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A&M  

David Buckley

American record company. It was founded in Los Angeles in 1962 by the former US army trumpeter Herb Alpert and the promoter-producer Jerry Moss. For first few years, A&M depended largely on revenues from Alpert's own recordings. His easy-listening instrumental music recorded with the Tijuana brass had sold over 20 million copies by ...

Article

Jean M. Bonin

Firm of music publishers. It was founded in New Haven in 1962 by Gary J.N. Aamodt and Clyde Rykken to provide modern critical editions of music of historical interest and artistic integrity for scholars, students, and performers of Western art music. The “Recent Researches” series were launched in ...

Article

Christopher Doll

Record company. Founded in 1955 in New York by American Broadcasting-Paramount Theaters, it was coeval with the birth of rock and roll, although a couple of years passed before the label produced hits in that genre, with such songs as Danny and the Juniors’ “At the Hop” (...

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Aladdin  

Andrew Flory

Record company. Brothers Edward and Leo Messner founded the company as Philo Records in 1945 and changed the name to Aladdin the next year. Aladdin’s records, which appeared on the Aladdin label and over a half-dozen subsidiaries, were among the most popular “race” (later rhythm-and-blues) records of the time, and represented many facets of African American popular music following World War II. Based in Los Angeles, the company released upbeat boogie by Amos Milburn, such as the ...

Article

Raquel Bustos Valderrama

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], June 8, 1924; d Aug 7, 2005). Chilean composer and educator of German origin. She emigrated to Chile in 1939 and adopted Chilean nationality in 1951. She studied with Frè Focke (1949–53) in Chile and with René Leibowitz...

Article

(b Meadow, TN, Oct 24, 1867; d Birmingham, England, Oct 13, 1920). American revivalist and publisher. He attended Maryville College, Tennessee, and the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago; in 1893 he assisted Moody in his revival at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. From ...

Article

Jonas Westover

Publishing company. Alfred is a family-owned publisher, started in 1922 and headquartered in Van Nuys, California. They are particularly known for their educational music, but since their acquisition of Warner Publishing in 2005, they now own copyrights estimated to be over one million songs. Created by Alfred Piantadosi, the composer and bandleader, to distribute his own songs, it did not take the publisher long to develop a catalog, which included hits such as “Waiting for the Robert E. Lee” and “Ragtime Cowboy Joe.” The New York-based company was sold in ...

Article

Terence J. O’Grady and Bryan Proksch

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 31, 1935). American trumpeter, composer, bandleader, and record company executive. He studied trumpet as a child and left college to play in the army for a two-year period. After three years of producing records on his own, he launched A&M Records with Jerry Moss in ...

Article

Andrew Flory

American record company. In 1973, Neil Bogart, Cecil Holmes, Larry Harris, and Buck Reingold founded Casablanca, an independent label based in Los Angeles that specialized in rock, funk, and disco. With Bogart as figurehead, the company released music by some of the most important and successful artists of the 1970s, including the theatrical rock-band Kiss, best-selling disco artist Donna Summer, gay icons the Village People and Cher, and funk acts Parliament and Chic. The producer Giorgio Moroder, known for his extended disco arrangements, was associated closely with Casablanca during the latter half of the 1970s. After the company’s acquisition by Polygram in ...

Article

Angel  

David Mermelstein

American record company. It was created by EMI in 1953 to distribute its English Columbia label in the United States. Under the astute leadership of Dario Sario in New York, and with the full support of the powerful producer Walter Legge, the firm quickly established a reputation for excellent recorded sound and high standards of album packaging. The label augmented its catalogue with material from Pathé Marconi and Electrola, and in ...

