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Article

Malcolm Turner

(Jean Etienne Charles Marie)

(b Ghent, Jan 23, 1868; d Ghent, Nov 14, 1935). Belgian musicologist and librarian. As a university student at Ghent, Bergmans attended piano and violin classes at Ghent Conservatory and had private lessons in music theory from Hendrik Waelput. In 1885, while still at university, he began to write music criticism for Flandre libérale and continued to do so until his death. In 1892 he took a post as assistant librarian at Ghent University, where he remained for the rest of his professional life. He became principal librarian there in 1919 and in the same year accepted the chair of musicology at Ghent, the first to be established at a Belgian university. In the following year he became a member of the Académie Royale de Belgique. Bergmans was interested in all branches of history, not merely that of music, and with his training as a historian and librarian, had an exact and painstaking cast of mind. Throughout most of his life he played an important part in the commission for the ...

Article

Katharine Ellis

(b Paris, May 15, 1797; d Paris, March 22, 1850). French music historian and librarian. He studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, thereafter receiving a degree in law. However, being of independent means, he was able to devote himself to music. An amateur cellist, he received compositional and theoretical training in music from Desvignes, Cherubini and Reicha, as a result of which he composed several pieces (none of which was published), including two string quartets, a Passion, a ballet, several masses, and an opéra comique performed c1820 at the Hôtel Lambert. Fétis claimed the credit for turning Bottée towards ‘l’archéologie musicale’ in 1827; however, Choron and Perne were also influential.

In 1826 Bottée travelled to Italy, Germany and Austria, meeting Kiesewetter in Vienna; thereafter they maintained lifelong correspondence. In 1831 he began unsalaried work as librarian at the Paris Conservatoire, restoring order after Fétis’s departure; he remained in the post until ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(Wilhelm)

(b Altona, Feb 24, 1799; d Berlin, April 12, 1858). German, editor, teacher and librarian. The son of a banker, he learnt the cello as a boy and then studied law in Leipzig with the intention of entering the diplomatic service; he also took music lessons with J.A. Dröbs. Moving to Berlin in 1823, he was attached to the Swedish Embassy; during his service there he developed his interest in musical research. On the failure of the family bank in 1830, he was left without means of support and decided to devote himself to music: he had been studying with Bernhard Klein, and soon made himself a widely respected theorist and teacher. On Meyerbeer’s recommendation he was in 1842 appointed custodian of the music section of the royal library, and immediately set about bringing it into order, cataloguing the collection and making copious additions to it from libraries all over Prussia. Among the collections he helped to bring into the library were those of Anton Schindler and Georg Pölchau; Dehn had long known the latter, which was notable for its manuscripts of Keiser and of J.S. and C.P.E. Bach. He was editor of ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk], Feb 9, 1828; d Treysa, nr Marburg an der Lahn, Feb 18, 1905). German music historian and librarian. He intended to follow a career in theology, but changed to music (1851), studying composition in Leipzig with J.C. Lobe and E.F. Richter and taking organ lessons. He taught music in Leipzig before moving to Hamburg in 1863, where he gave lectures on music history and theory. He was a critic for the Hamburger Correspondent for seven years. In 1873 he was appointed to the staff of the Hamburg City Library; he remained there until 1889, when he retired to Marburg. Little known for his compositions (a few vocal works), Dommer earned more acclaim for his writings on music. His greatly revised and enlarged edition of Koch's Musikalisches Lexikon (1865) and, in particular, his own Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (1868) showed him to be a scholar with a thorough command of his subject. His books on Luther printings and early Marburg prints were of pioneering importance. He was also the author of numerous shorter essays and articles, many for the ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones and Sanna Pederson

(b Waldenburg, Saxony, Jan 24, 1821; d Leipzig, Jan 22, 1905). German music librarian and writer on music. He received his first musical training from the Waldenburg organist J.A. Trube. At the age of 14 he moved to Leipzig, where he studied with G.W. Fink, C.G. Müller, K. Kloss and later Mendelssohn and Schumann. He soon established himself in Leipzig as a piano and theory teacher. At Schumann’s invitation, he took a position with Breitkopf & Härtel in 1845, preparing piano arrangements and, from the following year, also contributing to the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. In his reviews of 1848–9 he judged Schumann’s new compositions to make him a worthy successor to Beethoven. Later he wrote for the Musikalisches Wochenblatt and from 1865 to 1881 was a regular contributor to the Leipzig Nachrichten. In 1860 he succeeded C.F. Becker as curator of the music department of the Leipzig Stadtbibliothek. The following year he opened his own music lending library, which was continued by his son; it was later purchased by C.F. Peters and became the basis of the Musikbibliothek Peters (founded in ...

