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(b Bourmont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, June 7, 1732; d Paris, May 21, 1801). French impresario, singer and dramatist. He first made his name as a singer with the Opéra-Comique (after about 1758), chiefly in artisan roles; no doubt it was to exploit this special talent that he was allowed to put on an opéra comique of his own, Le tonnelier, after La Fontaine's Le cuvier (Foire St Laurent, 28 September 1761). The work failed but Audinot nevertheless joined the Comédie-Italienne when that company merged with the Opéra-Comique in 1762. Audinot revised the libretto of Le tonnelier with A.-F. Quétant, and the work was revived on 16 March 1765 at the Comédie-Italienne with new ariettes and ensembles by various composers. In this new version it had considerable success in France, Holland and Germany alike. Audinot left the Comédie-Italienne in 1767 and soon became one of the principal impresarios of the Paris stage. After attracting crowds to his puppet show at the Foire St Germain, he opened the Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique on ...


Gunter Hempel

(b Gotha, bap. Sept 12, 1753; d Leipzig, Nov 30, 1813). German composer and writer on music. Between 1777 and 1789 he was intermittently active in the Hamburg theatre, first as a singer and later as a violinist and music director. He also visited St Petersburg (c1780), was music director of the newly established theatre in Riga in 1782–3 and appeared in Moscow in 1785. In 1790 he moved to Leipzig, where he wrote the articles on music for J.G. Grohmann's Kurzgefasstes Handwörterbuch über die schönen Künste (1794). At the beginning of his career he composed mainly instrumental chamber works, but in Leipzig he published many songs and small instrumental pieces for amateurs. His song Die Forelle has been cited as a source of inspiration for Schubert's setting. According to Schilling, he was also a respected piano and mandolin player.

all published in Leipzig unless otherwise stated...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Glinno, nr Poznań, April 9, 1757; d Warsaw, July 23, 1829). Polish impresario, librettist, actor and singer. He was a central figure in the history of the Polish theatre. He studied in Kraków (1770–73), where he attended many theatrical and concert performances organized by Sierakowski, prompting him to change the direction of his career away from the army and towards the theatre. He probably completed his studies at the Piarist school in Warsaw. For a few months during 1778 he studied acting with L. Montbrun, a Warsaw theatrical impresario. Soon afterwards he made his début as an actor in N.T. Barthé’s comedy Zmyślona niewierność (‘Imaginary Infidelity’), and on 11 July 1778 as a singer and librettist in the première of Maciej Kamieński’s opera Poverty made Happy. In 1783 he became the director of the National Theatre in Warsaw, remaining in this position (with some breaks) until ...


Peter Branscombe

(b ? Moravia or Upper Austria, ?1740s; d Aachen, bur. Aug 7, 1792). Austrian theatre manager, actor and singer. He was engaged at Brünn (now Brno) in 1770, from the autumn of that year as director of the troupe. For long periods he toured in Austria, southern Germany and the Rhineland. In early summer 1776 he directed an opera season at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna, in collaboration with Noverre: 14 works were given, almost all of them Singspiel adaptations of French operettas, many of which later became standard fare in Vienna. He was Joseph II’s original choice as producer for the new National Singspiel company, but his appointment was frustrated. However, he and his wife (Maria Anna [Marianne]; née Jacobs) appeared in his translation of the Sedaine-Monsigny Rose et Colas at the Burgtheater on 9 May 1778 and were with the company for the remainder of the season; their daughters appeared in minor roles....


[Bortnyansky, Dmitry Stepanovich]

(b Hlukhiv, Ukraine, 1751; d St Petersburg, 28 Sept/Oct 10, 1825). Ukrainian composer, singer and music director, active in Russia. He began his musical training early, possibly at the Hlukhiv choir school, and in 1758 went to sing in the Russian imperial court chapel in St Petersburg, where he became one of Empress Elizabeth's favourite choirboys. Singled out for his unusual talent, he was trained in opera and eventually performed major roles in court productions: in 1764 he played the role of Admetus in H.F. Raupach's Al′tsesta.

During this period he studied composition with Galuppi. In 1769, after Galuppi had left for Venice, Catherine the Great sent Bortnyans′ky to further his studies there, with Galuppi. His first extant compositions date from his years in Italy: he composed three opere serie, two of them, Creonte (1776) and Alcide (1778), for Venice and the third, ...


Alice B. Belgray and Newell Jenkins

[Caetano, Cayetano]

(b ?Fano, 1744; d Colmenar de Orejo, nr Madrid, Dec 16, 1798). Italian composer, violinist and orchestra director, active in Spain. The son of Stefano Brunetti (of Fano) and Vittoria Perusini, he probably studied the violin in Livorno with Pietro Nardini. Having moved with his parents to Madrid by 1762 (the date of a collection with one small piece by him), he entered the service of Charles III in 1767 as a violinist of the royal chapel. He also taught music and the violin to the king’s son, the Prince of Asturias, and composed for the court. By 1771 his duties had expanded to include commissions for festivities at Aranjuez, and in 1779 he was appointed music director of such festivities.

