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Article

Roger Bowers

(b c1420; d 1497). English church musician. He was noted as a fine singer and skilful organist. After service in the household of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (until 1447), and as a lay clerk of Eton College (1447–51), where he was one of the four clerks specially responsible for singing polyphony in the college chapel, he became a clerk of the Chapel Royal in 1451, and Master of the Choristers there from 1455 to 1478. His duties included teaching the boys to play the organ and to sing plainsong and improvised polyphony; also it seems probable that he was instrumental in the introduction about this time of the use of boys’ voices in composed polyphony. The award to him in 1464 of a Cambridge MusB reflects his eminence in the musical profession – he is the earliest known recipient of this degree – while the patronage of Bishop Bekynton brought him valuable sinecures in the diocese of Bath and Wells. His last years were spent as a resident of Sanctuary Yard, Westminster Abbey....

Article

(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...

Article

(b Namur, c1472; d Lier, May 20, 1522). South Netherlandish organist and music teacher. In 1488 he was a singer at the church of Our Lady, Antwerp, and in 1491–2 served as organist at Jacobskerk in that city. In 1493 he became organist in the chapel of the Confraternity of Our Lady at Our Lady's church. In February 1500 he entered the chapel of Philip the Handsome as organist and journeyed with the court to Spain in 1501–3 and 1505–6. In September 1506 Philip died at Burgos, and Bredemers arranged for the transport of the chapel's missals and music books to Antwerp.

In August 1507 Bredemers became organist in the domestic chapel of Philip's seven-year-old son Charles, under the regency of Philip's sister, Margaret of Austria. At her court in Mechelen, Bredemers taught the young Charles and his sisters to play the clavichord and other instruments. He was also charged with the musical instruction of choirboys and court entertainers, and with the purchase and maintenance of instruments. Between ...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...

Article

Peter Bergquist

revised by Stephen Keyl

[Bickel, Conrad; Pickel, Conrad]

(b Wipfeld, Feb 1, 1459; d Vienna, Feb 4, 1508). German humanist and poet. Son of a vintner, he ran away from home in 1477 and studied at Cologne University for two years. After receiving the baccalaureate he travelled and studied further before matriculating in 1484 at Heidelberg University, where he received the MA within a year. When in 1487 he was crowned Poet Laureate in Nuremberg by Emperor Frederick III, he was the first German to be so honoured. During the next ten years he travelled widely through central Europe, in Italy during the period 1487–9, in Kraków, Danzig (now Gdańsk), Prague and north Germany between 1489 and 1491. In 1491–2 he lectured at Ingolstadt University for a short time. He was in Nuremberg for most of 1493, then in 1494 appointed again at Ingolstadt, where he retained his position until 1497, though spending much of that time in Heidelberg. There he founded the first of his associations of learned men for the advancement of the new humanist literary culture, the Sodalitas Litteraria Rhenana. In ...

Article

(b Wendelstein, Jan 10, 1479; d Breslau, Jan 10, 1552). German theologian, historian, humanist, music theorist and pedagogue. After studies with Heinrich Grieninger in Nuremberg, Cochlaeus entered the University of Cologne in 1504. A year later he had already gained the baccalaureate degree and in 1507 the MA. During these years his first treatise, Musica, was printed in three editions. He also became the music teacher of Heinrich Glarean, who, greatly admiring him, later included in his Dodecachordon three pedagogical compositions from his Musica. In 1510 on the recommendation of Willibald Pirckheimer, he became the rector of St Lorenz school in Nuremberg. There he organized a humanistically orientated curriculum and wrote the Tetrachordum musices (1511), his most valuable music treatise. In 1517 he earned a doctorate in theology at Ferrara and was ordained to the priesthood in Rome. In succeeding years he acquired a reputation as a fierce and unremitting opponent of Lutheranism and Calvinism. In an encounter with Luther at Worms in ...

Article

Michael Fend

[Lefèvre d’Etaples, Jacques]

(b Etaples,c1460; d Nérac, 1536). French theologian, scholar and music theorist . He matriculated at the University of Paris, possibly in 1474 or 1475, and received the BA in 1479 and the MA probably in 1480. He taught in the Faculty of Arts at the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine, University of Paris, until 1508 and was afterwards active as a scholar at the abbey of St Germain-des-Prés outside Paris. There he prepared a French translation of the New Testament and Psalms, which provoked the Parlement of Paris to summon him on suspicion of heresy. Clearly in sympathy with the Reformation, he fled to Strasbourg in 1525, but in 1526 he was recalled by François I, who appointed him librarian of the royal collection and made him tutor to his children. Faber completed his translation under royal protection; it was published in 1530. He spent his last years at the court of Queen Marguerite of Navarre....