Article

Ora Frishberg Saloman

(b Boston, May 13, 1813; d Boston, Sept 5, 1893). American writer on music. A graduate of Harvard College (1832) and Harvard Divinity School (1836), Dwight manifested an early affinity with the German idealist tradition in his annotated translations of poetry by Goethe and Schiller. As a leading contributor to the Associationist Harbinger (1845–9) and Dwight's Journal of Music (1852–81), which he founded and edited, he elevated criticism to a higher and more educational plane. After the death of his wife in 1860, he spent his last 20 years as resident librarian and permanent president of the Harvard Musical Association, which sponsored an annual series of concerts under his management (1865–82).

Dwight's writings of the 1840s reflect New England transcendentalist currents and a familiarity with such European thinkers as E.T.A. Hoffmann, A.B. Marx, Gottfried Fink, Charles Fourier, F.-J. Fétis, Frédéric Kalkbrenner, Thomas Carlyle and William Gardiner. Championing aesthetic education and informed listening, Dwight proposed that music – as art, science, and language of feeling ennobling and uniting people – be made widely accessible. In America he was a pioneer in describing the humanistic importance and large-scale structures of Beethoven's symphonies....

Article

Gudrun Becker-Weidmann

(b Münster, April 21, 1828; d Berlin, May 24, 1878). German music librarian and editor. After attending the Paulinum Gymnasium in Münster, he was enrolled at the faculty of philosophy at Münster University but in 1851 took up the study of music theory and notation under Siegfried Dehn in Berlin. For a few months in 1858 he was active as music director in Bielefeld. In the same year he was appointed assistant curator and five years later curator at the royal library in Berlin to succeed Dehn in the task of completing the music catalogue. At the same time, he accepted an appointment as regens chori at St Hedwig’s Cathedral, Berlin, apparently for financial reasons, as Dehn had done before him. Espagne applied his energies not only to cataloguing but also to expanding the library’s collection, and his travels included Vienna (1864) and Rome (1873–4...

Article

Dennis Libby

revised by John Rosselli

(b San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct 12, 1800; d Naples, Dec 18, 1888). Italian librarian, musicologist, teacher and composer. The varied activities of his career were dominated by a single theme: the preservation and glorification of the Neapolitan musical tradition. At 12 (or 15) he entered the Naples Conservatory, where he was a fellow student of Bellini, who became his closest friend and the object of his intense devotion. He was made archivist-librarian there in 1826 and (perhaps his most important achievement) acquired a large part of the library’s rich holdings. He also served as director of vocal concerts and singing teacher there. His widely praised Metodo di canto (Naples, ?1840; Milan, 1841–3, enlarged 3/?1861) was conservative in tendency, claiming to be based on the precepts of the castrato Crescentini, then director of the conservatory’s singing school, and intended to restore the ‘antico bello’ of ‘the only true tradition of Italian song’, that of Scarlatti, Porpora and Durante, which had been displaced by ‘la moda barocca’ of the present age. Florimo composed in all genres except the dramatic, but apart from a ...

Article

Deane L. Root

(b Indianapolis, IN, Aug 6, 1906; d Oakmont, PA, March 13, 2006). American archivist and music historian. He received a degree in English from Harvard University. In 1931 he became first curator of the collection of Fosteriana compiled by the pharmaceutical manufacturer Josiah Kirby Lilly, and he continued in the post after Lilly presented the holdings in ...