When Charles IV became king (1788) he appointed Brunetti director of the newly formed royal chamber orchestra; Brunetti wrote much for the group and selected a wide repertory from contemporary European composers, with works of Haydn strongly featured. Brunetti was also responsible for collecting and maintaining the royal library, and he is partly responsible for the rich collection now housed in the royal palace, Madrid. In spite of the social and governmental weaknesses of his court, the king’s interest in art (as Goya’s patron), his accomplishments as a violinist and his insatiable appetite for new works provided a stimulating cultural atmosphere in which Brunetti flourished. Brunetti was also a welcome and frequent visitor at the court of the Duke of Alba, to whom he dedicated several works, and his influence extended to numerous other courts in Madrid, including that of Boccherini’s patron, the Infante Don Luis. He remained in Charles’s service until his death, which occurred within a month of his second marriage. He was survived by a daughter and a son Francesco (...


(b Montaigut-sur-Save, Jan 26, 1700; d Paris, May 3, 1788). French concert entrepreneur and cellist. He served as basse du grand choeur in the Paris Opéra orchestra from 1736 to 1755. That he played the cello, rather than the basse de viole, is implied by Corrette in 1741: ‘at the Musique du Roi, at the Opéra, and in concerts, it is the violoncello that plays the basse continue’. By 1748 Capperan was rehearsing singers as a maître de chant. His health began failing by 1753. He had obtained the survivance of a charge in the Vingt-Quatre Violons du Roi in 1746 and succeeded to the post in 1749; he resigned it in 1759 to André-Joseph Exaudet. The Affiches de Paris reported his burial at St. Roch in Paris; the Almanach musicale gave the date of death.

On 14 June 1748, Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer made Capperan a 25 percent partner in the ...


Nancy Joyce Cooper and Jan Walters

(Louisa Caterina Cecilia)

( b Florence, 1759/60; d Lodi, Jan 5, 1838). English musician and painter , mainly active in Italy. Her parents managed several inns in Florence for the English on the Grand Tour. She was elected to the Florentine Accademia del Disegno at the age of 18. In 1779 she moved to London where in 1781 she married the painter Richard Cosway (1742–1821). In the 1780s she hosted fashionable ‘Great Concerts’ at her London home, where the performers included the Linleys, Rubinelli, Tenducci, Marchesi, Francesco Bartolozzi, Johann Baptist Dantzi and Julie Krumpholtz. Cosway sang and played the harp and harpsichord; Peter Pindar wrote that ‘in music her compositions are tender, elegant, and persuasive’. In 1790 Cosway returned to Italy where she founded the Collegio delle Dame Inglesi in Lodi. In 1834 she was made a baroness by Franz I, Emperor of Austria.

Her known works consist of ...


Michael A. Keller

revised by Elisabeth Cook

(b Moulins, Oct 3, 1713; d Lyons, Feb 11, 1797). French composer, violinist and administrator. His father, Jacques Dauvergne, was a musician and probably his first teacher. Antoine began his career as a violinist in Moulins and Clermont-Ferrand before moving to Paris in the late 1730s. According to Pierre de Bernis, he studied composition with Rameau (not with Leclair, as stated by La Laurencie and Pincherle). In 1739 he became a violinist in the chambre du roi and registered the privilege to publish his op.1, Sonates en trio (granted in 1740). He joined the Opéra orchestra in 1744 and by 1752 had assumed some of the conducting responsibilities. His first stage work, Les amours de Tempé, a ballet in four acts, was presented at the Opéra in 1752 and received a favourable review in the Mercure de France. Dauvergne’s most enduring operatic success, Les troqueurs, was staged the following year and established a theatrical career which was to last over 20 years....


Elizabeth Gibson and Curtis Price


(b Florence, Jan 7, 1728; d London, Jan 5, 1805). Italian dancer, choreographer and impresario. He moved to Paris and, according to Antoine de Léris (Dictionnaire portatif des théâtres, 1754), was a member of the Académie Royale de Musique company until at least 1754. His first recorded appearance in London was at Covent Garden on 17 December 1757, when he danced in the ballets The Judgement of Paris and The Sicilian Peasants. In autumn 1758 he joined the corps de ballet at the King's Theatre, dancing in operas by Cocchi and Perez, and was named director of dances for Cocchi's Ciro riconosciuto (3 February 1759). He continued as dance director as well as a performer through the 1762–3 season, providing ballets for J.C. Bach's first London opera, Orione (19 February 1763). During 1763–4 he returned to Covent Garden as director of dances and was re-engaged in ...


