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Article

Jernej Weiss

[Emerich, Emerih]

(b Brno, Czech Republic, Oct 17, 1868; d Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 11, 1940). Czech composer, cellist, and music educator. Immigrated to Slovenia in 1898. After playing the cello at the Secondary School of Music of the Music Society in Brno (1884–85), he began in 1885 to study at the Organ School in Brno, where he attended composition and instrumentation classes under Leoš Janáček. He graduated with honours in 1888 and passed the national examination in Vienna in 1892. From 1889 to 1890 he was a cellist in the opera orchestra of the City Theatre in Brno. From 1890 to 1898 he taught music at the Czech Men’s College of Education in Brno and was a teaching assistant at the Brno Organ School. In 1897 he appeared before the general public in Brno (where he wrote the majority of his compositions) for the first time as a composer; he achieved his first major success as a composer with ...

Article

Michelle Vigneau

(b Gladewater, TX, Dec 3, 1938; d Elyria, OH, Feb 8, 2006). American oboist, baroque oboist, viola da gambist, and educator. He earned a diploma in 1961 from the Curtis Institute where he studied with john de Lancie . Caldwell served as principal oboist of the National SO (NSO) from 1965–66 and 1968–1971, and was principal oboist of the short-lived Chamber Symphony of Philadelphia from 1966–68. He played with the Puerto Rico Symphony and the Casals Festival Orchestra, and was a frequent performer at the Marlboro Music Festival. In 1971, Caldwell joined the faculty of the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, where he trained many of the profession’s leading oboists, including Alex Klein, former principal oboist of the Chicago SO. Caldwell’s pedagogy was unusual, as he rarely mentioned the oboe. His students learned to play as a result of the musical demands of the phrase.

As a chamber musician, he was a member of the Soni Ventorum Quintet, the Oberlin Baroque Ensemble, and the Oberlin Woodwind Quintet. While playing in the NSO in the late 1960s, he also became interested in the viola da gamba and studied with noted teacher August Wenzinger. He became an accomplished viol player as well as a celebrated baroque oboist, earning a reputation as a leading scholar in historical performance. With his wife, cellist and viola da gambist Catharina Meints, he co-founded the Baroque Performance Institute, the first American summer school for historical performance, in ...

Article

Nicholas Tochka

(b Tirana, Albania, Dec 8, 1945). Albanian conductor and violinist. The son of vocalist Mihal Ciko and nephew of composer Nikolla Zoraqi, he was a leading member of the first generation of musicians to be trained by socialist-era Albania’s new music institutions. A virtuoso violinist, he graduated from the State Conservatory in 1967 and immediately assumed teaching duties and an appointment as concertmaster to the Theatre of Opera and Ballet’s Orchestra. Ciko was named artistic director of the same institution in 1970. Between 1973 and 1974, a number of musicians and artists came under attack for exhibiting so-called politically subversive attitudes. Caught up in this purge, Ciko was reassigned to Patos, a large village, where he remained effectively exiled until his rehabilitation a decade later. First reappointed to the faculty at the Arts Lyceum ‘Jordan Misja’ he then organized a successful string ensemble, Tirana’s Young Virtuosi, which toured and recorded in the country and abroad. Ciko was appointed director of the Radio-Television Orchestra in ...

Article

James Bash

(b New York, NY, June 20, 1967). American violinist and educator. The daughter of pianists claude Frank and lilian Kallir , she began violin lessons at the age of five. She studied with Shirley Givens for 11 years before continuing with Szymon Goldberg and jaime Laredo . She enrolled in the pre-college division at Juilliard and attended the Curtis Institute, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in 1989. Her professional career started in 1985, when she performed with Alexander Schneider and the New York String Orchestra at Carnegie Hall. Her Carnegie debut as a soloist took place in April 1995. Acclaimed for her incisive and thoroughly engaging playing, Frank won the Avery Fisher Prize in 1999.

