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Claudio Annibaldi

( b Rome, March 31, 1571; d Rome, February 10, 1621). Italian ecclesiastic and patron of music . Nephew of Pope Clement VIII, who created him cardinal in 1593, he acquired a leading role in the papal court by negotiating the reversion of the Duchy of Ferrara to the papacy (1598) and a treaty between France and Savoy over the disputed marquisate of Saluzzo (1601). Until his uncle’s death (1605), he was among Rome’s most influential patrons of music and art; among the composers who dedicated publications to him were Palestrina, Monte, Cavalieri and Luzzaschi, and his protégés included both members of the papal chapel (e.g. Felice Anerio, Ruggiero Giovanelli and Girolamo Rosini) and instrumentalists from the disbanded Ferrarese establishment (the Piccinini brothers and Rinaldo Dall’Arpa). Pietro’s influence declined during the pontificate of Paul V; the last great beneficiary of his patronage was Frescobaldi, who dedicated to him the ...


Michael Tilmouth

revised by Simon McVeigh

(b Rushden, Northants., Jan 14, 1644; d London, Sept 27, 1714). English patron of music and amateur musician. He served a seven-year apprenticeship with a London coal dealer and, after returning to Northamptonshire for a while, set up in business in London, where by 1677 he was dealing in small-coal in Aylesbury Street, Clerkenwell. He amassed a large collection of books, from which he acquired a wide knowledge of chemistry, astrology and both theoretical and practical music. In 1678, according to Hawkins, he established with the encouragement of Sir Roger L'Estrange the music meetings which were held every Thursday in a long narrow room over his shop. It was approached by stairs outside the house and was lit by a window ‘no bigger than the bung-hole of a cask’ according to an entertaining account by his neighbour Ned Ward.

Despite their mean surroundings the meetings were attended by such leaders of fashion as the Duchess of Queensberry. The performers included professionals like John Banister (ii) and Philip Hart and, in Britton's later years, Handel, Pepusch (who wrote a trio sonata entitled ‘smalcoal’) and Matthew Dubourg. Britton and L'Estrange played the viola da gamba, and other amateurs included Henry Needler, the poet John Hughes and the painter Woolaston. At first the concerts were free, Britton providing his guests with coffee at a penny a dish; later the visitors apparently paid ten shillings a year each, though the Yorkshire diarist Ralph Thoresby paid nothing when he attended a meeting in ...


(bap. Handsworth, Yorks., Dec 16, 1593; d Welbeck Abbey, Notts., Dec 25, 1676). English poet, playwright and music patron. Christopher Simpson recognized his knowledge of and skill in the science of music and praised him for ‘cherishing and maintaining such as are excellent in it’ (A Compendium of Practical Musick, 1667). The duke's enthusiasm for playing divisions on the bass viol is reflected in his employment of Maurice Webster, from whom he acquired four books of divisions (now lost), and his close friendship with Simpson, who during the early years of the Civil War served under Newcastle's younger son. A 1636 inventory of the duke’s music collection lists important manuscript sources, including the only surviving copy of John Dowland’s funeral psalms for Henry Noel ( GB-NO ) and a set of ‘Fantasies, Almaigns Corantoes, &c.’ by Webster, Stephen Nau and John Adson (now lost), as well as madrigal prints by English and continental composers and Roman Catholic liturgical works by Infantas and Byrd. Newcastle came into close contact with many theatrical composers. Four songs from his comedy ...


Herbert Seifert

( b Vienna, Oct 1, 1685; d Vienna, Oct 20, 1740). Austrian patron, Holy Roman Emperor . The younger son of the Habsburg Emperor Leopold I, he was declared King of Spain in 1703 in opposition to Philip V. Charles had his residence in Barcelona, where he also maintained a musical establishment. Several operas with texts by Pariati and Zeno and music by Caldara, Albinoni, Gasparini and others were performed there, beginning in 1708. He became emperor in 1711 and soon adopted the rich operatic life of his predecessors in Vienna. He engaged Caldara and Gottlieb Muffat, who joined Fux and F.B. Conti whom he had taken over from his brother. From the 1720s they were supported by Giuseppe Porsile, Georg Reutter (ii) and Giuseppe Bonno. Charles was a composer as well as a patron, but none of his works survives. He directed several performances from the harpsichord, including Caldara’s ...