Robert D. Hume

(b Hereford, Feb 19, 1717; d London, Jan 20, 1779). English actor, manager and playwright. He was the greatest Shakespearean actor of the mid-18th century and an influential manager of Drury Lane from 1747 to his retirement in 1776. He was also knowledgeable about ballet and opera. In 1749 he married the dancer Eva Maria Veigel, who had come to London in March 1746. Garrick visited Paris and established contact with such figures as Noverre, the pyrotechnist Morel Torré, the violinist-composer F.H. Barthélemon (who provided music for Garrick’s burletta Orpheus) and J.P. de Loutherbourg, who revolutionized stage design at Drury Lane in the 1770s. Garrick’s relatively ‘naturalistic’ acting style – he broke with the pompous declamatory styles in fashion since Dryden’s day – made him an important influence on such theatrical and operatic reformers as Algarotti, Diderot and Noverre. He is said to have taught his acting style to Guadagni, who was to be Gluck’s Orpheus (...


James R. Hines, Barbara Turchin and Nicholas Michael Butler

(b Hesse-Kassel, Germany, c1786; d New York, NY, July 30, 1829). American theater manager, pianist, organist, composer, and music publisher of German birth. He moved to the United States at the end of the 18th century and was probably related to the musician George Gilfert who was in New York as early at 1789. In his first New York advertisement in 1800, he was described as a musician “lately from Europe.” The New York directory of 1805 lists him as a music teacher in that city, but in 1806 he migrated to Charleston, South Carolina, with a number of other theater musicians. He presented his first concert there on 3 March 1807 and quickly became a favorite member of the local music scene. In December 1809 he became the organist of St. John’s Lutheran Church, and in December 1810 he opened a music store in partnership with a fellow German musician, Philip Muck, under the name C. Gilfert and Company. This institution chiefly sold imported instruments, accessories, and music, but in early ...


Helmut Kallmann

[Johann Friedrich Conrad; Frédéric]

(b Hanover, Aug 10, 1759; d Quebec, 12/Jan 13, 1836). Canadian musician of German birth. The son of a military band musician, he is reported to have been a violin prodigy. In 1777 he enlisted in one of the Brunswick regiments destined for Canada. Discharged in 1783, he settled in Quebec, where he made a living as instrumentalist, teacher, tuner, repairman, and importer of instruments and sheet music. He was probably the first full-time musician in Canada who left a mark both immediate and lasting. His activities, probably as a director and conductor, enhanced the holding of subscription concerts in Quebec in the 1790s, featuring orchestral and chamber music by J.C. Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Pleyel and others. Many of the printed parts assumed to have been supplied by Glackemeyer are still preserved. Prince Edward (later Duke of Kent), in Quebec 1791–4, is said to have appointed him a regimental bandmaster....


(b Berlin, 30 Nov ?1746 [or 1743/4]; d Hanover, May 20, 1796). German actor, manager, dramatist and librettist. While in the Prussian civil service at Danzig he was offered the chance of standing in for a member of Abel Seyler's company at Gotha in 1774; his performance as Riccaut in Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm was much admired and he remained with Seyler's company until 1778, marrying the widowed actress Karoline Flittner soon after joining. In 1778 he established his own company, touring especially in north-west Germany, but having his headquarters at the Elector of Cologne's theatre at Bonn. From 1784 he directed a second company performing at Mainz and Frankfurt (where he had supervised the opening of the new theatre in 1782), while his wife controlled the Bonn theatre. In 1786 he toured again, appearing in Cologne, Hanover, Kassel and elsewhere. His last play, Wer wird sie bekommen?...


August Scharnagl

revised by Josef Focht

(b Altötting, Jan 11, 1727; d Passau, April 23, 1812). German Kapellmeister, violinist and composer. His grandfather Philipp Haindl (d c1681) was a choral director at Ebersberg (near Munich), and his father Johann Sebastian Haindl (1645–1732) was a choirboy at Munich Cathedral, a singer in the Damenstift at Hall, and the choral director at Altötting (1683–1706, and from 1715). F.S. Haindl first studied music with his stepfather, the tenor Wolfgang Stängelmayr, and as a choirboy at the Altötting collegiate church. He studied the violin at Munich and went to Innsbruck in 1748. In 1752 Duke Clemens of Bavaria appointed him first violinist at the Munich court, a post he held until about 1778, though he stayed much of the time at Innsbruck, where he met Leopold Mozart. After Duke Clemens's death in 1770 he frequently performed festival music at monasteries in the Tyrol, where most of his extant works are held. From ...