As a soloist, Frank has performed internationally with most of the leading orchestras around the world. She has also collaborated with many chamber ensembles and made appearances at numerous festivals, including Aldeburgh, Edinburgh, Salzburg, Berlin, Blossom, the Hollywood Bowl, Mostly Mozart, Ravinia, Tanglewood, Marlboro, and Verbier. Although devoted to the standard repertoire, she often plays works by contemporary composers such as Toru Takemitsu and Aaron Jay Kernis. In ...

Article

Sorab Modi

revised by Anya Laurence

(b Vienna, Austria, May 12, 1910; d New York, NY, Nov 10, 1999). Violinist and teacher of Austrian birth. He attended the Vienna Conservatory, where his principal teachers were Simon Pullman and Adolf Back. He made his debut in Vienna in 1929, playing Ludwig van Beethoven’s violin concerto, and the same year formed the first Galimir String Quartet, with members of his family. In the period 1929–30 he studied with carl Flesch in Baden-Baden, Germany. Galimir joined the Vienna PO in 1936, but left to escape anti-Semitism in Germany and worked in the Israel SO for two years. In 1938 he moved to the United States and made his debut at Town Hall in New York. The same year he founded a new Galimir String Quartet, which was active until the 1990s. Noted for its performances of early 20th-century music, the group toured extensively in the United States and was quartet in residence at Mannes College from ...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b Brussels, Belgium, April 8, 1756; d United States, c1820). American flemish violinist, composer, and pedagogue active in England and the United States. After touring France and Germany he was from about 1780 a violin virtuoso in London, where he published two instrumental instruction books; a theoretical treatise on harmony, counterpoint, and figured bass; various string quartets, trios, and duos; and theatrical pieces for the Royal Circus and the Royal Grove (1787, 1789). He apparently played in the orchestra organized by Johann Peter Salomon for Joseph Haydn’s visit in 1791. The following year Gehot and his companions James Hewitt, B. Bergman, William Young, and Phillips immigrated to the United States, where they advertised themselves as “professors of music from the opera house, Hanoversquare, and Professional concerts under the direction of Haydn, Pleyel, etc. London.” Their first benefit concert in New York (21 September 1792...

Article

Antigona Rădulescu

(b Galați, Romania, March 3, 1926; d Bucharest, Romania, March 17, 2010). Romanian violinist and pedagogue. He studied at the Royal Conservatory of Music and Dramatic Arts in Bucharest where he was noticed by George Enescu, who recommended him (and his brother, Valentin Gheorghiu) for a scholarship at the Conservatoire National de Musique de Paris. While at the Conservatoire he studied with, among others, Maurice Hewitt (violin) and Noel Gallon (harmony and counterpoint). Upon his return to Romania he continued his studies at the Bucharest Conservatory, studying the violin with Vasile Filip and Garabet Avakian and music theory with Mihail Jora. He also studied with David Oistrakh in Moscow.

His international career spanned four decades. He was a concert soloist of the George Enescu Philharmonic and a member of various chamber ensembles. He concertized in Romania, Europe, the USA, Canada, and Asia, playing under conductors such as Franz Konwitschny, Kyrill Kondrashin, Jean Perisson, Constantin Silvestri, and George Georgescu. Together with pianist Valentin Gheorghiu and cellist Radu Aldulescu he formed the Romanian Trio. At the first George Enescu International Festival and Contest in ...

Article

Anne Dhu McLucas

(b ?England, 1770; d Philadelphia, PA, Sept 16, 1826). American violinist, conductor, music teacher, and composer. He was active in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York from 1793 to 1826. He is said to have played at the Handel Commemoration in Westminster Abbey in 1784 and was advertised in Philadelphia as “the celebrated violinist from London.” In 1793 he was brought over from England by Thomas Wignell and Alexander Reinagle to lead the orchestra at the Chestnut Street Theater, which they founded and operated. He performed frequently in concerts with Benjamin Carr, Rayner Taylor, and Reinagle, sometimes appearing as “leader of the band,” while Reinagle was listed as “conductor”; his repertory included concertos and duets, which he usually performed with the cellist Menel. In 1814, although still living in Philadelphia, Gillingham appeared at Vauxhall Gardens in New York, and in 1816 he conducted a performance of Messiah with the New York Handel and Haydn Society. By ...