Kaleb J. Koslowski and Caryl Clark

(b Bad Iburg near Osnabrück, 30 Oct 1668; d Hanover, 1 Feb 1705). Princess of Hanover, Electress of Brandenburg, and Queen in Prussia. Musical culture in and around Berlin flourished at the turn of the 18th century as a direct result of her activities as a musical patron, performer, composer, and collector.

Sophie Charlotte was the only daughter of Ernst August of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophie of the Palatinate. She was thrust into a lifestyle of courtly competition from an early age. The court at Osnabrück was relatively obscure, overshadowed by the wealthier and more politically prominent seat at Hanover ruled by her father’s brother, Johann Friedrich. Her mother determined to overcome this by immersing Sophie Charlotte in the arts. As a child she received instruction in singing, courtly dance, and religion, and in French, Italian, English, and Latin. During the 1670s and into the 1680s, the family visited Versailles, Venice, Brussels, and The Hague. These visits included recurring attendance at opera and ballet performances, and provided the foundation for Sophie Charlotte’s cultivation of music as a courtly and sociopolitical tool later at Hanover and Berlin....


(b Hillerød, April 12, 1577; d Copenhagen, Feb 28, 1648). Danish ruler and patron of music. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, Frederik II, in 1588 but ruled under a regency until his coronation in 1596. In the course of his education he revealed a marked interest in the arts, especially architecture and music, both of which enjoyed the advantage of his personal encouragement throughout his long reign, with results that have contributed much to the enduring impression of the period as a golden age in Danish history.

The royal chapel at the time of Christian’s coronation numbered 71 musicians divided into three groups – singers, instrumentalists and trumpeters. Like those of most other European courts in the 16th century, it had been built up by importing its leading musicians from the Netherlands, and just as Christian’s big architectural undertakings – Frederiksborg, Kronborg and Rosenborg palaces, for example – show a continuing Netherlandish influence, so for most of his reign the chapel was under the direction of the Dutch Gregorius Trehou, who played an important role in building up the chapel, and Melchior Borchgrevinck. He was nevertheless anxious to cultivate Danish talent, and he instructed government representatives all over the country to look out for promising talent for his chapel. It is said that whenever possible he himself interviewed and auditioned those who applied to enter his service. In ...


(b Stockholm, Dec 8, 1626; d Rome, April 19, 1689). Swedish ruler and patron of music, active partly in Italy. She was one of the principal 17th-century patrons of arts and learning and for 30 years the leading figure in the cultural life of Rome.

Christina succeeded at the age of six to the throne of her father, Gustavus II Adolphus, hero of the Thirty Years War, who was killed at the Battle of Lützen in 1632. In accordance with his wishes she was given the education of a prince during the chancellorship of Axel Oxenstierna, and by 1644 she had achieved a reputation for intelligence, learning and culture. After the alliance with France in 1635, French culture began to assert itself at the Swedish court, and in 1637 she brought from France the dancing-master Antoine de Beaulieu. In 1646, to provide authentic music for the French ballets that quickly became the rage in Stockholm, she imported six French violinists, among them Pierre Verdier, who at first were established as a separate ensemble independent of the so-called German chapel of Andreas Düben. Other French musicians were brought in, and in ...


Thomas Walker

(b ?Piazzola sul Brenta, nr Padua, Feb 20, 1632; d Padua, ?17 ? May 1689). Italian patron of the arts. He came of a wealthy and noble Venetian family and built two theatres on his estate, Piazzola sul Brenta. There he commissioned and produced a series of operas and other entertainments during the 1670s and 80s, engaging several of Venice's leading composers, notably Carlo Pallavicino and Domenico Freschi. His collection of over 1000 manuscript scores of the period 1639–85 (now in I-Vnm ) is a major surviving musical source of 17th-century Venetian opera. His large collection of musical instruments included a viola da gamba by Gasparo da Salò, chitarroni by Matteo Sellas and Cristoforo Cocho, and a wide variety of wind instruments. It was later acquired by P.A.L. Correr, and much of it is now in the instrument museums of Brussels and of the Paris Conservatoire.

