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(bap. Handsworth, Yorks., Dec 16, 1593; d Welbeck Abbey, Notts., Dec 25, 1676). English poet, playwright and music patron. Christopher Simpson recognized his knowledge of and skill in the science of music and praised him for ‘cherishing and maintaining such as are excellent in it’ (A Compendium of Practical Musick, 1667). The duke's enthusiasm for playing divisions on the bass viol is reflected in his employment of Maurice Webster, from whom he acquired four books of divisions (now lost), and his close friendship with Simpson, who during the early years of the Civil War served under Newcastle's younger son. A 1636 inventory of the duke’s music collection lists important manuscript sources, including the only surviving copy of John Dowland’s funeral psalms for Henry Noel ( GB-NO ) and a set of ‘Fantasies, Almaigns Corantoes, &c.’ by Webster, Stephen Nau and John Adson (now lost), as well as madrigal prints by English and continental composers and Roman Catholic liturgical works by Infantas and Byrd. Newcastle came into close contact with many theatrical composers. Four songs from his comedy ...


Josef-Horst Lederer

revised by Andrew H. Weaver

(b Graz, July 13, 1608; d Vienna, April 2, 1657). Austrian emperor, patron of music, and composer. He was the son of Ferdinand II and became King of the Romans in 1636 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1637; he was succeeded by his son Leopold I. Like his father, he was an enthusiastic patron of music; he maintained a large chapel and used music (both sacred and secular) to shape his public image and maintain political power during the disastrous final decade of the Thirty Years’ War. Also like his father, his musical tastes were decidedly Italianate. Most of the musicians in his chapel were Italian, among the most prominent of which were Giovanni Valentini, Antonio Bertali, and Giovanni Felice Sances. Nevertheless, distinguished German composers such as Johann Jacob Froberger and Wolfgang Ebner – the latter a particular favourite – also worked at his court. Ferdinand III played an active part in the preparation of great court festivities, especially stage works of various kinds that were produced with utmost magnificence in Vienna and elsewhere in his Habsburg domains. Several Italian composers wrote operas for Vienna during his reign, and Monteverdi’s eighth book of madrigals (...


Christopher Wilkinson

[now Legnica], Brieg [now Brzeg] and Goldberg

(b Ohlau [now Oława], nr Breslau [now Wrocław], Jan 22, 1595; d Breslau, Jan 14, 1653). German patron, bibliophile, composer and poet. The son of Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Brieg-Liegnitz, he became duke in 1613 at the age of 18. He was educated at the university at Frankfurt an der Oder (Słubice). In his early years he was active as composer and poet. He displayed his love of music as early as 1610. The first collection of his music consisted of several partbooks in manuscript, most containing the series of initials GRHZLVB (Georg Rudolph Herzog zu Liegnitz und Brieg), followed by the date 1612. Two of the partbooks, however, conclude thus: ‘1610. 15. Maij … Georgius Rudolphus, Dux Lignicencis et Bregnsis Mannupp/ria’.

On assuming power Georg Rudolph continued the Kapelle at his court, but his interest in music mainly assumed a different form. In the course of a journey throughout Europe, he began collecting books for what was to become known as the Bibliotheca Rudolphina. His first wife, Princess Sophie Elisabeth of Anhalt, whom he married in ...


Rudolf Schnitzler and Herbert Seifert

(b Vienna, June 9, 1640; d Vienna, May 5, 1705). Austrian composer and patron of music . He was the second son of Emperor Ferdinand III. A member of the house of Habsburg, he received a broad humanistic education under the tutelage of the Jesuit Neidhard to prepare him for intellectual and spiritual pursuits rather than for the succession to the throne. His training included extensive instruction in playing various instruments (notably the harpsichord, violin and recorder) and in composition, probably at the hands of Antonio Bertali and Markus and Wolfgang Ebner, the last of whom kept a collection of his early works, Spartitura compositionum sacrae regiae maiestatis Hungariae, Leopoldi I, composed and copied between 1655 and 1657. When the first son and chosen successor to Ferdinand III died, however, Leopold succeeded to the royal thrones of Hungary (1655) and Bohemia (1656) and on the death of his father was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on ...


Margaret M. McGowan

(b PARIS, Sept 27, 1601; d Paris, May 14, 1643). French ruler, patron of music and composer. He was the son of Henri IV, whom he succeeded in 1610. His doctor recorded that from an early age he took a lively interest in music and dancing; he continually invented new steps and songs and had musicians sing and play for him. This passionate interest, however, did nothing to change radically the nature of music at his court. He maintained the same musical establishment as his father (30 musicians in the royal chapel and the ‘24 violons du roi’) and enjoyed the same kind of airs de cour sung in his bedchamber or in public by leading singers of the day; he wrote one or two himself.

Occasionally more ambitious compositions were attempted: to mark Louis’s triumphant return from Brittany in 1614 Jacques Mauduit organized concerts for massed choirs and instruments; and to enhance the melodramatic effects of the ballet ...


Horace Fishback

revised by Eva Linfield

(b Kassel, May 25, 1572; d Eschwege, March 15, 1632). German patron and composer. He succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse in 1592 and ruled until 1627, when, under the pressures of the Thirty Years War, he abdicated in favour of his son and retired to Eschwege. He encouraged an exceptionally flourishing musical life at his court and himself studied vocal and instrumental music with Georg Otto, court composer and Kapellmeister from 1586. Moritz also encouraged drama, and the Ottoneum, completed in 1605 and named after Otto, was the earliest court theatre in Germany. His patronage not only of music and the theatre but of other branches of art and learning earned him the title ‘Moritz der Gelehrte’ (Moritz the Learned), and the Landgraf-Moritz-Stiftung, an important musicological institution founded in Kassel in 1955, is named after him. In 1598 he founded the Collegium Mauritium, a school for the sons of his court aristocracy and for his choirboys, among whom Heinrich Schütz was the most famous. Moritz was the first to encourage the talents of Schütz: he financed his first visit to Italy, in ...


Lowell Lindgren

(b Rome, April 25, 1653; d Rome, March 22, 1730). Italian patron and librettist . His immense wealth was largely derived from a pension granted by his great-uncle, Pope Innocent X, his salary as Grand Prior in Rome of the Knights of Malta from 1678, and his benefices as a cardinal from 1 September 1681. His literary gifts are reflected in his post as principe of the Accademia degli Umoristi in Rome (by 1677) and his ‘acclamation’ as Fenicio Larisseo in the Arcadian Academy (12 May 1695). His fascination with oratorios is manifested by his protectorship of two organizations that produced them, the Collegio Clementino (1689–1730) and the Arciconfraternita del SS Crocifisso (1694–1724). His maestri di musica were Alessandro Melani (c 1676–c 1681), Lulier (1681–90) and Cesarini (1690–1730). From 1684 to 1690 his most highly paid instrumentalist was Corelli, who (like Lulier) chose not to follow him to Bologna, where he was papal legate from ...