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(b Pisky, near Khar′kiv, 8/Sept 20, 1876; d Paris, Jan 8, 1945). Ukrainian composer and pianist. Aged ten he was sent, along with his brother Yakiv (later known as the composer Stepovy), to sing in the choir of the Imperial Chapel in St Petersburg. It was during his time there (1886–95) that he began to compose under the influence of his teachers Balakirev and Lyapunov. He finished studies with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory in 1901, the year in which the latter conducted the first performance of the Lyric Poem, op.20. Akimenko then became the director of a music school in Tbilisi (1901–03). He performed widely as a pianist, particularly in France and Switzerland, and lived for a while in Paris (1903–06) before returning to Khar′kiv. In 1914 he was invited to teach composition and theory at the St Petersburg Conservatory, a post he held until ...

Article

Faruk Yener

revised by Münir Nurettin Beken

(b Istanbul, May 6, 1908; d Ankara, Feb 16, 1999). Turkish composer. He was a member of the Turkish Five, a group of outstanding composers who, from the 1930s, promoted a Western musical style. Akses first played the violin and then took up the cello at the age of 14. He studied harmony with Cemal Reşit Rey at the Istanbul Municipal Conservatory. In 1926 he left for Vienna where he attended Joseph Marx’s harmony, counterpoint and composition classes for advanced students at the Academy. After receiving his diploma in 1931, he went to Prague and studied with Josef Suk and Alois Hába at the Prague Conservatory. He returned to Turkey in 1934 and was appointed a teacher of composition at the Music Teachers School, becoming its director in 1948. He then took a number of official positions: in 1949 he was director general of the Fine Arts Section of the Ministry of Education, then cultural attaché in Berne (...

Article

(b Bologoye, 22 July/Aug 4, 1905; d Moscow, June 17, 1994). Russian composer and conductor, son of Aleksandr Vasil′yevich Aleksandrov. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Glier, graduating in 1929, and worked as a music director in Moscow clubs (1923–9), music director of the Red Army Theatre (1930–37), lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory (1933–41) and leader of the Soviet Radio Song Ensemble (1942–7). From 1937 to 1946 he was deputy director of the Aleksandrov Red Army Song and Dance Ensemble, which was founded by his father and, after the latter's death, came under his direction. He received the State Prize (1950) and the title People's Artist of the USSR (1958). In Dva p′yesï (‘Two Pieces’) op.1 (1928) for piano he developed a compositional system synthesizing the principle of the 12-note series (with inversions and permutations) with a harmonic set technique and mirror symmetry. Later works, such as the well-known musical comedy ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...

Article

Juan Orrego-Salas

(b Santiago, June 29, 1885; d Santiago, Aug 17, 1959). Chilean composer and ethnomusicologist. He studied the violin, music theory and composition at the Santiago Conservatorio National de Música (1899–1908). The Chilean government then sent him to France and Spain for further study (1910–11). On returning to Chile he was elected to the Folklore Society and worked for the Ministry of Education in improving the teaching of music in the state schools (1924–8). He travelled again to Europe in 1922 and was one of the founders of the International Academy of Fine Arts in Paris (1923). In 1928 he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio National, which had recently become part of the arts faculty of the University of Chile. There, until his retirement in 1946, he taught many Chilean composers who later came to international prominence. On another visit to Europe, also in ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

(b Astigarraga, Guipúzcoa, 1893; d Seville, Dec 7, 1970). Spanish composer and organist. He studied with Donostia and others in San Sebastián, with Otaño at the Comillas Seminary, and in Paris with Eugène Cools. In 1919 he was appointed maestro de capilla at Orense Cathedral and then organist at Seville Cathedral, where he became ...

Article

August Corbet

revised by Corneel Mertens and Diana von Volborth-Danys

(b Antwerp, Sept 12, 1876; d Antwerp, Oct 5, 1954). Belgian composer and conductor. He studied in Antwerp at the Flemish Music School (later called the Royal Flemish Conservatory) under Peter Benoit and Jan Blockx, and conducting under Eduard Keurvels. In 1903 he became professor at the Conservatory, and was director of that institution from 1934 to 1941, when he retired. He was also active as an orchestral and operatic conductor, and was a member of the Académie Royale de Belgique.

Alpaerts was one of the outstanding personalities in Flemish musical life, both as conductor and composer; he was also a great teacher and an admirable organizer. As a composer he was, like Paul Gilson and August de Boeck, a typical Flemish representative of the Impressionist school. However, his Impressionism came closer to Richard Strauss and Respighi than to Debussy. An example of this tendency is the symphonic poem ...

Article

John M. Schechter

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago de Chile, June 22, 1922; d Santiago, Feb 3, 1999). Chilean composer and writer. Introduced to music by his father, a cellist, he studied theory and the piano at the Catholic Conservatory from 1935 to 1939. After graduating in civil engineering from the University of Chile (1945), he pursued work in composition with Jorge Urrutia Blondel at the National Conservatory (1948–52). He made his first experiments in electronic music when he was planning music programmes for Chilean Radio (1953–6), and in 1956 created the Experimental Sound Workshop at the Catholic University of Santiago. He taught both at the Catholic University and on the arts faculty of the University of Chile.

