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Article

Aleyn  

Margaret Bent

(fl c1400). English composer. He was the composer of two works in the Old Hall Manuscript. One is a Gloria (no.8), ascribed to ‘Aleyn’ without initial; it is a homorhythmic setting in score, notable for its sprightly text declamation. The other piece, also in score, is an erased descant setting of Sarum Agnus Dei no.3 (Old Hall, no.128), where the remains of the ascription appears to read ‘W. Aleyn’ (not ‘W. Typp’, as reported in D. Fallows: ...

Article

(b ?Medina del Campo, 1394; ruled 1416–58; d Naples, June 27, 1458). Spanish monarch and patron. He was the son of Fernando I of Antequera and Leonor of Albuquerque. His activity as patron is usually divided into two periods, before and after he had settled in Naples (1433). He was an outstanding patron of minstrels, among them the shawm player Jehan Boisard and the lutenist Rodrigo de la Guitarra. The choir of his royal chapel was, according to his contemporaries, one of the finest of its day. In the two earliest records of its members, dating from 1413 and 1417, there are 13 singers, among them Gacian Reyneau and Leonart Tallender, and two organists. His singers were recruited from Spain, France and Germany: in October 1419 he sent one of them, Huguet lo Franch, to his native land in search of singers, providing him with a letter offering all kinds of privileges. In ...

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Emericus, Johannes ]

(fl 1487–1506). German printer, active in Italy. He came from Udenheim in the diocese of Speyer. In 1487 he printed two books with Johann Hamman, in 1492 he began printing on his own, and in 1494 for Luc’Antonio Giunta and other Venetian publishers. His speciality was liturgical books with music. Of the 71 books he issued, 67 were liturgical and at least 24 contain printed music or space for manuscript music (20 missals, one gradual, one antiphonal, two processionals and two Libri catechumeni). To print music he used woodcut blocks (a 1493 Missale romanum), metal roman plainchant types in four sizes and added mensural music type for the mensural Credos of the 1499 Graduale. The Graduale has been called the largest book printed in the 15th century; it uses a very large chant type with a variety of designs for different-sized neumes as well as ornamentation or liquescence. The mensural type, a black notation, preceded that of Petrucci by two years....

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Article

Miriam Miller

(d 1543). English music printer and publisher. He printed Myles Coverdale’s Goostly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes. Long conjectured on textual grounds to date from just before Gough’s death, this work has been located in John Rastell’s will, suggesting a publication date of before 20 April 1536. It employs the same type originally used by Rastell, with whom Gough had business connections; no other piece of music printing by Gough has survived. He worked at the ‘Sign of the Mermaid’, Lombard Street, London....

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Craft guild embracing harpsichord builders in some European cities, especially in the Low Countries. It was named after St Luke, the patron of painters, and like other guilds was originally a religious organization which evolved into a regulatory and protective association. In Antwerp, the Sint Lucasgilde can be traced back to 1382 and kept records until its closure in 1773. Besides harpsichord builders, its members included painters, gilders, carvers, printers, cabinet makers, and certain other specialists, as well as persons engaged in some seemingly unrelated trades. Notably, women were allowed in the Antwerp guild, but this was uncommon elsewhere. The guild protected its members against outside competition, set standards for workmanship, and regulated training and prices, among other functions. A surviving contract shows that Goosen Karest, although already a journeyman painter for eight years, entered a three-year apprenticeship with his brother, the harpsichord maker Joes Karest, in 1537. Goosen was required to work only for Joes, to provide for his own living, to work 11 to 14 hours per day, by candlelight if necessary, with a 90-minute midday break, and to make up any lost time at the end of the three years, in return for a small daily wage but not room and board....

Article

Teresa Chylińska

(b Rothenburg, c?1467; d Kraków, 7 or Oct 8, 1525). Polish publisher and bookseller of German birth. Granted the first royal privilege issued in Poland, he began its earliest publishing business in Kraków in 1494. In 1503 he issued the Missale Wratislaviense in which the music in Gothic notation was printed from movable type in two colours. Possibly on his initiative, the German printer Kasper Hochfeder went to Kraków in 1503 and from 1505 to 1509 served as the firm’s technical manager. Haller’s output of about 250 publications included scientific books, university textbooks, state documents and liturgical books. In the field of music he is principally known for the printing of Bogurodzica (the knights’ hymn), and two treatises by Sebastian z Felsztyna, Modus regulariter accentuandi (1518) and Opusculum musicae compilatum (1517) in addition to the missal.

