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Jean-Michel Nectoux

(Urbain)

(b Pamiers, Ariège, May 12, 1845; d Paris, Nov 4, 1924). French composer, teacher, pianist and organist. The most advanced composer of his generation in France, he developed a personal style that had considerable influence on many early 20th-century composers. His harmonic and melodic innovations also affected the teaching of harmony for later generations.

He was the youngest of six children (one a daughter), born to Toussaint-Honoré Fauré (1810–85) and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade (1809–87), a member of the minor aristocracy. Gabriel was sent to a foster-nurse in the village of Verniolle for four years. In 1849 his father was appointed director of the Ecole Normale at Montgauzy, near Foix; Fauré later recalled that from his early childhood he spent hours playing the harmonium in the chapel adjoining the school. An old blind lady, who came to listen and give advice, told his father about his gift for music; a certain Bernard Delgay shares the honour of having been his first music teacher. During the summer of ...

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Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness.

The Romanian Philharmonic Society was founded on 7 May 1868, under the leadership of Eduard Wachmann, who conducted the first concert of the orchestra, on 15 December of the same year. The role of the orchestra was to educate the taste of the increasingly growing Bucharest audience for classical music; this is why Wachmann wanted to form a stable orchestra. On 5 March 1889, the orchestra gave the first concert in the freshly-built Atheneum (1888), which became the new home of the institution. Constructing such a concert hall for the Philharmonic Society was only possible with the support of cultural figures of the time, who understood the necessity of an adequate headquarters for an institution that promotes art, culture, and science. A public subscription was organized and together with other donations, sufficient funds were raised to build the Atheneum quite quickly, in two years....

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Music conservatory established with private donations in New York in 1885 by Jeannette Meyer Thurber. Although intended as a national institution, the only federal contribution was $200,000 in 1891. antonín Dvořák was director from 1891 to 1895. Influential in its prime, the conservatory quietly closed around 1930.

E. Rubin: "Jeannette Meyer Thurber (1850–1946): Music for a Democracy," in ...

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Dena J. Epstein and Karen M. Bryan

(b Florida, NY, 25 Jan 1835; d East, Orange, NJ, 30 Aug 1902). American music educator and editor. Seward studied in Boston with Lowell Mason, george frederick Root, and thomas Hastings. After appointments as organist in New London, Connecticut (1857–9), Rochester, New York (1859–67), and New York (1867–8), he moved to Orange (1868) and then to East Orange, New Jersey (1868). He edited song and hymn collections: The Temple Choir (with Mason, 1867), The Coronation (1872), and The Vineyard of Song (1874); and music journals: the Musical Pioneer (from 1867), the New York Musical Gazette (1868–72), the Tonic Sol-fa Advocate (1881–6), the Musical Reform (until 1888), and Universal Song (1889–92). In 1870 he became the director of music for the public schools of East Orange....

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William Brooks and Christopher E. Mehrens

(b Buckland, MA, 14 March 1826; d Dorchester, MA, 14 April 1888). American composer and music educator. He learned music in singing-schools and assemblies conducted by Lowell Mason, George James Webb, and others. He taught briefly in Massachusetts before moving to Hudson, New York, to teach in public schools and at the Claverack Seminary. By 1855 he was in Albany, where he taught at the Female Academy and was music director at the Pearl Street Baptist Church. In 1865 he moved to New York and worked for Firth, Son & Co. and for Biglow & Main, both publishers of music. Around 1880 he became associated with the Cincinnati publishing firm John Church & Co. In 1884 he was appointed director of choral music at the New England Conservatory in Boston.

Sherwin was deeply involved in the Sunday school movement and published several collections of music for children. He was also very active in ...

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[National University of Music Bucharest]

Romanian university based in Bucharest. It traces its origins to the Music and Declamation Conservatory founded in 1864 during the reign of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Originally it made efforts to condense and stabilize a coherent artistic education addressed to both musicians and dramatic artists. Its first directors, Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Eduard Wachmann, and Dimitrie Popovici-Bayreuth, directed their efforts to the make-up of the professorial body in order to attract instructors capable of producing musicians and actors of the highest calibre, and to raising the level of education so that it equalled that of other, comparable European music educational institutions. The school’s activities at the beginning of the 20th century focused on optimizing the educational process, widening the areas of specialization (from piano, violin, and harmony to composition and choral and orchestral studies). In 1907 its name changed once more to the Music and Dramatic Arts Conservatory in Bucharest.

Between 1919...