Amenábar wrote for the voice, chamber groups, solo instruments, and ensembles, and he composed incidental music for the cinema and theatre. His electro-acoustic music carries special importance: such works as ...

Article

Juan Orrego-Salas

revised by Luis Merino

(b Santiago, Sept 2, 1911; d Santiago, Aug 2, 1954). Chilean composer and pianist. He studied with Allende for composition and Renard for the piano at the Santiago National Conservatory (1923–35), where he then held appointments as coach at the opera department (1935), assistant professor of the piano (1937), professor of analysis (1940), and director (1945). At the same time he taught at the Liceo Manuel de Salas in Santiago. He was secretary-general to the Instituto de Extensión Musical (from 1941), a founder-director of the Escuela Moderna de Música, Santiago (1940), and a member of various arts societies. In 1943 he went to the USA as a guest of the Institute of International Education and in 1953 he was in Europe for the performance of his Wind Sextet at the ISCM Festival. His early compositions show the influences of French music and Chilean folklore; from the late 1940s his work became more Expressionist and abstract....

Article

Daniel Zager

[Jones, (Everett) LeRoi]

(b Newark, NJ, Oct 7, 1934). American writer. He studied piano, drums, and trumpet privately and attended Howard University (BA 1954). In the early 1960s he achieved wide recognition for his poetry and plays and for his writings about jazz, which included articles for Down Beat, Jazz, and Jazz Review; a selection of his writings, many from Down Beat, was published in 1967 as Black Music. His book Blues People (1963), the first full-length study of jazz by a black writer, is both a sociological inquiry, using blues and jazz as a means of understanding how African Americans became assimilated into American culture, and a superb discussion of the cultural context of the music in the United States. Besides his activities as a writer, Baraka has been involved in many black cultural and community projects. He was a founder of the Black Arts Repertory Theater-School, which was in existence from ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Pest, Oct 6, 1825; d Budapest, Aug 31, 1901). Hungarian musical administrator, composer and teacher. The fourth son of the composer and theatre director András Bartay, he read law and also studied the piano and music theory with his brother András (b ?1822; d St Petersburg, 1 July 1846). He worked in the independent Hungarian Ministry of Transport (1848–9) but was forced to earn a living as a piano teacher after the defeat of the Hungarian struggle for independence. About 1850 he completed his musical studies on his own, and a few years later he was a sought-after teacher and a popular composer of piano music. From the 1860s, Bartay played an increasingly important role in Hungarian musical life. He set up an organization to aid musicians living in Hungary (1863), and was its president until his death. As a qualified lawyer, he was responsible for drawing up and presenting to the Hungarian parliament a plan for the organization of the new state music academy (...

Article

J. Michele Edwards

(b Walla Walla, WA, Aug 15, 1882; d South Hadley, MA, Aug 9, 1955). American composer, teacher and writer on music. She studied in Portland, Oregon, and in Paris and Berlin, her teachers including Boulanger, Gédalge, Huss and Pugno. During twelve Summers between 1919 and 1944 she visited the MacDowell Colony where she produced many of her compositions and met other important women composers including Amy Beach, Mabel Daniels, Miriam Gideon and Ruth Crawford. Bauer taught music history and composition at New York University (1926–51), was affiliated with the Juilliard School of Music from 1940 until her death and lectured widely. Open to various styles, she was a champion of American music and modern composers, as evidenced by her participation in many organizations, e.g. founding member of the American Music Guild (1921), the Society of American Women Composers, the ACA and the AMC. She was secretary for the Society for the Publications of American Music, and a board member for the League of Composers and the ACA. Frequently she was the only woman in a position of leadership in these associations....

Article

Kara Gardner

(b Detroit, March 28, 1866; d Chicago, Dec 6, 1945). American violinist, conductor, musical director, teacher, and composer. Bendix was born to Jewish parents who had emigrated from Germany. His father William was a music teacher. Bendix began formal study at the Cincinnati College of Music where, at the age of twelve, he performed with the college orchestra, directed by Theodore Thomas. This began a long association between the two men, leading to Bendix’s appointment as first violinist and concertmaster of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in 1886. In August 1893 Thomas resigned his position as music director of the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition following a series of unsuccessful concerts. Bendix took Thomas’s place as conductor of the Exposition orchestra. This created tension between the two men, and Bendix left the Thomas orchestra in 1896. He went on to serve as conductor at the Manhattan Opera House and to conduct orchestras for world fairs in St. Louis (...

