in 1905 became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv). In 1900, when Hornbostel joined the staff, Abraham and Stumpf recorded on wax cylinders a visiting Siamese court orchestra – the first German attempt to record non-Western music. Abraham also recorded music from South Africa in the same year. In 1901 he published an article on absolute pitch which later (1906) resulted in a polemic between him and Auerbach. Adopting Stumpf's methods, Abraham and Hornbostel entered into a collaboration which laid the foundation for comparative musicology; he also collaborated with the physiologist and otologist K.L. Schaefer (...

Article

Dezső Legány

(b Szent-György-Ábrány, Oct 15, 1822; d Budapest, Dec 20, 1903). Hungarian writer on music, composer and pianist. He came from the wealthy Eördögh family: the name means ‘devil’ and his father changed it to Ábrányi, the name of their estate. He studied the piano under János Kirch (1810–63) and Vilmos Dolegni. His first composition, Magyar ábránd (‘Hungarian Fantasy’), was published in 1841. In the early 1840s he gave concerts in Hungarian towns, and in 1846 left for Vienna to take piano lessons with Joseph Fischhof. There is no reliable evidence that he was ever a student of Chopin in Paris. From 1847 he lived in Pest, in the 1850s as a piano teacher, and studied composition with Mosonyi, together with whom he became a devoted follower of Liszt and Wagner. He was one of the founders of the first Hungarian music periodical, the Zenészeti lapok, in ...

Article

Julian Budden

(b Verona, Nov 4, 1878; d Milan, Oct 12, 1946). Italian playwright, librettist and journalist . After graduating in law at the University of Padua he devoted himself to literature, first as theatre critic of the Arena (Verona), then as playwright. His first stage work was the one-act comedy I fioi di Goldoni in Venetian dialect; thereafter he proved remarkably successful in a comic-sentimental vein with such plays as Una capanna e il tuo cuore (1913), Capelli bianchi (1915), Felicità Colombo (1935) and its sequel Nonna Felicità (1936). In 1911 he made the acquaintance of Giulio Ricordi, head of the publishing firm, of whom he left a valuable memoir in his Giulio Ricordi e i suoi musicisti (Milan, 1933, 2/1945 as Giulio Ricordi, amico dei musicisti). It was Ricordi who first put him in touch with Puccini, who briefly considered setting his Spanish-derived libretto ...

Article

Jernej Weiss

(b Dobrova, nr Ljubljana, Slovenia; Dec 25, 1877; d Ljubljana, Dec 6, 1936). Slovenian music educator, conductor, and writer on music. Uncle of composer Bojan Adamič. He received his first musical education at the Ljubljana Glasbena Matica society music school, from 1911 to 1912 he studied at the Conservatory in Trieste, and in 1912 he passed the national examination at the Ljubljana Conservatory. During World War I he joined the Austrian Army, and from 1915 to 1920 was a prisoner of war at Tashkent. In 1920 he returned to Ljubljana, where he taught music at the teacher’s college and at the classical gymnasium until his retirement in 1932. From 1925 to 1928 he was conductor of the Orchestral Society at the Glasbena Matica music society, and from January 1928 to December 1929 editor of the Nova muzika (‘New Music’) magazine. He was also active as a music critic and reviewer for the magazines ...

Article

H.C. Colles

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Providence, RI, July 31, 1863; d Rome, June 2, 1937). American critic. He was educated at Harvard University, where he studied music under J.K. Paine, graduating in 1885. In the same year he became music critic to the Providence Journal, after serving his apprenticeship in general journalism. In 1889 he became private secretary to US Senator Dixon, and at the same time held the post of music critic to the Evening Star, Washington. In 1891 he relinquished both posts to join the staff of the New York Tribune, on which paper he held various editorial posts, particularly that of assistant critic to H.E. Krehbiel, until 1902, when he became music editor of the New York Times; he retired in 1923, remaining on the editorial staff in an advisory capacity.

