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Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (1714–49), who, after a fire in 1718, instigated the rebuilding of the monastery in Baroque style. Despite the misfortunes which befell the monastery during the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic Wars, and the disruption caused by World War II, Göttweig remained an important religious and cultural centre. It has a long musical tradition; choral singing was fostered from the abbey’s foundation, and its choir school dates from the Middle Ages. By the 15th century an organist had been appointed, and polyphony was sung in the 16th century. An inventory of ...

Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on 17 December 1024 to the Madonna.

Among those libraries of Western Europe that house extensive collections of Greek manuscripts, the library of the Badia occupies a special place, rivalled only by the smaller collection from the monastery of S Salvatore di Messina, today a part of the Messina University library. It is a genuinely monastic library, and as such reflects the needs and interests of a particular monastic community. The founders of that community had come from Calabria, bringing with them the tradition of the Greek-speaking settlements of southern Italy and Sicily. And that tradition, being peripheral, not only tended to lag behind the tradition of the Eastern Empire proper, it eventually lost all contact with it. The Latin occupation of Constantinople in ...

Article

Altman Kellner

revised by Robert N. Freeman

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 777 by Duke Tassilo of Bavaria to provide a Christian mission and to protect the area from the neighbouring Slavs and Hungarians. Plainchant was sung according to the Beneventan rite, which, along with the educational system, was modified according to the rules of Benedikt von Aniane of Aachen in 828. From that time until the 17th century there was an inner and an outer school: the latter was enlarged in 1549 into an Öffentliches Gymnasium. The abbey library has a rich collection of manuscripts, one of the most important in Europe. The Millenarius Minor Manuscript, a collection of gospels dating from the end of the 9th century, contains one of the earliest examples of neumatic notation; a number of manuscripts containing sequences and tropes give evidence of musical practice from the 11th century to the 14th. Polyphonic music found acceptance under the abbot Friedrich von Aich (abbot from ...

Article

Lambach  

David Wyn Jones

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 1056 on the site of a fortress protecting the confluence of the rivers Traun and Ager, and was sanctioned by Emperor Heinrich IV in 1061. The first monks came from the monastery of Münsterschwarzach near Würzburg, and in 1089 the church was consecrated.

Situated on the main west-east trade route, the abbey's wealth grew steadily in the Middle Ages, largely based on the salt trade, but its location also made it vulnerable to attack and occupation by conquering forces from the 13th century to Napoleonic times. Abbot Pabo founded an abbey school towards the end of the 12th century by which time a musical scriptorium was already thriving. Illuminated manuscripts in the hands of two monks, Haimo and Gotschalk, are notable, including a fragment of music in neumatic notation for the Dreikönigsspiel frequently performed at the abbey. Other important medieval manuscripts are two examples of the Lambach Ritual (from the beginning and end of the 12th century), a 14th-century collection of songs (both in monody and in parts) copied by Hermann (now in ...

Article

Heinz Anton Höhnen

Benedictine abbey near Koblenz on the Laacher See, Germany. Its Romanesque church, built between 1092 and 1220, towers over the monastery. From the time it was founded by Count Palatine Heinrich II the monastery was inhabited by monks without a break until its dissolution in 1802, after which the church and the library were plundered for their treasures. The monastery then changed hands several times: from 1862 to 1873 it belonged to the Jesuits and from 1892 it was again inhabited by monks from the Benedictine community of Beuron. In the ensuing period the monastery became one of the first and most important centres for the revival of Gregorian chant in the Rhineland. In 1910 a double organ, divided between the west gallery and the west transept, was installed in the church. It contained 66 stops and was built by Stahlhut of Aachen; in 1956 it was enlarged to 78 stops and was one of the first organs with fully electric transmission to have sliderless wind-chests. There are plans to bring together the two parts of this organ in the west gallery, and to install a new choir organ (Klais/Bonn) on the west wall of the south transept. Since the time of Ildefons Herwegen (abbot ...

Article

Melk  

Robert N. Freeman

Town in Lower Austria. The strategic location of the fortress Medelica (Melk) on a slope overlooking the Danube led the Babenbergs, Austria's medieval rulers, to establish their court there in 976. Monks from the Benedictine abbey of Lambach were invited to join the court in 1089; shortly after 1110, when the Babenbergs moved to Klosterneuburg, the Benedictines became the owners of Melk and a large area of land. This link with the Austrian monarchal line made the wealthy abbey one of the Empire's most powerful institutions.

Soon after their arrival the Benedictines founded a boys' choir; pueri are mentioned as early as 1140 and a cloister school, training boys for singing in processions and daily church services, is described in a manuscript dating from 1160. The scriptorium was most productive in the first half of the 13th century. A great fire (1297) destroyed most of the manuscripts recording this formative musical period. 133 codices survived intact, about half of which originated at Melk, including the ...

Article

Ireneu Segarra

Benedictine monastery near Barcelona. It has been a very important centre of pilgrimages and devotion to the Virgin Mary from the 11th century. Music has played an important role in these activities especially since the foundation of the Escolanía in the 12th century. The Llibre Vermell, a 14th-century manuscript in the monastery archives, records details of the musical life at Mary’s shrine. Two abbots, A.P. Ferrer (13th century) and Garcías de Cisneros (16th century), regulated in their constitutiones and regula puerorum the life of the escoláns (boy singers) and their participation in the religious services. The Escolanía was at its zenith from the beginning of the 17th century until its destruction by Napoleon’s army (1811); it could be classified as a music school where boy singers were trained. Joan March (1582–1658), who succeeded Victoria as organist of the convent of Descalzas Reales in Madrid, was the first to give the Escolanía its characteristic traits. The pupils of Joan Cererols, who taught there, were much admired throughout Spain and some of his works were published in ...