Article

Franz Gehring

revised by John Warrack and Rudolf Walter

(b Breslau, May 16, 1780; d Breslau, May 9, 1827). German organist, teacher, composer and musical organizer. He studied music with his father, Johann Georg Berner (1738–1810), organist at St Elisabeth, Breslau, becoming his assistant at 13 and succeeding him in 1810. He also learnt many other instruments, and at the age of 16 became clarinettist in the city theatre orchestra; he also studied composition with Franz Gehirne. Around 1798 he heard the organist David Traugott Nicolai, whose father had been a pupil of Bach, and was so impressed that he abandoned ‘the galant style of organ playing’ for that of Bach. When Weber was appointed Kapellmeister in 1804 Berner befriended him, and when Weber accidentally drank some engraving acid, it was Berner's prompt action which prevented disastrous consequences. In 1812 Berner went to Berlin with Joseph Schnabel, leader of the theatre orchestra, to study Zelter's teaching methods at the Sing-Akademie, the Prussian government's intention being to form similar institutions. While in Berlin he played Mozart's Concerto for two pianos with Weber, and also performed as an organist. Three years later the Akademische Institut für Kirchenmusik was founded in Breslau, with Berner and Schnabel as directors. After the dissolution of the Silesian monasteries in ...

Article

Bo Wallner and Hans Åstrand

(b Växjö, Oct 19, 1916; d Kungsängen, nr Stockholm, June 14, 1968). Swedish composer, teacher and administrator. He went to Stockholm in 1934 to study biochemistry, but soon his interest in music prevailed and in 1935 he began lessons with Rosenberg. His earliest works – the Trio for woodwind (1938), the First String Quartet (1939) and the Symfoniska danser (1939) – already show solid craftsmanship and thorough motivic work; stylistically they recall not only contemporary Rosenberg but also Nielsen and Sibelius. Blomdahl continued his studies, after wartime service, at the Swedish Royal Academy of Music with Tor Mann (conducting) and Mogens Wøldike (Baroque music). In the mid-1940s he appeared frequently as a conductor outside Stockholm, but later he conducted only occasionally, and then only his own music.

At this time there began also the acitivies of the Monday Group, an informal association of young composers, instrumentalists and musicologists who met in Blomdahl’s flat to discuss and analyse new works and compositional techniques, their attention being centred on Hindemith’s ...

Article

Sven Hansell

(b Milan, ? end of the 17th century; d Milan, ? c1758). Italian composer, possibly an impresario, singing teacher and violinist. 18th-century sources (e.g. BurneyH; GerberL; GerberNL and La BordeE) blur the distinction between two or more musicians active in Milan by failing to give first names. Only the revised edition of Mancini (1777) supplies Giuseppe Ferdinando as the composer’s first names and describes him as a prominent Milanese singing teacher without identifying him with the violinist, composer and impresario also active in Milan. In fact a family of Brivios could be involved, including an older singing teacher, Carlo Francesco Brivio, who appeared in Milanese operas of 1696, Teodolinda and L’Etna festante, the librettos for which call him ‘musico di S.E. il Castellano’ (the castle commander’s musician). Suggested as Giuseppe Ferdinando’s father (Martinotti in DBI), this Carlo Francesco may have been the bass employed in the ducal court chapel until ...

Article

Rolf Haglund

(b Stocksund, Aug 5, 1927). Swedish composer, teacher and writer on music. After studying the piano with Y. Flyckt and theory with Eppstein, he read musicology at Uppsala University, taking his doctorate in 1953 with a thesis on the ritual of the nuns of Vadstena. He studied composition with Blomdahl (1947–51), Orff, Petrassi and Deutsch. Thereafter he was a university lecturer (1965–9) and cultural attaché at the Swedish Embassy in Bonn (1970–73). Elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy in 1964, between 1975 and 1985 he was professor of composition at the Royal College of Music, Stockholm, and its director from 1987 to 1993. As an administrator he has served as chairman of Fylkingen (1956–9), chairman of the Society of Swedish Composers (1963–9), a director, chairman and secretary of the Swedish section of the ISCM (1960–69...

Article

Claude V. Palisca

(b Rome, c1550; d Rome, March 11, 1602). Italian composer, organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer, administrator and diplomat. He was the composer of the first surviving play set entirely to music, the Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600), the score of which is the earliest one printed with a figured bass.

Cavalieri was the son of Lavinia della Valle and Tommaso Cavalieri (1512–87), an architect and intimate friend of Michelangelo Buonarotti. His brother, Mario (d 1580), coordinated the Lenten music in the Oratorio del SS Crocifisso in S Marcello, Rome, between 1568 and 1579. He himself also participated in this Oratorio both as an organist and as a coordinator of Lenten music from 1578 until at least 1584 (the account books are missing for 1584–94); during his administration the yearly expenditure on music rose from 51 to 140 scudi....

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Robert J. Garofalo

(b Newton, MA, Jan 5, 1871; d Westwood, MA, June 8, 1940). American composer, teacher and administrator. He was the youngest of seven children born into a New England family. At the age of ten he began to study the piano, and showed an interest in composition almost from the start. After a good education in the public and private schools of Newton, Converse entered Harvard College in 1889, where he studied under Paine. He received the BA with highest honours in music in 1893, and then tried to carry out his father's wish that he pursue a business career. But his nature was unsuited to commercial life, and after a few unhappy months in an office he decided to devote all of his energies to a career in music. He resumed his study of the piano with Baermann and of composition with Chadwick. Recognizing the need for further study, Converse went to Munich in ...