Article

Repositories for the permanent retention, preservation, and access of sound recordings (e.g., CDs, LPs, audio cassettes, cylinders, digital audio files) and moving image media (e.g., motion-picture film, kinescope, videotape, digital video files); often included along side of these collections are the mechanical playback devices for such media. The history of archives of this kind in the United States reveals trends towards the amalgamation of sound and moving image materials into single units based either on format (e.g., Library of Congress’ Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division) or academic discipline (UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive). Traditionally the distinction between a library and an archive is essentially one of purpose and a material’s publication status: whereas libraries collect published materials for use by general patrons within and outside the library, archives generally accession and preserve unpublished materials, allowing restricted access for research purposes. However, with the development of the Internet, digitization technologies, and online modes of distribution, the distinction between library and archive hosted sound recording and moving image collections has become more fluid with both kinds of institutions posting published and unpublished audio and video files online with varying degrees of accessibility. Parallel advances in preservation technologies have also enabled archivists to digitize analog sound recordings and moving image recordings that is thought to ensure long-term, if not permanent, access to the content housed on the original analog carriers....

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American music publishing firm which from 1938 leased the catalogue of the Cos Cob Press .

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, ...

Article

American firm of music publishers, active in New York. It was founded in 1927 by Paul Heinicke, originally as the sole American agency for leading European music publishing houses, including Bote & Bock, Breitkopf & Härtel, Doblinger, Eschig, Schott, Simrock, Union Musical Español and Universal Edition. The firm began publishing in its own right and has built up an important catalogue of American composers, including John Adams, Elliott Carter, Cowell, Dello Joio, John Harbison, Harris, Husa, Ives, Kirchner, Peter Lieberson, Piston, Riegger, Schuller, Surinach, Tower and Wilder. In ...

Article

Sara Velez and Tim Brooks

US-based organization, founded in 1966 to promote the preservation and study of historical recordings in all areas of music and the spoken word. ARSC is unusual among scholarly organizations in that it brings together private collectors and scholars interested in using historical sound materials with professional archivists and libraries charged with preserving those materials. Its membership is drawn about equally from the user and holder groups, represents 23 countries, and numbers approximately 1000. The association has local chapters and holds an annual national conference that provides a forum for presentations and panel discussions in all aspects of recorded sound research. ARSC also publishes a biannual journal which includes major research articles, technical developments, discographies, record and book reviews, and bibliographies; a newsletter which contains information about member activities, meetings and events; and a membership directory, which lists all ARSC members, their collecting interests and research projects. Among its major projects have been ...

Article

Asylum  

Charles Hiroshi Garrett

Record company. David Geffen and partner Elliot Roberts founded Asylum in 1971, signing Jackson Browne as their first artist. With Atlantic handling distribution, Asylum focused on building a roster of singer-songwriters and country-rock artists, which eventually included artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Joni Mitchell, the Eagles, Tom Waits, Warren Zevon, and Bob Dylan. In ...

Article

Bill C. Malone

Reviser Barry Mazor

(b nr Luttrell, TN, June 20, 1924, d Nashville, TN, June 30, 2001). American country-music guitarist and recording company executive. Although the first instrument he played professionally was the fiddle, he became internationally famous as a guitarist. Developed while he was in high school, his guitar style was influenced by Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt, and George Barnes and was characterized by the use of the thumb to establish a rhythm on the lower strings and multiple fingers to play melodic or improvisational passages on the higher strings, sometimes with complex voicings. In the early 1940s Atkins toured with Archie Campbell and Bill Carlisle playing both fiddle and guitar, and appeared with them on WNOX radio in Knoxville. He then toured with the second generation Carter Family as a sideman and in ...

Article

Barry Kernfeld, Howard Rye and Dave Laing

American record company. It was founded in New York by Herb Abramson and Ahmet Ertegun (1923–2006), both jazz and blues enthusiasts, in 1947, primarily to issue African American music; it achieved considerable commercial success with recordings of musicians whose work encompassed jazz, blues, and rhythm-and-blues. Ertegun’s brother Nesuhi (...

Article

Tracey E.W. Laird

American syndicated music television program. It is the longest-running music performance television program in broadcast history. Recorded at the public station KLRU in Austin, Texas, and housed at the University of Texas, ACL aired its pilot episode, featuring Willie Nelson, in 1975. Nelson’s rise to iconic status during the same era ensured the show’s auspicious beginning. During more than three decades ACL has evolved from its original focus on Austin’s progressive country scene to an eclectic mix of musical genres. In some ways its growing prominence mirrors that of Austin itself, particularly the reputation of its music scene....

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American record label. See Vanguard.