Throughout his career Aldrich was notable for the breadth of his musical knowledge and the soundness of his judgment; in general he was sympathetic to modern music, though vehemently opposed to extreme trends. As one might expect from a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters he was distinguished for the excellence of his style and for the wit and urbanity of his writing. He collected an important library of books on music, which he catalogued during the leisure of his later years; it remained intact in the possession of his heirs until ...

Article

Jocelyne Aubé

(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...

Article

Lennart Hedwall

(b Stockholm, Nov 28, 1793; d Bremen, Sept 26, 1866). Swedish author, pedagogue, journalist, and composer. After an education administered mainly by private tutors, Almqvist attended university in Uppsala and graduated in 1816. He then took a position as a government clerk in Stockholm, where he engaged in youthful and idealistic movements that worshiped Gothic ideals, the early German romanticism, and Swedenborg’s teachings. He was soon the leading spirit in these circles, and with his visionary religiosity he gained almost prophet-like status among them. In an attempt to realize his ideals, from 1823 to 1824 he lived as a farmer in the remote Wermland but soon returned to Stockholm where in 1827 he became a teacher at the Military Academy of Karlberg; he took an additional teaching post in 1829 at the recently founded experimental college Nya Elementarskolan. There he served as headmaster from 1829 to 1841 and wrote a dozen textbooks on different subjects from linguistics to mathematics....

Article

David B. Levy

(b Alsager, Cheshire, Sept 27, 1779; d London, Nov 15, 1846). English music critic and patron. He was proprietor of and writer for The Times, an association formed in 1817 through his friendship with Thomas Barnes. Alsager reported on financial matters and foreign news, but evidence reveals that both he and Barnes wrote most of the articles on theatre and music in The Times before the appointment in 1846, at Alsager's recommendation, of J.W. Davison as the first full-time music critic on a daily newspaper. Alsager was intimate with Charles Lamb, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Leigh Hunt and Keats, while his passion for music led to friendships with many important figures in London musical life, including Mendelssohn, Spohr, Smart, Moscheles and Ayrton (whose son married Alsager's daughter). Several English premières took place at Alsager's residence, most notably that of Beethoven's Missa solemnis on 24 December 1832. Alsager's desire to proselytize for Beethoven's piano sonatas and quartets, especially the late works, led to the establishment of the Queen Square Select Society (...

Article

Philipp Naegele

(b Mauth [now Vysoké Mýto], Nov 17, 1816; d Vienna, June 28, 1876). Austrian music historian and critic. His mother, sister of the musicologist Kiesewetter, fostered his love of music, painting and architecture; the performance of older music in the Kiesewetter home belonged to Ambros’s strongest early impressions. He acquired a musical training, despite his father’s objections, through a keen enthusiasm, an exceptional memory and an unbounded capacity for work. A humanistic Gymnasium education, a doctorate of law completed in 1839 at Prague University and vast reading, with a youthful predilection for Jean Paul, underlay his later scholarship and influenced his prolix style. Robert Schumann was his spiritual and journalistic model, and as ‘Flamin’ he associated with enthusiastic young followers, including Hanslick as ‘Renatus’, in a Bohemian branch of the ‘Davidsbund’ to fight musical conservatism in Prague. He was indebted more to the concepts and methods of art historians and historians of antiquity, of law and of literature, than to such musical colleagues as Kiesewetter or Fétis....

Article

Richard Aldrich

revised by Ora Frishberg Saloman

(b Boston, Oct 24, 1848; d Vevey, Switzerland, Feb 19, 1913). American critic and writer on music. In 1869 he graduated from Harvard College, where he studied music with J.K. Paine. He was the influencial music critic of the Boston Evening Transcript from 1881 to 1903 and also wrote programme annotations for the Boston SO. Apthorp sought to elevate standards of musical appreciation and performance. His criticism consisted essentially of enlightened opinion intended largely for the general public. Apthorp was a modernist who helped to disseminate information about new music and ideas to Americans in the later 19th century. He translated writings by, and wrote a biographical sketch of, Berlioz (New York, 1879/R), and compiled a catalogue of Wagner's published works which appeared in E.L. Burlingame, ed.: Art Life and Theories of Richard Wagner (New York, 1875). He published Musicians and Music Lovers (New York, ...