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

[Schelling, Jan]

(b Glogau [now Głogów], ?c1445; d Kraków, Feb 11, 1507). Polish philosopher, astronomer and music theorist. After studying at Kraków University, he was a lecturer there for 40 years. During 1497–8 he lectured in mathematics in Vienna. He was one of the leading scholars in Kraków and Copernicus was probably among his pupils. A manuscript from the Krasiński Library, Warsaw, that included two treatises associated with Jan z Głogowa (MS 47) was destroyed during World War II. The treatises taken together were most probably a commentary on Johannes de Muris’s Musica speculativa. The manuscript, written during the period 1475–8, was owned by Jan z Głogowa and included his writings on astronomy. His commentary to Aristotle’s De anima, Quaestiones librorum de anima magistri 10 annis versaris (Kraków, 1501), presents some of the more standard views of medieval philosophy on the place of music among the mathematical disciplines....

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by David Fallows

(b before c1429; d after 1472). French playwright and musician. By 17 July 1450, when he is mentioned as organist at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, he was already designated magister; on 19 October of that year he also became magister cantus puerorum and soon afterwards magister grammatrice, thereby quite exceptionally holding all three posts simultaneously. He resigned the position of organist on 4 January 1454, and left the cathedral at the end of April 1455 to enter the service of Charles, Count of Maine (younger brother of King René of Anjou). He was received as a Bachelor of Theology on 28 September 1456.

Before the end of 1452 Greban wrote a gigantic mystery play, La nativité, la passion et la résurrection de nostre Saulveur Jhesu-Crist, as the title-page of the principal manuscript source reads ( F-Pn fr.816). It took four days to perform and had over 200 individual roles. It was one of the most successful of the 15th-century mystery plays; all or parts of it were produced repeatedly in various French towns. The version of the first day in ...

Article

Jan Kouba

(b Husinec, Bohemia, ?1371; d Konstanz, July 6, 1415). Czech reformer. He was one of the most influential preachers and teachers at Prague University at the beginning of the 15th century. He was burnt at the stake by order of the Council of Konstanz. He has been associated with a number of Latin and Czech hymns, but there is very little evidence to support his authorship; it seems that he arranged the medieval melody ‘Jesu Kriste, štědrý kněže’ (‘Jesus Christ, thou bountiful prince’) in the Jistebnice Hussite hymnbook, and he may also have arranged or translated the texts of several other hymns, but the best-known one attributed to him, ‘Jesus Christus, nostra salus’, is clearly not by him. Some Czech musicologists (e.g. Nejedlý) have described Hus as the innovator of congregational singing in church, but this practice arose in 15th-century Bohemia only after his death. Hus's aesthetic views on music and singing did not deviate from those of the medieval tradition. Thus musical history was influenced only indirectly by him: the Hussite reformation, of which he was the inspiration, constitutes the first significant chapter in the history of Protestant church music in Europe....

Article

Gordon A. Anderson

[Keckius]

(b Giengen an der Brenz, c1400; d Rome, June 29, 1450). German theologian and writer. He studied theology, philosophy and the liberal arts at the University of Vienna from 1422 to 1429, and as a Master of Arts lectured there in mathematics, philosophy and theory from 1429 to 1431. In 1434 he was at Munich, where he held a benefice at the Peterskirche, and in 1441 he studied at Basle, gaining a doctorate in theology. Here he taught for about a year and took part in the reform Council of Basle. In 1442 he joined the Benedictine Order at Tegernsee, a monastery well known at that time for its practice of the arts and sciences; there in that year Keck wrote his treatise Introductorium musicae (GerbertS, iii, 319–29), describing himself as professor of the arts and sacred theology. In 1450 he undertook a penitential pilgrimage to Rome, but died of the plague soon after his arrival....

Article

Don Harrán

(b ?Bourges, c1430–40; d ?Paris, 1499). French singer and scholar. He was the author of two tracts on verbal accentuation in plainchant. His early years seem to have been spent in Bourges, where he became a canon of Notre Dame de Sales (his familiarity with the Bourges chant tradition is clear from his writings). Later he was in Paris at the Collège de Navarre, where he enrolled in the 1450s as a student in the arts faculty and from 1465 in theology. He described himself as a ‘scholastic theologian’, that is, engaged in religious studies, and as a concentor, probably the associate of the cantor or precentor in singing the soloist portions of chant in the collegiate chapel services. In 1497 he was appointed rector of the University of Paris, though his tenure lasted only five months.