Article

Anya Laurence

(b Trieste, Italy, Sept 1, 1926; d Bloomington, IN, Nov 20, 2001). Violinist and teacher of Italian birth. Gulli began violin studies with his father, who had been a pupil of Ševčík and Marak at the Prague Conservatory, and graduated from the Conservatory of Trieste in 1944, summa cum laude. He later studied with arrigo Serato at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana at Siena, winning the Academy Prize, and also with joseph Szigeti in Switzerland. He performed as a soloist with the finest symphony orchestras and in 1947 he founded the famous Gulli-Cavallo Duo with his wife, concert pianist enrica Cavallo . He was also a founder of the Trio Italiano D’Archi with violist Bruno Giuranna and cellist Giacinto Caramia. His extensive discography includes the complete Mozart Concertos and complete Beethoven Sonatas. With the Trio Italiano he recorded all of the Beethoven String Trios and in 1959 he gave the premiere performance of the newly-discovered Concerto No.5, by Paganini. He taught master classes at the Accademia Chigiana at Siena and at the Lucerne Conservatory, and later presented master classes in Japan. He joined the University of Indiana at Bloomington in ...

Article

Kostas Chardas

(b Kastoria, Greece, March 14, 1966). Greek composer, composition teacher, and guitarist. Up to 1993 he studied music theory and the guitar at the Macedonian Conservatoire, where he also studied composition with Theodore Antoniou (diploma in 1997). Parallel to his academic career in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (from 1999 onwards) he obtained the PhD in Music Composition (2004, University of York, UK) and a degree in Musicology (2011, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki). He is the recipient of several awards from national and international competitions. He is currently a professor of composition at the State Conservatoire of Thessaloniki.

Within a prolific output (90 works so far) Hadjileontiadis’s music expresses, in the most creative way, the avant-garde longing for experimentation and innovation. However, in its core his music also reconciles the post-Xenakian strict precompositional organization of the micro- and macro-musical structures through the implementation of scientific notions (fractal, stochastic and multi-resolution analyses, neural networks, and fuzzy logic in works such as ...

Article

Katherine K. Preston

(b Bear-Place Spring, TN, Sept 19, 1911; d East Lansing, MI, Nov 20, 1957). American composer, teacher, and violinist. After studying in Nashville at George Peabody College (BS 1933) and Ward-Belmont Conservatory (Violin Diploma 1933), in 1934 he became professor at Western Kentucky State College, a position he held until 1938, when he was made director of the orchestra and theory division. He received an MM degree at the University of Michigan (1939), where he studied violin with Vasily Bezekirsky, and the PhD in composition at the Eastman School (1946), where he was a pupil of howard Hanson (composition) and bernard Rogers (orchestration). While at Eastman he was a teaching fellow (1943–6) and a member of the first violin section of the Rochester PO (1944–6); he also served as chairman of the National Composers Congress (1945). He was director of the music department at Western Kentucky State College from ...

Article

M. Rusty Jones

(b Lander, WY, Feb 7, 1955). American guitarist and educator. He received a BFA degree from the University of Minnesota in 1978 under the direction of guitarist jeffrey Van . He studied with Alirio Díaz in France and Canada. His other teachers include British guitarist and composer Gilbert Biberian and Austrian musicologist and violinist Hans Keller. His awards include a First Prize in the 1978 Toronto Guitar International Competition. He was also a recipient of a National Endowment for the Arts Solo Recitalist Fellowship. His publications and recordings are notable for the introduction of new didactic works for the guitar. He was the first person to edit Giulio Regondi’s lost “Ten Études” (1857) for solo guitar upon their rediscovery by Matanya Ophee in a private Russian collection in 1987. His CD Regondi: 10 Etudes/Introduction and Caprice, Op. 23 (Naxos, 2001) is one of few complete recordings of these études. His CD ...

