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(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...

Article

(b Wendelstein, Jan 10, 1479; d Breslau, Jan 10, 1552). German theologian, historian, humanist, music theorist and pedagogue. After studies with Heinrich Grieninger in Nuremberg, Cochlaeus entered the University of Cologne in 1504. A year later he had already gained the baccalaureate degree and in 1507 the MA. During these years his first treatise, Musica, was printed in three editions. He also became the music teacher of Heinrich Glarean, who, greatly admiring him, later included in his Dodecachordon three pedagogical compositions from his Musica. In 1510 on the recommendation of Willibald Pirckheimer, he became the rector of St Lorenz school in Nuremberg. There he organized a humanistically orientated curriculum and wrote the Tetrachordum musices (1511), his most valuable music treatise. In 1517 he earned a doctorate in theology at Ferrara and was ordained to the priesthood in Rome. In succeeding years he acquired a reputation as a fierce and unremitting opponent of Lutheranism and Calvinism. In an encounter with Luther at Worms in ...

Article

Michael Fend

[Lefèvre d’Etaples, Jacques]

(b Etaples,c1460; d Nérac, 1536). French theologian, scholar and music theorist . He matriculated at the University of Paris, possibly in 1474 or 1475, and received the BA in 1479 and the MA probably in 1480. He taught in the Faculty of Arts at the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine, University of Paris, until 1508 and was afterwards active as a scholar at the abbey of St Germain-des-Prés outside Paris. There he prepared a French translation of the New Testament and Psalms, which provoked the Parlement of Paris to summon him on suspicion of heresy. Clearly in sympathy with the Reformation, he fled to Strasbourg in 1525, but in 1526 he was recalled by François I, who appointed him librarian of the royal collection and made him tutor to his children. Faber completed his translation under royal protection; it was published in 1530. He spent his last years at the court of Queen Marguerite of Navarre....

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

[Schelling, Jan]

(b Glogau [now Głogów], ?c1445; d Kraków, Feb 11, 1507). Polish philosopher, astronomer and music theorist. After studying at Kraków University, he was a lecturer there for 40 years. During 1497–8 he lectured in mathematics in Vienna. He was one of the leading scholars in Kraków and Copernicus was probably among his pupils. A manuscript from the Krasiński Library, Warsaw, that included two treatises associated with Jan z Głogowa (MS 47) was destroyed during World War II. The treatises taken together were most probably a commentary on Johannes de Muris’s Musica speculativa. The manuscript, written during the period 1475–8, was owned by Jan z Głogowa and included his writings on astronomy. His commentary to Aristotle’s De anima, Quaestiones librorum de anima magistri 10 annis versaris (Kraków, 1501), presents some of the more standard views of medieval philosophy on the place of music among the mathematical disciplines....

Article

Jan Kouba

(b Husinec, Bohemia, ?1371; d Konstanz, July 6, 1415). Czech reformer. He was one of the most influential preachers and teachers at Prague University at the beginning of the 15th century. He was burnt at the stake by order of the Council of Konstanz. He has been associated with a number of Latin and Czech hymns, but there is very little evidence to support his authorship; it seems that he arranged the medieval melody ‘Jesu Kriste, štědrý kněže’ (‘Jesus Christ, thou bountiful prince’) in the Jistebnice Hussite hymnbook, and he may also have arranged or translated the texts of several other hymns, but the best-known one attributed to him, ‘Jesus Christus, nostra salus’, is clearly not by him. Some Czech musicologists (e.g. Nejedlý) have described Hus as the innovator of congregational singing in church, but this practice arose in 15th-century Bohemia only after his death. Hus's aesthetic views on music and singing did not deviate from those of the medieval tradition. Thus musical history was influenced only indirectly by him: the Hussite reformation, of which he was the inspiration, constitutes the first significant chapter in the history of Protestant church music in Europe....

Article

Don Harrán

(b ?Bourges, c1430–40; d ?Paris, 1499). French singer and scholar. He was the author of two tracts on verbal accentuation in plainchant. His early years seem to have been spent in Bourges, where he became a canon of Notre Dame de Sales (his familiarity with the Bourges chant tradition is clear from his writings). Later he was in Paris at the Collège de Navarre, where he enrolled in the 1450s as a student in the arts faculty and from 1465 in theology. He described himself as a ‘scholastic theologian’, that is, engaged in religious studies, and as a concentor, probably the associate of the cantor or precentor in singing the soloist portions of chant in the collegiate chapel services. In 1497 he was appointed rector of the University of Paris, though his tenure lasted only five months.

Of his 12 known publications, five are editions of liturgical books and five relate to various religious topics. In two others on music (ed. in Harrán) he countered the attacks, within the Collège, of certain ‘humanists’ (i.e. grammarians), who contended that music played havoc with the sacred texts. Le Munerat used every argument he could to refute their assertions and demonstrate that music, on the strength of its long tradition preserved in the chant books, could rightly ignore grammatical quantity in items subject to musical as against verbal logic. In the first treatise, ...

Article

Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

(b Legnica, 1464; d after 1546). German humanist, theorist and composer, active in Poland. He belonged to a German family in Silesia and his true name was probably Weihrauch. In 1494 he began his studies at Kraków University, and later went to Cologne for a time before returning to Kraków in 1501. From 1506 he was probably associated with the Gymnasium of the church of St Maria, Kraków, first as a cantor and from 1514 as rector. In 1511, 1513 and 1520 Liban lectured at Kraków University. About 1530 he travelled to the abbey of St Florian, near Linz. Among his many writings are two music treatises: De accentuum ecclesiasticorum exquisita ratione and De musicae laudibus oratio (both Kraków, c1539). There are also passages on music in his De philosophiae laudibus oratio (Kraków, 1537). All three treatises are reprinted in MMP, ser.D, vi–viii (1975–6...

Article

[BartolomeoRamos de Pareja, Bartolomé]

(b Baeza, Andalucía, c1440; d ?Rome, after 1490). Spanish theorist and composer active in Italy. His life is undocumented; all that is known about him comes from his own testimony or that of later writers. His first teacher was one Johannes de Monte. He claimed to have lectured at the University of Salamanca for a time, though his position (as later in Bologna) may have been unofficial. While there he wrote a treatise in Spanish (perhaps the one he elsewhere referred to as Introductorium seu Isagogicon) and a mass, both now lost. He went to Italy in the 1470s; his extended residence in Bologna is the best-recorded period of his life. There he lectured publicly on music (though not under the auspices of the university) and had private pupils, including Giovanni Spataro. His important Musica practica (ed. J. Wolf, Leipzig, 1901/R; ed. C. Terni, Madrid, ...