Article

Donald Jay Grout

revised by Mary Wallace Davidson

(b New York, NY, Nov 27, 1878; d Orange, NJ, Sept 19, 1966). American musicologist, teacher, and librarian. He studied at the College of the City of New York (AB 1898), English and philosophy at the New York University (MA 1900), and music with edward Macdowell at Columbia University (1900–02); concurrently he was organist and choirmaster at the Chapel of the Incarnation (1898–1902) and taught in New York schools. He continued his study of music, literature, and philosophy (1902–9), with Robert Radecke at the Königliches Akademisches Institut für Kirchenmusik and with Oskar Fleischer, Max Friedländer, Hermann Kretzschmar, and Johannes Wolf at the Universität zu Berlin, taking the doctorate (a rare achievement for an American in a German university at the time) in 1909 with a dissertation on 16th-century organ and keyboard music. He was also organist and choirmaster of the American Church in Berlin (...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

( b Berlin, July 27, 1892). American musicologist and librarian of German birth . She studied musicology at Berlin under Kretzschmar, Riemann and Johannes Wolf, and obtained the PhD in 1916. She had a varied and distinguished career as a scholar, music librarian and critic. From 1922 she worked mainly as assistant to Paul Hirsch in his music library at Frankfurt for nearly 14 years, during which period she was also research librarian at the Berlin State Library (1928), and worked on the organization of the music department in the city library at Frankfurt (1927–9). She supervised various important exhibitions, including the international music exhibition at Frankfurt in 1927, the ‘Goethe and Music’ exhibition of 1932 and the Wagner Memorial Exhibition of 1933. From 1923 to 1932 she was a music critic on the Frankfurter Zeitung and, for a shorter period, on the Neue Musik-Zeitung of Stuttgart. After emigrating to the USA in ...

Article

(b Paris, April 24, 1828; d Paris, 23/Feb 24, 1899). French librettist, writer on music and librarian. His real name was Truinet, of which ‘Nuitter’ is an anagram. He studied law and by 1849 was practising in Paris. In the 1850s he began writing librettos in his spare time. His first performed work, a vaudeville entitled L’amour dans un ophicléide (1854), was followed by more vaudevilles and later by operas, opéras comiques, opéras bouffes, operettas and ballets. Usually writing with collaborators, in particular Beaumont (Alexandre Beaume), Nérée Desarbres and Etienne Tréfeu, he produced more than 60 works, many of which reveal facility and wit. He wrote for Offenbach (Les bavards, Vert-vert, La princesse de Trébizonde and many more), Delibes (La source, Coppélia), Guiraud (Le Kobold, Gretna-Green, Piccolino), Lalo (Namouna), Lecocq (Le coeur et la main) and at least 18 other composers. One of the first Frenchmen to appreciate Wagner, he translated ...

Article

Mary Wallace Davidson

(b Seymour, CT, March 10, 1884; d New Haven, CT, Oct 31, 1979). American music librarian and bibliographer. She learned the profession through work experience, first in public libraries in Connecticut (1905–8), then at McGill University Library (1908–11), and as a cataloger for a private library (1911–13). In 1914 she became a cataloger (with responsibility for music) at the Yale University Library. In 1917, she merged three collections to form the Music Library in the new School of Music: the School’s collection (2000 volumes), the university library’s Denkmäler collection (600 volumes), and the Lowell Mason Library (10,300 volumes) from the department of theology. She worked in the music library part time until 1924, when she became the full-time librarian until her retirement in 1952. She also taught one of the nation’s first two courses in music bibliography.

Miss O’Meara (as she was known) was a founding member of the Music Library Association (MLA) in ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b London, April 2, 1894; d London, Oct 7, 1969). English librarian and bibliographer . He read Greats at Oxford and entered the British Museum in 1920 as an assistant keeper in the Department of Printed Books, working there until his retirement in 1959. Through general scholarship and an outstanding capacity for administration, he rose to be head of the department, as principal keeper, for the last 12 years of his service.

Oldman’s early interest in music brought him to the notice of Barclay Squire, who encouraged him to specialize in the bibliography of music, especially the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Of Mozart in general he ultimately acquired an encyclopedic knowledge, and his work was recognized in 1950 by the award of the silver medal of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum. One of the most notable results of Oldman’s intensive study was ‘Musical First Editions’ (1934), an exceptionally lucid statement of principles and aims, with particular reference to the Classical period. But the pressures of departmental work grew continually in the 1930s and the problems that arose through war damage and postwar reconstruction made it difficult for him to complete any substantial work. He was however generous in sharing his knowledge with others working in the same field....