T. Wiel: I codici musicali contariniani del secolo XVII nella R. Biblioteca di San Marco in Venezia...


Josef-Horst Lederer

revised by Andrew H. Weaver

(b Graz, July 13, 1608; d Vienna, April 2, 1657). Austrian emperor, patron of music, and composer. He was the son of Ferdinand II and became King of the Romans in 1636 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1637; he was succeeded by his son Leopold I. Like his father, he was an enthusiastic patron of music; he maintained a large chapel and used music (both sacred and secular) to shape his public image and maintain political power during the disastrous final decade of the Thirty Years’ War. Also like his father, his musical tastes were decidedly Italianate. Most of the musicians in his chapel were Italian, among the most prominent of which were Giovanni Valentini, Antonio Bertali, and Giovanni Felice Sances. Nevertheless, distinguished German composers such as Johann Jacob Froberger and Wolfgang Ebner – the latter a particular favourite – also worked at his court. Ferdinand III played an active part in the preparation of great court festivities, especially stage works of various kinds that were produced with utmost magnificence in Vienna and elsewhere in his Habsburg domains. Several Italian composers wrote operas for Vienna during his reign, and Monteverdi’s eighth book of madrigals (...


Christopher Wilkinson

[now Legnica], Brieg [now Brzeg] and Goldberg

(b Ohlau [now Oława], nr Breslau [now Wrocław], Jan 22, 1595; d Breslau, Jan 14, 1653). German patron, bibliophile, composer and poet. The son of Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Brieg-Liegnitz, he became duke in 1613 at the age of 18. He was educated at the university at Frankfurt an der Oder (Słubice). In his early years he was active as composer and poet. He displayed his love of music as early as 1610. The first collection of his music consisted of several partbooks in manuscript, most containing the series of initials GRHZLVB (Georg Rudolph Herzog zu Liegnitz und Brieg), followed by the date 1612. Two of the partbooks, however, conclude thus: ‘1610. 15. Maij … Georgius Rudolphus, Dux Lignicencis et Bregnsis Mannupp/ria’.

On assuming power Georg Rudolph continued the Kapelle at his court, but his interest in music mainly assumed a different form. In the course of a journey throughout Europe, he began collecting books for what was to become known as the Bibliotheca Rudolphina. His first wife, Princess Sophie Elisabeth of Anhalt, whom he married in ...


Anthony Newcomb

(b ?Ferrara, c1570; d Aug 25, 1649). Italian musician and patron of music. In 1600 Artusi described him as ‘a young virtuoso and as great a lover of music as any man I have ever known’. In November 1598 a musical gathering in Goretti's house in Ferrara heard madrigals by Monteverdi and other modern composers, sparking off the Artusi-Monteverdi controversy. Goretti also received dedications from G.B. Buonamente (1636), P.M. Marsolo (1607), Luigi Mazzi (1596) and Filippo Nicoletti (one villanella published in his collection of 1604). The celebrated lutenist Alessandro Piccinini, in the introduction to his tablature of 1623, praised Goretti’s music studio ‘where he keeps not only every sort of instrument both ancient and modern … but also … all the music, old and new, sacred and secular, which it is possible to find’; in 1647 Mersenne noted his viewing of the collection two years before. On Goretti's death, his son Lorenzo sold the collection to Archduke Sigismund of Austria (who had visited Ferrara in ...


Jonathan P. Wainwright

(b Barking, Essex, June 28, 1605; d nr Corby, Northamptonshire, July 4, 1670). English music patron and collector. His family's principal residence was at Kirby Hall, near Corby. His father, also Sir Christopher Hatton (c1570–1619), was a patron of Orlando Gibbons; Gibbons's First Set of Madrigals and Motets (1612) and Hume's Poeticall Musicke (1607) are both dedicated to him. The younger Hatton was Charles I's Comptroller of Household at Oxford during the Civil War and was created 1st Baron Hatton on 29 July 1643. He employed George Jeffreys as steward and appears to have engaged Stephen Bing and John Lilly for specific copying projects. Michael East dedicated his Seventh Set of Bookes (1638) to him. The Hatton music collection still survives ( GB-Och ). Much of the Venetian printed music was bought from the London bookseller Robert Martin; Jeffreys and Bing made manuscript copies, perhaps for performances at the Oxford court (...