Article

Barbara Owen

(b Elgin, Scotland, Sept 6, 1838; d Bloomfield, NJ, 21 June, 1925). American organ designer, architect, author and art expert of Scottish birth. After working as an architect in England, he immigrated to New York City in 1892, where he worked for a short time with his brother William in the architectural firm of W. & G. Audsley. His interests were widespread, and he wrote several books on architecture, oriental art, and religious symbolism. One of his major interests, however, was the organ. He consulted on various church organ projects, had an organ in his home built to his own design, and was instrumental in the design of the five-manual organ built in 1904 by the Los Angeles Art Organ Company for Festival Hall at the World’s Fair in St. Louis, upon which the noted French organist Alexandre Guilmant performed 40 recitals. This organ was later purchased by John Wanamaker, and became the foundation of the large organ in Wanamaker’s Philadelphia department store. Audsley was the author of four influential works on organ design: ...

Article

Leanne Langley

(b London, Feb 22, 1777; d London, May 8, 1858). English editor, critic and impresario, youngest son of Edmund Ayrton. He was baptized at St Margaret's, Westminster, and probably studied music with his father. In 1794 he was a bass chorus singer at the Ancient Concerts, and by 1803, when he married Marianne Arnold (daughter of Samuel Arnold), a piano teacher. Through the Chapel Royal connections of his father and father-in-law, and the friendship of Frederick Nicolay (Queen Charlotte's music librarian), he had easy access to court circles. But it was his membership in the Society of Antiquaries (1807) that stimulated his serious interest in music history. In 1808 he began collecting materials for a historical music dictionary (never completed), eventually assembling one of the most remarkable music collections of the mid-19th century. Among his circle of acquaintances around this time, mostly journalists and barristers, Henry Crabb Robinson, Martin Burney (the music historian's grandson), Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt were prominent; T.M. Alsager, the ...

Article

Leanne Langley

(b Norwich, May 1, 1776; d Cossey [now Costessey], Nov 27, 1844). English journalist and writer on music. He was the only son of Richard Bacon (1745–1812), a grocer and printer from Yarmouth who in 1788 became co-proprietor of the weekly Norwich Mercury. R.M. Bacon joined him as manager of the printing department at the age of 18, and by 1804, on his father's retirement, became sole proprietor of the paper, a leading Whig journal with a county-wide circulation. The younger Bacon's musical interests – he had a good baritone voice and studied singing with Samuel Arnold – developed naturally in the convivial atmosphere of late 18th-century Norwich. He participated in cathedral events directed by J.C. Beckwith and vocal concerts given by the Anacreontic Society. He also gained local theatre ties, first through his marriage in 1797 to Louise Noverre (1768–1808), niece of the celebrated dancing-master Jean-Georges Noverre, and then through his share-holding interest in the Theatre Royal, Norwich (...

Article

Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....

Article

Francis Claudon

(b Tours, May 20, 1799; d Paris, Aug 21, 1850). French writer. Music is one of the subjects treated in La comédie humaine, especially in Gambara (1837) and Massimilla Doni (1839); but although the names of musicians abound in the novels (among them Cimarosa, Pergolesi, Bellini, Rossini, Handel, Bach, Mozart and Beethoven) there are many fewer reflections on music, Balzac having acknowledged his lack of musical competence in the preface to Massimilla Doni. Yet music had for him an importance greater than might be supposed, as is evident from his work and his correspondence: to his beloved étrangère he wrote ‘Beethoven is the only man who has made me feel jealousy. There is in that man a divine power’ (Lettres à l’étrangère, 14 November 1837). Clearly not only music but certain individual composers had for Balzac a sovereign importance. In distinguishing the sphere of creative sensibility (for a long time uncertain in Balzac) from the sphere of intelligence and culture, it may be suggested that he was less a man who chanced to discover music than a writer who gradually discovered his true way through music....