Przywecka-SameckaDM ‘Haller Jan’, Słownik pracowników książki polskiej...

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Hertzog ]

(b Landau; d ?Speyer, after October 1509). German printer. Between 1482 and 1509 he printed 85 books, all in Venice except the last, printed in his native Speyer diocese. Most were liturgical books for dioceses from England to Hungary; 16 contain printed notes and staves, or staves. Large, medium and small roman plainchant types appear in missals of corresponding formats – five folio, one quarto and five octavo. In addition he introduced a medium gothic plainchant type for an agenda for Passau. Together with his former partner Johann Emerich of Speyer, Hamman issued a third of the music books printed in 15th-century Italy....

Article

M.K. Duggan

[Gallus, Udalricus]

(b Ingolstadt; d Rome, c1478). German printer, active in Italy. He claimed in colophons to have been a citizen of Vienna (see Borsa). Colophons also tell us that Han was a priest (venerabile vir), attended a university (magister) and was a man of some social standing (dominus). He is probably the Ulrich Han from Ingolstadt who matriculated at the University of Leipzig in the winter of 1443–4 and the Udalricus of Ingolstadt registered for the winter term of 1438. He has been proposed (see Donati; reviewed by Wehmer) as the possible printer of the first book in Italy, an undated Passio Christi in Italian; the engraved illustrations are indicative of the work of Johann Numeister.

Between 1467 and 1478 Han published about 80 books in Rome. Early production focussed on classical works, many edited by Giovanni Andrea Campano. Between 1471 and ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b ?Nuremberg; d Leipzig, May 20, 1527). German printer. He was officially registered as a printer in Nuremberg from 1524 to 1526. Most of the actual business, however, was apparently conducted by his wife Kunegunde (d 7 Feb 1547), while he travelled about the country distributing pamphlets, often of a heretical or politically radical nature. He was caught circulating one of these, Von der newen Wandlung eynes Christlichen Lebens, in Leipzig, then ruled by Duke Georg of Saxony, a fierce opponent of both the Reformation and peasant reform. In proceedings supervised by the duke himself he was tried and condemned to death, and after a futile attempt on his wife's part to persuade the Nuremberg city council to intercede, was publicly executed. His widow continued the printing business in her own name until 1538, although she had married another Nuremberg printer, Georg Wachter, shortly after Hergot's death....

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Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Parma,c1439; d Parma, c1500). Italian printer . Active at Parma, he was called a book printer and illuminator in documents of 1474 but later listed variously as a paper dealer, bookseller, ceramicist and bookbinder. He worked in the manuscript book trade before and after his publication of four printed books between 1477 and 1482, supplying the local Benedictine convent with liturgical books. His first printed book, an abbreviated Graduale of 1477 (issued with his brother Bernardo), was a milestone of early music printing, the third known printed music book after the c1473 Graduale and Han’s 1476 Missale. Its giant roman plainchant type, printed in black on pages with four red staves (each 55 mm high), is the largest known, nearly double that used in the Graduale printed by Emerich at Venice in 1499, with seven staves a page.

DugganIMI M.K. Duggan: ‘The Music Type of the Second Dated Printed Music Book, the 1477 ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b Reutlingen; d ?Augsburg, c1520). German printer. In 1491 he became a citizen of Basle, where he served his printer's apprenticeship. He was registered at the University of Tübingen in 1498 and joined the printer Johann Otmar, also a native of Reutlingen, with whom he moved to Augsburg in 1502. Here he printed works on a variety of subjects, some in collaboration with Otmar, some with Georg Nadler and some alone. They include several publications commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I.

