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Christian H. Hoyer

A town near Nuremberg, Germany, known as an important centre of musical instrument manufacture. The imperial city of Nuremberg held a strong position in instrument making from the Middle Ages until the 18th century. Production revived after World War II when instrument makers from Czechoslovakia were resettled in the area. The community council of Bubenreuth—then a village of fewer than 500 inhabitants—decided in October 1949 that about 2000 displaced luthiers, bow and part makers, string spinners, tonewood dealers, lacquer and rosin producers, and instrument manufacturers from Schoenbach would be allowed to resettle there in the following ten years. Schoenbach, along with Graslitz, Markneukirchen, and Klingenthal, was formerly part of the Saxon-Bohemian ‘musical corner’ (Musikwinkel).

Thus, Bubenreuth was transformed from a farming village into a centre of German string instrument making, especially of violins, lutes, mandolins, banjos, zithers, and guitars of all kinds (classical, Western, archtop, semi-acoustic, and electric). Among companies and luthiers active there have been Dörfler, Framus, Glassl, Hanika, Hannabach, Hirsch, Höfner, Hoyer, Klier, Mettal, Paesold, Placht, Pyramid, Roth, Sandner, Schuster, Teller, and Wilfer....

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Enrico Weller

German town famous for instrument production since the mid-17th century. It was named Neukirchen until 1858. Instrument making first developed there when Bohemian luthiers began settling in the area (Vogtland) as a consequence of the Counter-Reformation. A guild of violin makers was founded in 1677; a violin, a cittern, and a viola da gamba were at first required as masterpieces. Early violin making in the Vogtland was characterized by free-form construction (without use of an inside mould) and an integral neck and upper block. The various violin workshops (Ficker, Gläsel, Hamm, Heberlein, Reichel, Schönfelder, Voigt, etc.) had individual styles, but Italian stylistic influence became evident from about 1800 to 1840.

In the mid-19th century, specialized division of labour led to mass-production of violin bodies and parts by means of cottage industry. Inexpensive violins were manufactured (often more than 100,000 instruments per year) until the 1930s. Between 1906 and 1930 a joint-stock (cooperative) company for violin making existed....