Article

The National Baptist Convention, USA (NBC) was organized in 1895 in an effort to unite, at the national level, the growing numbers of black Baptists in the United States. Its general objectives were domestic and foreign missions, education, and the publication and dissemination of religious literature. Structurally, the NBC operated through several Boards, each with specifically defined duties. A music department was introduced into the Convention in 1916 as part of the Baptist Young Peoples Union (BYPU) and Sunday School Board, under the direction of Lucie Eddie Campbell. The Convention published Gospel Pearls (1921), a songbook intended to accompany the music and worship services of black Baptists. While not wholly endorsed by the more conservative members of the Convention leadership, Thomas A. Dorsey introduced his gospel blues songs to the Convention in 1932. Under strict supervision of the Music Committee, which included Campbell, the Convention developed into the premiere performance venue for gospel singers. Gospel composers also capitalized on the outlet to demonstrate and sell compositions. The NBC established the National Baptist Music Convention (NBMC, ...

Article

John A. Emerson

revised by David Hiley

Site of the former Benedictine monastery of S Silvestro in the Lombard kingdom outside Modena. With Monte Cassino, it was one of the most important monastic centres of medieval Italy.

Nonantola was founded about 752 by St Anselm of Nonantola, formerly Duke of Friuli, and endowed by Aistulf, King of the Lombards (reigned 749–56). In 753 the oratory and altar were consecrated to SS Peter and Paul by Sergius, Archbishop of Ravenna, and shortly afterwards Anselm was appointed the first abbot by Pope Stephen II. In 756 the relics of Pope Sylvester I (reigned 314–35) were transferred from Rome to Nonantola, and the abbey received its present dedication.

Anselm spent the period from 760/61 to 773, during the reign of Desiderius, Aistulf’s successor, in exile at Monte Cassino. In 774 he returned with a number of manuscripts which formed the nucleus of the important medieval library at Nonantola. Anselm died in 803 and was buried in the church; he was succeeded by a number of Lombard abbots with Germanic names. In 885 the body of Pope Adrian III (reigned 884–5) was buried at the abbey. After a major fire, a reconstruction of the church of S Silvestro was begun in ...

Article

Putna  

Adriana Şirli

Monastery in the former Romanian principality of Moldavia (Moldova). Founded in 1466 by Stephen the Great, prince of Moldavia (1457–1504), it quickly became a renowned cultural centre on account of its school of liturgical chant, its scriptorium for illuminated manuscripts and its embroidery workshops. The following musical manuscripts, each the work of a different scribe, originated in Putna and are characteristic of its scriptorium: (1) The songbook of Evstatie of Putna (1511), RUS-Mim Shchiukin 350 and SPan 13.3.16; (2, 3) RO-Putna monastery, 56/576/544, A: ff.1–84 (? first decade of 16th century) and B: ff.85–160 (? last quarter of 15th century); (4) RO-J I–26 (1545); (5) RO-Dragomirna monastery, 52/1886; (6) RO-Ba sl.283 (c1550); (7) Ba sl.284 (3rd quarter of 16th century); (8) BG-Sofia, Nacionalen Čarkoven Istoriko-Archeologičeski Muzej, 816 (?mid-15th century); (9) D-LEu sl.12 (3rd quarter of 16th century); (10) ...

Article

Karl-Heinz Schlager

Benedictine abbey in Regensburg, Germany. It was an important centre of musical activity during the Middle Ages. Founded in the late 7th century, the abbey was dedicated to Emmeram, an itinerant Frankish bishop and saint martyred in about 685; his burial place on the ‘Mons martyrum’ outside Regensburg became a notable place of pilgrimage during the 9th century. In the late 10th century the monastery was the centre of Cluniac reform in Bavaria and became independent of the bishopric of Regensburg in 975. In 1030 the abbot placed Otloh (see Otloh of St Emmeram) in charge of the monastery school, which, during the 11th and 12th centuries, was to be a significant source of didactic and speculative works on music; among the names associated with the school are Otker of Regensburg (author of Mensura quadripartite figure), Wilhelm and Aribo. From 1731 until 1803 St Emmeram enjoyed baronial status and became once more a great cultural centre, known especially for painting and science. After this date control of the abbey passed first to the principality of Regensburg and subsequently, at the monastery’s dissolution in ...

Article

Altman Kellner

Monastery near Linz, Austria, founded about 1071 by Augustinian canons. Manuscripts in the monastery library provide evidence of early vocal music in the abbey church; the neumatic notation is similar to that of the St Gallen school and dates from the 9th century. The monastery school, where music was taught in addition to the liberal arts, provided regular church music. Polyphony was first performed in the first half of the 14th century, and in 1475 one of the monks achieved fame as an organist. Instrumental music was played, both in the church and the monastery, from the 16th century onwards. An inventory of 1612 lists a regal, two ‘double instruments’ and 46 string and woodwind instruments in addition to the main organ. There have been composers at St Florian throughout its existence. Among those recorded in the 17th century were Josef Haug, J.K. Merkl, Melchior Kämpfel and Stefan Vogl. The most famous ...