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Article

Lodewijk Muns

(b Nijmegen, Netherlands, Aug 4, 1812; d Delft, Netherlands, Nov 1, 1896). Dutch musician, music historian, and instrument collector. The son of a musician and instrument seller, he studied flute and violin at the conservatory of The Hague. After positions as an orchestra musician in the Court Chapel and the French Opera of The Hague, with the Casino Paganini in Paris, and as a conductor at the opera of Metz, he returned in 1841 to his native city, where he conducted several choral societies. In 1853 he was appointed city music director in Delft.

Boers was a pioneer of the study of early music in the Netherlands. He started collecting musical instruments about 1870, with an emphasis on the work of Dutch builders. Most of his research on organology has remained sketchy and is unpublished. In 1899 the major part of his collection of some 130 instruments (including a Couchet harpsichord of ...

Article

Luise Eitel Peake

(Ger.: ‘song circle’)

A circle or club of people dedicated to the cultivation of popular song. Examples are the ‘Mittwochskränzchen’ (‘Cour d’amour’) that met during the early 1800s in Goethe’s Weimar home, the Stägemann circle in Berlin, 1815–18, that included the young poet Wilhelm Müller, the Dresden Liederkreis (‘Dichtertee’), c 1804–24, in which Weber met the poet Kind, and the ‘Schubertianer’ or friends of Schubert in Vienna, who held regular meetings during the 1820s. Liederkreis activities were varied, recreational as well as creative. They included singing simple group songs, playing charades and other games with songs, and listening to song performances staged with costumes, ‘attitudes’ or elaborate ‘living pictures’. To supply the demand parody texts were often set to song melodies from, for example, Das Mildheimische Liederbuch (ed. R.Z. Becker, 1799, 4/1810); either the melodies were rearranged or the verse newly set. Collections that reflected the work of a Liederkreis were titled accordingly, like J.H.C. Bornhardt’s ...