Article

Vjera Katalinić

(b Beroun, Czech Republic, Sept 18, 1880; d Zagreb, Croatia, Jan 6, 1953). Czech violinist and pedagogue. Studied with Otakar Ševčik at the Prague Conservatory (1893–9). He was a concert master of the philharmonic orchestra in Lviv (1902–3), and a member of its string quartet, with which he gave concerts throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Through an international contest he came to Zagreb in 1903 to be a violin teacher at the school of the Croatian Music Institute. After 1905 he also led a chamber music class until 1914 when he was mobilized (until 1916). From the foundation of the Music academy in Zagreb in 1921, until his retirement in 1953, he was a professor of violin and chamber music, and the head of the Department for Strings (1924–51). Between 1903 and 1926 he performed as a soloist and in chamber ensembles: in a trio with H. Mihalović and Juro Tkalčić, and in the Zagreb string quartet – of which he was the co-founder in ...

Article

Stanislav Tuksar

(b Milan, Italy, Jan 21, 1918; d Milan, May 1, 1989). Italian cellist, conductor, and pedagogue. He was trained at the Milan Conservatory (1928–34) and under Diran Alexanian and Pablo Casals at the École normale de musique in Paris (1934–7). After starting his career as a soloist in Paris, London, and Amsterdam he won second prize at the international competition in Geneva. He took refuge from Italian Fascism and World War II by accepting a cello teaching post at the Zagreb Academy of Music in 1939, occupying it until 1955 in collaboration with Rudolf Matz. Janigro stayed in Zagreb until 1965, when he moved back to Milan. At first, besides teaching, he was active in Zagreb as a soloist and chamber musician, collaborating with the then-leading Croatian performers Božidar Kunc, Ivo Maček, and Stjepan Šulek, under conductors Krešimir Baranović, Lovro von Matačić, Friedrich Zaun, and others. The Maček-Šulek-Janigro Piano Trio has remained one of the best Croatian chamber ensembles of the 20th century....

Article

Sorab Modi

revised by Sarah Eyerly

(Ruth )

(b Los Angeles, CA, May 14, 1961). American violinist and violin teacher. She received her first violin lessons from her mother in 1963 and began formal study with Eunice Wennermark at six and Manuel Compinsky at age seven. As a child she played for jascha Heifetz and at the ages of 16 and 17 she studied with josef Gingold . At the age of seven she performed as soloist in Bach’s Violin Concerto in A minor under the direction of Compinsky. She made her professional debut in 1973, performing Mendelssohn’s Concerto with the New York PO under André Kostelanetz. In 1975 she made her European debut with the Tonhalle Orchestra in Zurich, where she attended master classes given by nathan Milstein in the years 1974–6. She won second prize in the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow in 1978, the youngest woman ever to do so. Jenson is an honorary citizen of Costa Rica and was appointed Distinguished Professor of Music at Grand Valley State University’s Pew Campus in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has performed extensively with major orchestras in the United States and undertaken tours of Europe, Australia, Japan, the Soviet Union, and Latin America. One of the finest violinists of her generation, she has made recordings of the Sibelius Violin Concerto with Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra and of two Brahms sonatas. In ...

Article

Fatima Hadžić

(b Sarajevo, Bosnia, Dec 1, 1892; d Sarajevo, Oct 8, 1968). Bosnian conductor, cellist, music educator, and composer. He attended the private school of music known as Glasbena škola F. Matějovský in Sarajevo. He graduated in cello from the Royal Academy of Music in Zagreb in the class of Umberto Fabbri (1931). He worked as a teacher of cello, double-bass, and music theory in the District School of Music in Sarajevo (1923–41). Although he was not a formally trained conductor, he successfully led the orchestra of the National Theatre in Sarajevo (1925–41, with interruptions) and the Sarajevo Philharmonic (1927–36); and the choirs of the amateur singing societies the Workers Singing Society ‘Proleter’ (1927–9) and the Jewish Singing Society ‘Lira’ (1931–6). After World War II, he worked as an editor in the transcription of folk music, a conductor of a folk orchestra, and a music producer at the Radio-Television Sarajevo, where his work was of great importance in educating young Bosnian singers about the style of Bosnian folk song called ...