Article

(b Berea, OH, Aug 31, 1878; d Akron, OH, July 20, 1950). American organist, conductor, scholar and librarian. His father Karl H. Riemenschneider, president from 1893 to 1908 of the Methodist Episcopal Deutsches Wallace Kollegium in Berea, first taught him music, and he was a piano, organ and theory pupil of James H. Rogers of Cleveland (1896–1902). He became piano and organ instructor at the Kollegium (1896) and director of its music department (1897). He subsequently studied the piano with Hugo Reinhold and composition with Robert Fuchs in Vienna (1902–3), the organ with Charles Clemens in Cleveland (1903) and with Alexander Guilmant, and composition and organ with Widor in Paris in 1904–5 and for five successive summer sessions. In Paris Riemenschneider developed lifelong friendships with Marcel Dupré and Albert Schweitzer. Meanwhile he continued his work at the Kollegium, which in ...

Article

Anthony Hicks

(b London, July 22, 1881; d Bromley, Kent, Nov 20, 1972). English musical librarian and bibliographer. His early education at Woolwich High School was supplemented with private violin and piano lessons. In 1898 he entered the Civil Service, serving first in the Inland Revenue and later in the Scottish Education Office. On 3 September 1900 he was transferred to the Department of Printed Books at the British Museum. After brief training in cataloguing he was selected to work in the Music Room as assistant to W. Barclay Squire. When the latter retired in 1920 Smith succeeded him as Assistant Keeper and held this office until his retirement at the end of 1944.

Smith was chiefly interested in the study of Handel and other aspects of 18th-century music in England. From 1924 onwards he contributed articles on these subjects to various musical journals. His work at the museum stimulated a particular interest in the printed music of the period, on which he became a leading authority. During these years he acquired the detailed and extensive knowledge that formed the foundation for the major bibliographical publications which he prepared during his retirement with the assistance of his colleague Charles Humphries. Smith began to assemble a personal collection of Handelian material in ...

Article

Jon Newsom

revised by H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Lafayette [now part of Jersey City], NJ, Oct 6, 1873; d New York, Oct 30, 1928). American musicologist, librarian, editor and composer. As a boy he was sent to Germany to study; he was a piano pupil of James Kwast (1883–93) and later attended courses at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich, developing his interests in philosophy and, especially, musicology. He studied composition in Munich with Melchior Ernst Sachs, composition and orchestration with Iwan Knorr in Frankfurt, and conducting with Carl Schröder at the Sondershausen Conservatory.

In 1899 Sonneck returned to the USA and for three years travelled from New England to South Carolina, collecting references to American musical life before 1800, primarily from newspapers. He also did much work in the new Library of Congress building, and in 1902 the librarian Herbert Putnam made him head of the newly formed music division, where he organized and developed what was to become one of the most comprehensive collections of music, manuscripts and books on music in the world. He established its unrivalled archive of opera scores and librettos, and in ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

(b London, Oct 16, 1855; d London, Jan 13, 1927). English musicologist and librarian. Educated privately and in Frankfurt, Squire entered Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1875 to read history and graduated with third-class honours in 1879. He entered a firm of solicitors but soon his interest in music, stimulated at Cambridge by his close friendship with Stanford, led him away from the law; his first musical writings were as a contributor to the early parts of the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary. When a vacancy for the charge of the printed music at the British Museum occurred in 1885, Squire was appointed, supported by testimonials from George Grove, A.D. Coleridge, Leslie Stephen, W.H. Husk, W.S. Rockstro and J.F. Bridge. Working almost single-handed until 1900 (when William C. Smith joined him), Squire made extensive improvements to the catalogue, built up the collections with continually increasing purchases and devoted much energy to preparing the two-volume catalogue of printed music before ...

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

[Vanderstraeten, Edmond ]

(b Oudenaarde, Dec 3, 1826; d Oudenaarde, Nov 25, 1895). Belgian musicologist, critic and librarian . After studying classics in Aalst and philosophy at the University of Ghent, he returned to Oudenaarde, where he directed several opera performances and began his research into local archives. In 1857 he went to Brussels, where he studied harmony with Bosselet and counterpoint and palaeography with Fétis, becoming his private secretary. On Fétis's recommendation he was appointed music critic for Le nord and in 1859 joined the catalogue department of the Bibliothèque Royale. He also wrote reviews for L'écho du parlement, L'étoile belge and other publications. Subsequently he did research at the Algemeen Rijksarchief in Brussels (1862–75) and in Italy, France and Spain. He represented the Belgian government on several missions; at Weimar in 1870 he attended performances of Wagner's operas and supported them enthusiastically in his report, Muzikale feesten van Weimar...