Robert N. Freeman


(b Reyersdorf, Lower Austria, Oct 27, 1748; d Leesdorf, nr Baden, Sept 10, 1826). Austrian music director, botanist, violinist and organist. He was a choirboy in Nikolsburg (now Mikulov, Czech Republic) before entering Melk Abbey as a novice in 1766. He was ordained in 1772 and was the abbey's musical director from July 1778 until August 1787. Not very active as a composer, Helm was preoccupied with collecting, copying and cataloguing works by his contemporaries. At Melk he left only two compositions and a singing method of his own authorship, but left hundreds of copies of works by other composers, notably instrumental works by Haydn, and several valuable thematic catalogues. Compositions that survive with his name outside Melk invariably turn out to be copies in his hand of works by other composers. An anonymous portrait in oils is in the Rollettmuseum, Baden.

R.N. Freeman: ‘Zwei Melker Musikkataloge aus der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts’, ...


Susan L. Porter

(b nr Manchester, England, cJune 7, 1765; d nr Bladensburg, MD, Sept 12, 1805). Actor, singer, and theatrical manager of English birth. He began his career in 1782 with the Tate Wilkinson troupe in York; by 1790 he was playing leading roles in tragedy, comedy, and comic opera at the major English provincial theaters. He made his debut in the United States on 26 September 1792 with the Old American Company in Philadelphia, together with his second wife, Frances Hodgkinson (née Brett) (b England, 1771; d Philadelphia, PA, 27 Sept 1803). In addition to his varied acting roles and his notable popularity with audiences, Hodgkinson frequently sang in concert. He was credited with “a fine taste for music” and a voice that was “powerful, melodious, variable, and of immense compass” (Mirror of Taste and Dramatic Censor, i/3, 1810); he was also said to be proficient on the violin and the flute. He became manager of the Old American Company in ...


(b Vienna, Feb 22, 1717; d Vienna, Feb 3, 1784). Austrian comic actor, singer, dramatist and theatre manager. The son of the actor-manager Felix Kurz, and godson of ‘Hanswurst’ Stranitzky and J.B. Hilverding, he grew up in the theatre, and by the age of 20 he was performing leading roles with the German troupe at Vienna's Kärntnertortheater under the direction of Stranitzky's successor, Gottfried Prehauser. From 1740 until 1744 Kurz performed in Germany (most notably in Frankfurt and Dresden). Back in Vienna (1744–53) he developed and perfected the kind of magic burlesque, generously larded with songs, choruses, ensembles and incidental music, that dominated the popular repertory in most of the southern German lands. In a lengthy series of plays, mainly of his own devising, he appeared as Bernardon, a lively, urbane, satirical comic character. After the imperial ban on extemporization, Kurz moved in 1753 to Prague, where he was Locatelli's sub-lessee and director at the Kotzen Opera. He returned to Vienna in ...


Georg Karstädt

(b Rambouillers, nr Nancy, 1756; d Lübeck, June 18, 1806). French violinist, composer and music dealer, active in Germany. He first studied the violin and composition with Joseph-Antoine Lorenziti, maître de chapelle at Nancy Cathedral. From 1780 to 1792 Lacroix lived in Paris where he achieved considerable fame as a violin virtuoso and published his Six Sonates pour piano et violon, op.1 (1784). He left Paris in 1792 because of the Revolution, travelling via Bruges to Bremen, where he evidently remained until 1794. He made several concert tours in Denmark and Germany, served for a short time as a chamber musician to the King of Prussia in Berlin, then from 22 January 1796 was a municipal musician in Lübeck. There he was also active in private concerts with the organist J.W.C. von Königslöw. From 1799 he built up a music trade, offering the most important current works by Haydn, Zumsteeg and Pleyel, as well as his own sonatas, duos and variations for the violin. His works were praised by his contemporaries for their brilliant and effective passages for the instrument, their pleasing melodies and their straightforward structures. (J. Hennings and W. Stahl: ...


Brian Boydell

(b ?Dublin; d Dublin, Feb 21, 1776). Irish publisher, music seller and violinist. He was one of the most prominent and active musicians in Dublin during the 1750s and 60s. In 1745 he was admitted to the City Music, of which he was appointed bandmaster in 1752 at a salary of £40, increased to £60 in 1753. During this period he was appearing regularly as principal violinist at the summer open-air concerts at Marlborough Green between 1750 and 1756 and as conductor of the annual performance of Handel’s Messiah at the Great Musick Hall in Fishamble Street. In July 1751 he became violinist and musical director in the syndicate which leased Crow Street Musick Hall for the six years before it was taken over, rebuilt and opened as a theatre.

Samuel Lee was founder of the music shop and publishing firm which carried out business at Little Green, off Bolton Street (...