In music Oeglin is known mainly for two collections: the four-part settings of 22 Latin odes by Petrus Tritonius (1507) and a group of 42 German songs and six Latin texts, also set for four voices (RISM 1512¹). Of a further collection of 68 German songs only the discant partbook survives (c1513³). The books of German songs include the works of such composers as Isaac, Hofhaimer and Senfl, all associated with Maximilian's court, and thus reflect the court’s musical repertory. An excellent craftsman, Oeglin was the first German printer to use Petrucci's technique of multiple impression, although he reduced it to double impression by printing the lines and notes together. The songbooks are decorated with woodcuts by Hans Burgkmair....

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Thomas W. Bridges

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Jane A. Bernstein

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M.K. Duggan

(b Ingolstadt, c1451; d Milan, March 7, 1511). German printer, active in Italy . His name first appears in 1473 as witness to a contract of the first music printer in Milan, Christoph Valdarfer. There, in 1477, his own first book was issued in association with Ulrich Scinzenzeller, with whom he printed until ...

Article

Stanley Boorman

(dei )

(b Fossombrone, June 18, 1466; d ?Venice, May 7, 1539). Italian publisher . He was the first significant publisher of polyphonic music.

Apart from the evidence of his birth and his family’s residence in Fossombrone for some generations, nothing certain is known of Petrucci’s life before 1498. He is thought to have been among the young men whom Guidobaldo I, Duke of Urbino, allowed to be educated at court. On 25 May 1498 Petrucci was granted a Venetian privilege for 20 years. His petition stated that he had discovered what many had sought, a way to publish ‘canto figurado’. He added that it would make the printing of chant much easier also; but this was probably no more than self-advertisement, given that he did not seek to include chant in his privilege, nor, probably, did he print any. His request was for the exclusive right to print both ‘canto figurado’ and ‘intaboladure dorgano et de liuto’. The privilege also included a ban on the importation or sale of these repertories in the Venetian states by anyone else....

Article

M.K. Duggan

(b Passau, c1457; d Rome, Feb 17, 1501). German printer, active in Italy . He apparently worked with Ulrich Han in Rome; he came into possession of Han’s business in 1478, issuing the first of 325 books in 1479 from ‘the house of the former Udalricus’. Between 1482 and 1497 he used the earliest Roman plainchant type (that in Han’s 1476 Missale) for eight music books – five missals (1482, 1488, 1492, 1494, 1496), two pontificals (1485, 1497) and a baptismal (1494). In addition he introduced 12 text types, some as early as 1479; he retained only the music type of his predecessor, adding a few characters of his own. Planck’s ability as type designer and cutter, and his skill in setting the type for complicated melismatic chant, suggests he participated in creating the first music type in Italy.

DugganIMI M.K. Duggan...

Article

John Milsom

(b Coventry or London, c. 1475; d London, June 1536). English lawyer, publisher, and music printer. He had a diverse career in which music played only a small part; principally he was active as a lawyer, stage owner, playwright, adventurer, protestant propagandist, Member of Parliament, and printer of books and ephemera, including histories, law books, interludes, poetry, and statutes. As a music printer, Rastell was active in the 1520s, and pioneered the technology of printing music by single impression using movable type, seemingly for the first time in Europe. This advance over double-impression printing revolutionized the economics of music publishing.

To judge from the few surviving examples of Rastell’s printed music, his preferred format was the single sheet rather than the book. Two large songsheets are extant, each containing a single three-voice composition printed on one side of the sheet. Both are fragmentary and undated, but typographical evidence places one of them about ...

Article

Marie Louise Göllner

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, late 1527 or early 1528). German printer. According to his own diary covering the years 1462–1523 ( A-Wn 15473), he first went to Venice in 1462, after the death of his father. Returning there in 1474, he began printing with two German partners, Peter Löslein and Bernardus Pictor (whether ‘Pictor’ is a latinized version of the surname, ‘Maler’, or whether it refers to its bearer’s profession of illuminator, remains uncertain). Following the departure of both partners in 1478 or 1479 and after a one-year interim, he resumed business by himself in 1480. In 1485 the diocese of Augsburg commissioned a breviary from Ratdolt, which particularly pleased the bishop; efforts were made to persuade the printer to return to Augsburg, first by Bishop Johann von Werdenberg and, after his death in 1485, by his successor, Friedrich von Hohenzollern. He apparently did so shortly afterwards (his last Venetian publication is dated ...