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Article

Ryan D.W. Bruce

[BAG]

Community artists’ organization founded in St Louis in 1968. Headed by the free-jazz proponents Oliver Lake, Julius Hemphill, Hamiet Blueitt, and Lester Bowie, this multi-arts collective produced poetry, dance, theatre, and visual arts. Musicians frequently collaborated with others from the Chicago-based Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, which provided a model for the BAG’s activities, including free performances, lectures, and demonstrations at public schools. The BAG’s free education program was directed towards St Louis’s low-income areas and its African American youth. The organization was heavily supported, with funding contributions from the Inner City Arts Project of St Louis, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Danforth Foundation. With ties to the Black Arts and Black Power movements, the BAG focused on cultural and artistic autonomy for the African American community through collective self-determination. It fostered the careers of numerous musicians, poets, dance and drum ensembles, acting ensembles, entertainers, filmmakers, and TV producers; several performing arts centres were founded by BAG members. Although it was disbanded in ...

Article

Joanne Sheehy Hoover

revised by Suzanne L. Moulton-Gertig

[ Salzedo School; Summer Harp Colony of America]

Summer school for harpists. Carlos Salzedo established the school in 1931, and until his death in 1961 taught up to 40 students twice per week. He expected students to adhere to a strict dress code and spend most of their time practicing. He left his colony and house to a former student, Alice Chalifoux (...

Article

Chamber music society. Resident in New York at Alice Tully Hall, the society is a constituent of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. It was conceived by William Schuman, the president of Lincoln Center, who appointed the pianist charles Wadsworth as the society’s first artistic director (1969–89). Among the musicians Wadsworth assembled to perform for the opening season (1969–70) were Charles Treger (violin), Walter Trampler (viola), Leslie Parnas (cello), Paula Robison (flute), Leonard Arner (oboe), Gervase de Peyer (clarinet), Loren Glickman (bassoon), and Richard Goode (piano). In 2010, led by artistic directors cellist David Finckel and pianist Wu Han, the society numbered around 35 members, joined by guest artists for its annual concert series, educational programs, and national and international tours. Many concerts are broadcast on radio and television, and in 2007 the society started its own recording label.

Following its premiere performance on 11 September 1969...

Article

William McClellan

revised by Jessica L. Getman

Social, professional, or honorary organizations for men or women, or both men and women. Such societies are well established in the American academic world. This article deals only with those in which music plays an important part or is the principal concern.

Greek-letter organizations originated in the United States at institutions of higher education in 1776 with the establishment of Phi Beta Kappa at The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. This organization and most of the other early fraternal societies evolved as a result of the need for students to form groups for social activities, discussions, and fellowship—aspects of education usually denied them in the autocratic environment of the classroom. By 1831 Phi Beta Kappa had changed from a social organization into an honor society, emphasizing scholarship, and by 1900 the fraternity was co-educational and open to African American members. Another general, co-educational honor society still in existence is Phi Kappa Phi, which was founded in ...

Article

Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness.

The Romanian Philharmonic Society was founded on 7 May 1868, under the leadership of Eduard Wachmann, who conducted the first concert of the orchestra, on 15 December of the same year. The role of the orchestra was to educate the taste of the increasingly growing Bucharest audience for classical music; this is why Wachmann wanted to form a stable orchestra. On 5 March 1889, the orchestra gave the first concert in the freshly-built Atheneum (1888), which became the new home of the institution. Constructing such a concert hall for the Philharmonic Society was only possible with the support of cultural figures of the time, who understood the necessity of an adequate headquarters for an institution that promotes art, culture, and science. A public subscription was organized and together with other donations, sufficient funds were raised to build the Atheneum quite quickly, in two years....

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (1714–49), who, after a fire in 1718, instigated the rebuilding of the monastery in Baroque style. Despite the misfortunes which befell the monastery during the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic Wars, and the disruption caused by World War II, Göttweig remained an important religious and cultural centre. It has a long musical tradition; choral singing was fostered from the abbey’s foundation, and its choir school dates from the Middle Ages. By the 15th century an organist had been appointed, and polyphony was sung in the 16th century. An inventory of ...

Article

International organization. It was initiated in Belgium in 1940 by Marcel Cuvelier to propagate live music and related arts in schools, universities and among working youth, regardless of political or doctrinaire considerations. It has established an effective international network of artistic exchanges, bringing many young performers before the public through concert tours and competitions; it also encourages performance by young people by establishing music camps and forming international orchestras directed by outstanding conductors. In keeping with its broad humanitarian aims it was a founder-member of the International Music Council in 1949. The first Jeunesses Musicales concert was in the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, on 17 October 1940. The movement spread to France in the following year through the efforts of René Nicoly, and in 1945 the Fédération Internationale des Jeunesses Musicales (FIJM) was founded; its first international congress was in 1946. The founders included Gilles Lefèbvre, Alicia de Larrocha, Robert Mayer (who later founded Youth and Music in London on the model of the Jeunesses Musicales), Joan Miró, Pierre A. Pillet, Henryk Szeryng and Nicanor Zabaleta, in addition to the Jeunesses Musicales of France, Belgium and Canada. The movement grew rapidly; its first music camp was at Orford in Canada in ...