Rudolf Schnitzler and Herbert Seifert

(b Vienna, June 9, 1640; d Vienna, May 5, 1705). Austrian composer and patron of music . He was the second son of Emperor Ferdinand III. A member of the house of Habsburg, he received a broad humanistic education under the tutelage of the Jesuit Neidhard to prepare him for intellectual and spiritual pursuits rather than for the succession to the throne. His training included extensive instruction in playing various instruments (notably the harpsichord, violin and recorder) and in composition, probably at the hands of Antonio Bertali and Markus and Wolfgang Ebner, the last of whom kept a collection of his early works, Spartitura compositionum sacrae regiae maiestatis Hungariae, Leopoldi I, composed and copied between 1655 and 1657. When the first son and chosen successor to Ferdinand III died, however, Leopold succeeded to the royal thrones of Hungary (1655) and Bohemia (1656) and on the death of his father was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on ...


Margaret M. McGowan

(b PARIS, Sept 27, 1601; d Paris, May 14, 1643). French ruler, patron of music and composer. He was the son of Henri IV, whom he succeeded in 1610. His doctor recorded that from an early age he took a lively interest in music and dancing; he continually invented new steps and songs and had musicians sing and play for him. This passionate interest, however, did nothing to change radically the nature of music at his court. He maintained the same musical establishment as his father (30 musicians in the royal chapel and the ‘24 violons du roi’) and enjoyed the same kind of airs de cour sung in his bedchamber or in public by leading singers of the day; he wrote one or two himself.

Occasionally more ambitious compositions were attempted: to mark Louis’s triumphant return from Brittany in 1614 Jacques Mauduit organized concerts for massed choirs and instruments; and to enhance the melodramatic effects of the ballet ...


Julie Anne Sadie

(b Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Sept 5, 1638; d Versailles, Sept 1, 1715). French ruler and patron of music. He was the elder son of Louis XIII, who died when he was four, and Anne of Austria, who served as his regent, aided by her first minister, Mazarin, 1643–61. From an early age, he was encouraged by Mazarin to take an interest in Italian music and French dance, which, with the help of his closest minister, Colbert, he learnt to employ to great effect in the interests of state. He inherited a musical establishment from his father that included the 24 Violons du Roi and, as king, expanded and bureaucratized it to unprecedented levels.

Louis XIV learnt dancing from Prévost, Jean Regnault and Beauchamp, and took principal roles in ballets de cour. His association with the image of the Roi Soleil (or ‘Sun King’) was established by Benserade's 1651 Ballet du roy des festes de Bacchus...


Michel Le Moël

(b c1650; d Paris, March 30, 1706). French musical amateur . The son of a Parisian doctor, Mathieu was inducted into the living of Saint-André-des-Arts, Paris, in 1678. In 1685 he commissioned Alexandre Thierry to improve the church organ; the organist was Claude Rachel de Montalan, Molière’s son-in-law. For several years Mathieu presided over weekly concerts which took place in his presbytry in rue du Cimetière-Saint-André (now rue Suger) and were attended by his parishioners, many of whom belonged to the famous families of the parlement. The spacious room on the first floor contained a chamber organ, a harpsichord by Philippe Denis, viols and violins. According to Jean de Serre de Rieux the only vocal music at the concerts was ‘Latin music composed in Italy by the greatest masters since 1650’ (Les dons des enfans de Latone, 1734). Italian composers represented in Mathieu’s 200-item library were G.B. Bassani, Melani, Lorenzani, G.P. Colonna and Foggia. French vocal music included works by Lully, Du Mont, Robert, M.-A. Charpentier, Nicolas Bernier, André Campra and J.-B. Morin. The library also contained instrumental music by Rebel and ‘Italian symphonies’ which may have included sonatas by Corelli. (M. Le Moël: ‘Un foyer d'italianisme à la fin du XVIIe siècle’, ...