Of his 12 known publications, five are editions of liturgical books and five relate to various religious topics. In two others on music (ed. in Harrán) he countered the attacks, within the Collège, of certain ‘humanists’ (i.e. grammarians), who contended that music played havoc with the sacred texts. Le Munerat used every argument he could to refute their assertions and demonstrate that music, on the strength of its long tradition preserved in the chant books, could rightly ignore grammatical quantity in items subject to musical as against verbal logic. In the first treatise, ...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

(b Legnica, 1464; d after 1546). German humanist, theorist and composer, active in Poland. He belonged to a German family in Silesia and his true name was probably Weihrauch. In 1494 he began his studies at Kraków University, and later went to Cologne for a time before returning to Kraków in 1501. From 1506 he was probably associated with the Gymnasium of the church of St Maria, Kraków, first as a cantor and from 1514 as rector. In 1511, 1513 and 1520 Liban lectured at Kraków University. About 1530 he travelled to the abbey of St Florian, near Linz. Among his many writings are two music treatises: De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione and De musicae laudibus oratio (both Kraków, c1539). There are also passages on music in his De philosophiae laudibus oratio (Kraków, 1537). All three treatises are reprinted in MMP, ser.D, vi–viii (1975–6...

Article

[BartolomeoRamos de Pareja, Bartolomé]

(b Baeza, Andalucía, c1440; d ?Rome, after 1490). Spanish theorist and composer active in Italy. His life is undocumented; all that is known about him comes from his own testimony or that of later writers. His first teacher was one Johannes de Monte. He claimed to have lectured at the University of Salamanca for a time, though his position (as later in Bologna) may have been unofficial. While there he wrote a treatise in Spanish (perhaps the one he elsewhere referred to as Introductorium seu Isagogicon) and a mass, both now lost. He went to Italy in the 1470s; his extended residence in Bologna is the best-recorded period of his life. There he lectured publicly on music (though not under the auspices of the university) and had private pupils, including Giovanni Spataro. His important Musica practica (ed. J. Wolf, Leipzig, 1901/R; ed. C. Terni, Madrid, ...

Article

Jurij Snoj

[Slatkonja, Jurij]

(b Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 21, 1456; d Vienna, Austria, April 26, 1522). Churchman and musician of Slovenian origin. He was a native of Ljubljana (Ger. Laibach, in his time the capital of the Habsburg Carniola) and considered himself a Slovenian. He interpreted his name (etymologically incorrectly) as Slovenian for ‘golden horse’, hence the presence of a horse in his coat of arms and the translation of his name into Greek as ‘Chrysippos’. (In Slovenian literature, following the modern Slovenian orthography, his name appears as Jurij Slatkonja). In 1575 Slatkonia matriculated at the Faculty of Arts in Vienna, where in 1577 he obtained the bachelor’s degree. It is not known where he studied music, nor when he was ordained as a priest. He seems to have been a favourite of the king (later emperor), Maximilian I, under whom he made a successful career. In 1495 he is mentioned as a court chaplain and a cantor, and when in ...

Article

Craig Wright

[Jean de Noyers ]

(b c1370; d before Aug 1410). French composer and pedagogue . Tapissier, whose true name was Jean de Noyers, is named along with the composers Susay and Jehan Vaillant in the anonymous Règles de la seconde rhétorique (c1400) as one of the principal French poet-musicians of the day. By 1391 he had been engaged as a chamber valet and court composer to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. That same year he accompanied Philip and his court on a journey to Milan and Avignon; in the spring of 1395 he made a second visit to Avignon in the ducal service; and in the summer of 1399 he was with Duke Philip in Flanders. The Burgundian court records reveal that Tapissier maintained an ‘escole de chant’ in Paris and that in 1406 three choirboys of the court were sent to his school ‘to learn how to sing’. In ...

Article

(b Pavia, April 9, 1470; d ?Urbino, Dec 1530). Italian lutenist, singer and teacher. In Milan in 1492 he provided improvised accompaniments for ottava rima recitations, a manner of strambotto performance that was later cultivated at Mantua. By 1495 or 1496 Testagrossa had succeeded Girolamo Sextula at the Gonzaga court in Mantua as lute teacher to Isabella d’Este; he remained there until about 1500. A number of letters between Isabella and Testagrossa exist. His travels away from the court are not known until 1506, when he reported in January from Parma about a viol and wrote from Busseto in December that he had obtained a lucrative post under the patronage of Galeazzo Pallavicino. It may have been between 1500 and 1506 that Testagrossa returned to Milan, where he taught Francesco Canova da Milano. By early 1510 Testagrossa had returned to Mantua to teach Isabella’s son Prince Federico. Later that year he entertained Francesco Gonzaga, then captive in Venice, and travelled with Federico to Rome, pausing briefly at the Duke of Urbino’s court, where he was offered a post and where he met Leo X’s lutenist Gian Maria Alemanni. Testagrossa remained at Mantua, however, until ...