Article

Greg A. Handel

Lutheran liberal arts college in Decorah, Iowa, founded in 1861. Its band, one of the first college bands in the county (1878), toured Norway in 1914 under the direction of Carlo A. Sperati. The college first offered music degrees during the 1930s. The Luther College Nordic Choir (founded ...

Article

Wouter Paap

revised by Johan Kolsteeg

(Association for the Promotion of the Art of Music). Dutch musical organization. The oldest association of its kind in the country, it was established in 1829 and laid the foundations of music education by setting up music schools and after 1881 by instituting examinations for professional musicians. After World War II, when music schools and conservatories in the Netherlands became government institutions, the association was no longer deeply concerned with music education, although it continued to provide grants for gifted music students. Much work is done in forming choirs and in renewing the choral repertory; a federation of youth choirs is attached to the association, and the performance of Dutch choral works is encouraged. In 1982 the society helped to organize the Stichting Nederlandse Korenorganisaties. The association has built up an important library, which since 1955 has been an independent organization; it consists of a loan department for choral and orchestral material and a research department containing valuable historical material (e.g. manuscripts and early music prints). The 1990s saw closer links with the ...

Article

Melk  

Robert N. Freeman

Town in Lower Austria. The strategic location of the fortress Medelica (Melk) on a slope overlooking the Danube led the Babenbergs, Austria's medieval rulers, to establish their court there in 976. Monks from the Benedictine abbey of Lambach were invited to join the court in 1089; shortly after 1110, when the Babenbergs moved to Klosterneuburg, the Benedictines became the owners of Melk and a large area of land. This link with the Austrian monarchal line made the wealthy abbey one of the Empire's most powerful institutions.

Soon after their arrival the Benedictines founded a boys' choir; pueri are mentioned as early as 1140 and a cloister school, training boys for singing in processions and daily church services, is described in a manuscript dating from 1160. The scriptorium was most productive in the first half of the 13th century. A great fire (1297) destroyed most of the manuscripts recording this formative musical period. 133 codices survived intact, about half of which originated at Melk, including the ...

Article

Nancy Yunwha Rao

Instrumental ensemble founded in 1984 by Susan Cheng in New York’s Chinatown. It features Chinese instruments including erhu, yangqin, zheng, pipa, daruan, sanxian, sheng, and dizi. Its members have included Wu man , Tang Liang Xing, and Min Xiao Fen, among others. Performing at museums, schools, and other venues, it has specialized in silk and bamboo music of southern China but has also performed contemporary music. Its concerts from 1990 to 2002 included excerpts or full-staged performances of Cantonese opera. At its height the ensemble performed 100 concerts a year; in the early 2010s it was averaging 50–60.

Music from China has commissioned and performed many new works. By 2011 it had premiered 132 new works by 81 composers, including the winners of its annual international composition competition. In 1987 Chen yi and Zhou long joined Music from China as music directors and composed many significant works for the group. From ...

Article

Roger Covell

Australian chamber music network. Unrivalled in the thoroughness with which it serves a single country (with more than 2000 concerts annually), the network presents ensembles in subscription seasons in Australian capital cities and elsewhere and in regional and school touring. It was founded in Sydney in 1945 and initially funded by a Romanian-born Viennese-educated emigrant musician and inventor, Richard Goldner, as a consortium of string quartets (modelled on the rehearsal practices of Simon Pullman in Vienna), later comprising a core membership of piano (Maureen Jones) and four strings (with Robert Pikler as first violin). The organization then ran into financial difficulties, suspended its activities in 1951 and was revived in 1955 as an entrepreneurial touring vehicle for established and independent ensembles, beginning with the Pascal and Koeckert quartets. Its subscription seasons in Sydney, drawing on much voluntary support, prospered and extended to other capital cities under the honorary stewardship of Charles Berg and Kenneth W. Tribe, with Goldner continuing as artistic director for nearly two decades and Regina Ridge as its dedicated manager. It has taken most of the leading international chamber ensembles to Australia for well-organized and extended tours, sponsored inter-state tours by groups based in Australia, and organized tours abroad for many Australian ensembles, often with support from the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Australia Council, as well as commissioning new works from Australian composers. A number of the most capable of Australian music administrators have filled the office of general manager. Musica Viva Australia has continued to assemble large audiences for major concerts by instrumental and vocal ensembles of many types, including early music groups and modern ensembles led by Reich and Glass, and has supported extensive patterns of regional touring. Since ...