James R. Anthony

[ Mazzarini, Giulio Raimondo ]

(b Pescina, Aquila, July 14, 1602; d Vincennes, nr Paris, March 9, 1661). French politician of Italian birth . He is important in the history of music for his advocacy of Italian opera in France. In his youth he was exposed to Roman opera while serving Cardinal Antonio Barberini; he attended, and perhaps participated in, Landi’s Sant’Alessio in 1632. From 1634 to 1636 he was in Paris as papal nuncio. He became a naturalized Frenchman in 1639, cardinal in 1641 (though he held only minor orders) and first minister in 1643 during Anne of Austria’s regency. He saw Italian opera in France as a potential source of secret agents and as a smokescreen for political manoeuvres. He therefore brought Italians to Paris: in 1643 the composer Marazzoli, in 1644 the singers Leonora Baroni and Atto Melani, in 1645 the designer Giacomo Torelli and in 1646 the composer Luigi Rossi. Moreover, by the end of ...


(b c1571; dRome, June 2, 1623). Italian patron of music. He received the title of cardinal from his great-uncle Pope Sixtus V in 1585. He became Cardinal Legate of Bologna in 1587 and vice-chancellor of the Church in 1589. A friend and protégé of Ferdinando de' Medici, he became the wealthiest and most powerful member of the curia, and the patron of many important painters and musicians. He trained as a musician, perhaps with Scipione Dentice, with whom he was associated before 1587. His household or chapel musicians included a ‘Cavaliere del liuto’ (possibly Lorenzino), Melchior Palentrotti, Cesare Marotta, Ippolita Recupito, G.B. Nanino, Ippolito Macchiavelli, Orazio Michi, Pellegrino Mutij, G.G. Maggi, P.P. Torre, and Giuseppe Giamberti. He was also a patron of Giuseppe Cenci, Luca Marenzio and Francesca Caccini. By bringing together composers and singers from Naples, Rome and Florence, Montalto fostered the development of a Roman style of monody that led to the emergence of the chamber cantata....


Horace Fishback

revised by Eva Linfield

(b Kassel, May 25, 1572; d Eschwege, March 15, 1632). German patron and composer. He succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse in 1592 and ruled until 1627, when, under the pressures of the Thirty Years War, he abdicated in favour of his son and retired to Eschwege. He encouraged an exceptionally flourishing musical life at his court and himself studied vocal and instrumental music with Georg Otto, court composer and Kapellmeister from 1586. Moritz also encouraged drama, and the Ottoneum, completed in 1605 and named after Otto, was the earliest court theatre in Germany. His patronage not only of music and the theatre but of other branches of art and learning earned him the title ‘Moritz der Gelehrte’ (Moritz the Learned), and the Landgraf-Moritz-Stiftung, an important musicological institution founded in Kassel in 1955, is named after him. In 1598 he founded the Collegium Mauritium, a school for the sons of his court aristocracy and for his choirboys, among whom Heinrich Schütz was the most famous. Moritz was the first to encourage the talents of Schütz: he financed his first visit to Italy, in ...


Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, April 25, 1653; d Rome, March 22, 1730). Italian patron and librettist . His immense wealth was largely derived from a pension granted by his great-uncle, Pope Innocent X, his salary as Grand Prior in Rome of the Knights of Malta from 1678, and his benefices as a cardinal from 1 September 1681. His literary gifts are reflected in his post as principe of the Accademia degli Umoristi in Rome (by 1677) and his ‘acclamation’ as Fenicio Larisseo in the Arcadian Academy (12 May 1695). His fascination with oratorios is manifested by his protectorship of two organizations that produced them, the Collegio Clementino (1689–1730) and the Arciconfraternita del SS Crocifisso (1694–1724). His maestri di musica were Alessandro Melani (c 1676–c 1681), Lulier (1681–90) and Cesarini (1690–1730). From 1684 to 1690 his most highly paid instrumentalist was Corelli, who (like Lulier) chose not to follow him to Bologna, where he was papal legate from ...