Article

John Edwin Henken

(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.

Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...

Article

Leonardo Pinzauti

(b Livorno, Nov 29, 1818; d Florence, Nov 25, 1885). Italian music critic. Brought up in a wealthy Jewish family, he embarked simultaneously on classical and musical studies. He graduated in medicine from Pisa University and studied composition under Pietro Romani, having an opera performed in Florence in 1840 and another in 1847. Both were unsuccessful with the general public, although praised by some connoisseurs. Giving up composition, he soon became a prominent figure in Florentine cultural life as a critic and organizer. He founded and edited the journal L'armonia (1856–9). Through him began the Mattinate Beethoveniane, a series of concerts from which derived the Società del Quartetto di Firenze (1861), whose journal Boccherini (1862–82) he also edited, as well as a cycle of concerts of dramatic music (1865) dedicated to classic Italian opera composers such as Sacchini and Spontini, then largely forgotten. In ...

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Prague, Dec 14, 1868; d Vienna, April 24, 1922). Austrian critic and writer of Czech descent . After graduating in German and musicology at the German University in Prague he worked as an editor (Neue Revue, Kunstwart) and as a music critic (Bohemia, Prager Tagblatt). In 1908 he moved to Vienna, where he continued his activities, editing Der Merker with Richard Specht and writing reviews for the Wiener Fremdenblatt. He also taught history of opera at the academy (1909–14). His publications include Aus der Opernwelt: Prager Kritiken und Skizzen (Munich, 1907) and Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik (Stuttgart, 1909–15). In addition to his writings on music, where he was one of the first German-speaking writers to deal with Czech music, he translated Czech, Italian and French operas into German, and wrote several opera librettos himself.

Der polnische Jude (with V. Léon...

Article

John Warrack

(b Manchester, April 27, 1803; d Vienna, Nov 23, 1848). German critic, composer and teacher. The son of a Hanau merchant who had settled in Manchester, he was taken as a child to Germany. He studied law in Jena, Berlin, Heidelberg and Leiden, taking a doctorate despite his prosecution for ‘demagogic activities’; his first compositions date from this time. Already an ardent revolutionary, in whom Wagner detected ‘a certain wildness and vehemence’ (Mein Leben), he held various posts in rapid succession, including those of lawyer in Elberfeld (c1830), editor of a Cologne commercial newspaper founded by his father, the Handelsblatt (1834), and critic for the Kölner Zeitung and Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. On the failure of the Handelsblatt, he devoted himself entirely to music. After the death of his father and his wife he moved to The Hague to teach theory and aesthetics at the Royal Music School (...

Article

Gustave Ferrari

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Paris, May 24, 1858; d Paris, Oct 4, 1930). French critic. While studying law, he took music and piano lessons from Paladilhe and entered the Paris Conservatoire to study with Marmontel; in 1878 he won a premier prix for piano playing. A few years later he turned to music criticism, to which he devoted the rest of his life; he began in 1884, writing for the Correspondant, and in 1885 succeeded Blaze de Bury as music critic for the influential Revue des deux mondes, for which he wrote until a few months before his death. From 1886 to 1893 he was the editor for Année musicale (from 1892 Année musicale et dramatique). He also contributed numerous articles to all the foremost journals of the time, including Le temps, Le Figaro, Le gaulois and Echo de Paris.

Bellaigue exercised enormous influence through his writings. Thanks to his training as a pianist he was able to pronounce authoritatively on the deficiencies of others; his critical judgments were delivered magisterially, received deferentially. His biggest campaigns were fought in the field of opera, where he condemned the influence of Wagner and championed Italian music (especially Verdi) and French music (though he made a bitter attack on Debussy's ...