Article

John Shepard

revised by Michael Mauskapf

Organization founded in 1930 “to train American orchestra musicians in orchestral techniques and repertoire, providing them with the necessary experience and level of expertise to enter professional orchestra careers.” Originally called the American Orchestral Society and later reorganized by Mary Flagler Cary, Franklin Robinson, and Léon Barzin, the Association gave its first concert at Carnegie Hall on 28 October 1930, making it the oldest training orchestra in the United States. Barzin, who later became founding music director of the New York City Ballet, led the Association until 1958 and again from 1970–76. He remained involved with the organization into his 90s, and an annual award has been given in his honor. The orchestra has not only explored the standard repertory but has also given more than 60 world premieres, 25 American premieres, and 60 New York premieres. It has rehearsed and performed under such guest conductors as Aaron Copland and Bernard Haitink, and has accompanied soloists such as Emanuel Feuermann, Myra Hess, Philippe Entremont, and Itzhak Perlman. During World War II, the orchestra played at army camps and hospitals and gave 25 war-bond concerts over the New York radio station WQXR. It was the official orchestra of the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto in ...

Article

Patrick K. Freer

Vocal ensemble. New York Voices is grounded in the American jazz tradition, but its repertoire includes music with Brazilian, R&B, classical, and pop influences. Originally formed in 1987 by a quartet of alumni of Ithaca College (Peter Eldridge, Caprice Fox, Darmon Meader, and Kim Nazarian), Sara Krieger completed the quintet. When Krieger retired from the ensemble in 1992, Lauren Kinhan took her place. The group has retained a quartet voicing since Fox left the group in 1994. The four current members also maintain careers as solo performers, composers, and arrangers.

New York Voices has recorded seven solo albums, beginning with a self-titled debut CD in 1989, and made featured appearances on many other recordings, winning a 1996 Grammy with the Count Basie Orchestra (Live at Manchester Craftsmen’s Guild) and a 2002 Latin Grammy for Brazilian Dreams with Paquito D’Rivera. The ensemble has performed with a number of influential jazz musicians, including Ray Brown, Bobby McFerrin, Nancy Wilson, and George Benson. ...

Article

Romanian opera company, lyric theatre, and ballet. The building that houses the opera was built between 1904 and 1906 by the globally renowned Viennese company Fellner & Helmer, which specialized in designing and building opera theatres in a slightly Baroque Secession style. Architecturally, the building presents similarities, both interior and exterior, with the other 48 theatres built by the same company, e.g. the foyer is similar to that of the Karlsbad Theatre (Karlovy Vary), and the towers are similar to those of the National Theatre in Sofia. The building is considered part of the Romanian national cultural heritage and is classified as an historical monument, specially protected by UNESCO.

The Opera was first founded on 18 September 1919 at the same time as the National Theatre and the Music Conservatory through the decision of the Directorial Council, an executive branch of the Great National Romanian Council, founded for the administration of Transylvania....

Article

Greg A. Handel

Lutheran liberal arts college in Northfield, Minnesota, founded in 1874. An orchestra was formed in 1888 and a band in 1891. Music instruction began in 1903, with degree credit for music awarded in 1916. F. Melius Christiansen, a Norwegian immigrant who founded the music department, founded a choir in 1912 in collaboration with St. John’s Lutheran Church in Northfield. Today the Department of Music is known for its seven choirs, two bands, and two full orchestras. The most famous of these, the St. Olaf Choir, has had only four directors in its history: F. Melius Christiansen (1912–43), his son Olaf C. Christiansen (1943–68), Kenneth L. Jennings (1968–90), and Anton E. Armstrong (1990–). In 2008 the department enrolled approximately 230 music majors in BM programs in church music, performance, and music education, and a BA in music. The department is also known for its annual Christmas Festival....

Article

American educational non-profit organization of women dedicated to the practice and advancement of barbershop harmony. Sweet Adelines, Incorporated— “International” became part of the name in 1991—was founded in 1945 in Tulsa, Oklahoma by Edna Mae Anderson. Inspired by the Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barbershop Quartet Singing in America (now the Barbershop quartet singing) a men’s barbershop music organization that had formed seven years earlier in 1938 also in Tulsa, Sweet Adelines retained key hallmarks of the barbershop style as recognized by that organization. These include four-part a cappella harmony; the voice designations tenor, lead, baritone, and bass (in higher ranges, of course); and the practice of placing the melody in the second part from the top (the Lead). Sweet Adelines International is currently comprised of nearly 25,000 members representing more than 500 chapters in twelve countries. Most of these members participate in choruses and/or quartets that perform and compete locally, regionally, and internationally. Sweet Adelines maintains a highly structured competition system. Choruses and quartets are adjudicated by certified judges representing four categories: sound, music, expression, and showmanship, culminating annually in the selection of an international champion chorus and quartet. The organization also oversees several charitable and educational programs both for their members and for the greater music and education community; notably, the “Young Women in Harmony” program encourages the study and performance of barbershop harmony in schools. Although other women’s barbershop organizations have formed in North America and Europe, Sweet Adelines remains by far the largest....

Article

Nina Davis-Millis

School of music in Princeton, New Jersey. It had its origins in a 60-voice choir at Dayton (Ohio) Westminster Church, formed in 1920 by John Finley Williamson; in 1926 he began to offer training for music directors of Protestant churches. The school moved to Ithaca, New York, in 1929 and to Princeton in ...