Article

Amra Bosnić

(b Sarajevo, 1936). Bosnian and Herzegovinian violinist. He graduated in the violin at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo in 1962, after which he completed the Masters Degree in 1964. During the period 1965–7 he had further studies at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in the David Oistrakh Violin Department in the class of professor Olga Kaverzneva. He specialized at the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome (1970, 1973).

In 1955 he was employed as a teacher of the violin at the Srednja muzička škola (‘music high school’) in Sarajevo. In 1962 he started his engagement at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, where he remained as an assistant professor (starting in 1971), associate professor (1977), and full professor (1984) in the violin and violin pedagogy. Due to a shortage of relevant teaching staff, he was entrusted with the subjects of the viola and chamber music. From ...

Article

Harry B. Soria

[Apuakehau, Jr., Joseph Kekuku‘upenakana‘iapuniokamehameha ]

(b La‘ie, Oahu, Hawaii, 1874; d Dover, NJ, Jan 016, 1932). American steel guitarist, teacher, and inventor. The Hawaiian steel guitar’s invention is largely credited to Joseph Kekuku. Joseph and his cousin, Samuel Kalanahelu Nainoa (1877–1950) were raised in the rural village of La‘ie, Oahu. By the age of 11, the close companions had become skilled musicians under the tutelage of the elders of La‘ie. Prior to the creation of the Hawaiian steel guitar, Hawaiian musical combos featured primarily violin, flute, “Spanish” guitar, and ‘ukulele performances. Sam played the violin, while Joseph spent much of his time trying to make his guitar sound like Sam’s violin.

Joseph’s first experiments involved running various implements across the strings of a conventional gut-string guitar, including a steel bolt, a penknife, a pocket comb, a dull straight razor blade, and a tumbler, with the guitar laying across his lap. When the cousins enrolled as boarding students at Kamehameha School for Boys in the fall of ...

Article

Thomas F. Heck

(b Germany, 1872; d St. Louis, MO, April 3, 1962). American guitarist, music collector, and teacher. He immigrated to the United States at age 15 and settled in St. Louis. He played banjo and mandolin as well as guitar, and was largely self-taught, although the guitarist William Foden, whom he met in 1904, was his teacher before becoming his duet partner. Krick moved to Philadelphia in 1906, where he founded the Germantown Conservatory and was its director until the early 1940s. While there he edited a column on fretted instruments for The Etude magazine, and led the Mandoliers, a fretted-instrument quartet. The last two decades of his life were spent in St. Louis, where he taught privately. Krick met the Spanish guitarist Andrés Segovia when both were on concert tours of Germany in 1924, and was influential in arranging Segovia’s first tour of the United States in 1928...

Article

Martha Woodward

revised by Suzanne L. Moulton-Gertig

(b New Orleans, LA, Feb 7, 1907; d Englewood, NJ, July 8, 2004). American harpist and pedagogue. She studied with carlos Salzédo beginning at age 11. She made her professional debut at 18 on a 123-concert joint tour in Australia and New Zealand with singer Edna Thomas (1925). Returning to the United States, she organized the Lawrence Harp Quintet. She was first harpist with the Salzedo Harp Ensemble, becoming associate harp instructor under Salzédo at Curtis Institute (1927–31). She founded the harp department at the Philadelphia Music Academy, returning to Curtis after 1932. She married Salzédo in 1928; the marriage ended in divorce in 1936. She was harpist for Radio City Music Hall from 1932–40. Along with extensive freelance work, she appeared as a soloist with numerous orchestras. Sought after as an orchestral harpist, she turned down full-time positions with top orchestras for freelance work and teaching which she preferred. Lawrence was on the faculty at Mannes College (from ...