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Article

Gloria Eive

(b Faenza, bap. Dec 31, 1716; d Faenza, Oct 12, 1785). Italian violinist, composer and teacher. He studied with Tartini, probably between 1730 or 1731 and 1733, by which date his name appears in the list of musicians at Faenza Cathedral, as third (and last) violinist under the direction of his brother, Don Francesco Alberghi, maestro di cappella. In 1742 he was referred to in Faenza chronicles as ‘Paolo Alberghi, Professore’, and both his virtuosity and his compositions – sonatas and violin concertos – were extravagantly praised. In 1753 he became first violinist and, on his brother’s death in 1760, maestro di cappella as well; he retained both positions until his death. Alberghi supplemented his small salary from the cathedral by playing for civic festivities and for the two academies of Faenza, and by composing and teaching; among his pupils were Bernardo Campagnoli, Antonio Bisoni, Cristoforo Babbi and possibly Giuseppe Sarti (unconfirmed). A portrait of Alberghi in the Biblioteca Comunale of Faenza (which, together with the Archivio Capitolare del Duomo, contains much biographical material in manuscript) indicates that he was blind in one eye....

Article

Mary Cyr

[not Jean-Baptiste]

(b Lunel, 1710; d Paris, Dec 1, 1772). French haute-contre singer, music teacher, cellist and composer. His début in 1733 at the Paris Opéra, according to La Borde, was in the monologue of Pélée, ‘Ciel! en voyant ce temple redoutable’ from Act 3 of Collasse's Thétis et Pélée (1689). He soon joined the Italian troupe, performing in divertissements between the acts of operas. After three years he returned to the Opéra and took several minor roles between 1737 and 1745 in Rameau's works: Un Athlète in Castor et Pollux (1737), Un Songe in Dardanus (1739), Lycurgue in Fêtes d'Hébé (1739), and Tacmas (replacing the well-known haute-contre Tribou) in the third entrée of Les Indes galantes (1743 revival). In 1743 he sang the title role in the première of Boismortier's ballet-comique, Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse, with the famous soprano Marie Fel as Altisidore. Two years later he retired from the opera to devote himself to teaching and playing the cello. He became first cellist of the orchestra at the Comédie-Italienne in ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

Robert Fajon

(b Lyons, c1683; d Paris, March 2, 1760). French composer, teacher and opera singer. The main source of information about him is the Parfaict brothers’ Dictionnaire des théâtres, which states that Bouvard entered the Opéra at a very young age to sing soprano parts, with a ‘voice of such a range that its like had never been heard’. After his voice broke, when he was about 16, he spent a couple of years in Rome. He was back in Paris by February 1701, where his first (Italian) air appeared in a collection published by Ballard. In 1702, thanks to the patronage of M. de Francine, the Académie Royale de Musique performed his first opera, Médus, with great success, but in 1706 Cassandre, composed in collaboration with Bertin de La Doué, was a failure. Throughout the years 1701–11 Bouvard regularly published airs in Ballard’s collections, initially airs sérieux...

Article

Edward R. Reilly

(b Provence, c1690; d Paris, Jan 13, 1768). French flautist and teacher, active in Germany. Marseilles is sometimes cited as his native city, but 18th-century sources indicate only that he came from Provence. As a young man he was taken to Constantinople by the French ambassador, and there, sometime before 1712, taught Johann Jacob Bach, J.S. Bach's elder brother. In November 1715 Buffardin entered the service of Augustus II in Dresden, and was soon regarded as one of the outstanding players in the court orchestra. Under Augustus III his stipend of 500 thalers was raised to 1000, and in 1749 he was pensioned. During his years in Dresden he maintained contacts with his homeland, and in 1726 and 1737 performed in the Concert Spirituel in Paris. He returned to France in 1750 and on 24 July of that year performed for the Dauphine. A letter by Buffardin concerning the use of quarter-tones on the flute appeared in the ...

Article

Mary Cyr

(fl 1735–55). French composer, viol player and teacher (‘maître de viole’). He worked in Paris. Throughout his Pièces de viole op.2, dedicated to the Prince of Carignan, Dollé used the signs for vibrato and ornaments adopted by Marin Marais, and the second of his three suites includes a tombeau for Marais le père, a rondeau whose chordal style, use of the high register and vibrato (called ‘plainte’) recall the expressive playing of the late master of the viol. The Pièces op.3 contains 25 character pieces for six-string pardessus de viole, which are divided into three levels of difficulty. The titles of two pieces, La Roland and La Morel, suggest his acquaintance with the viol players Roland Marais and Jacques Morel. The sonatas in op.4, though consciously italianate in melodic style, with frequent sequences, syncopations and wide leaps, still reflect the French taste in expression and ornamentation. Op.4 includes five ...

Article

Michelle Fillion

[Giannotti, Pierre]

(b Lucca, early 18th century; d Paris, June 19, 1765). Italian composer, teacher and double bass player. His first set of violin sonatas appeared in Paris in 1728. In March 1739 he was engaged as a double bass player at the Paris Opéra, a position he held until his retirement in 1758; his name also appears in a 1751 list of the members of the Concert Spirituel orchestra. His numerous compositions suggest that he may also have played the violin. One of his two-violin sonatas was performed at the Concert Spirituel in 1749, the only time he was so honoured. Yet he must have enjoyed some success, for his sonatas opp.2 and 5 remained in the catalogues of the music publisher Bailleux for eight years after his death. He also edited the collections of 12 Sinfonie opp.1 and 2 (Paris, n.d.) by Alberto Gallo, and of Sinfonie … dei più celebri autori d'Italia...

Article

Michael F. Robinson

revised by Paologiovanni Maione

(b Arpino, March 12, 1687; d Naples, Oct 14, 1758). Italian male soprano and singing teacher. According to tradition he studied in his home town with M.T. Angelio, then moved to Naples to complete his training at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio. He was a singer in the Treasury of S Gennaro, Naples, from 1700 to 1707 and again from 1717 to 1736. In 1706 he was appointed singer of the Neapolitan royal chapel, a post he held throughout his career. From 1717 he was often absent from the choir for artistic reasons: on 17 November 1718 he requested three months' leave to sing at the Teatro Pace in Rome; on 16 December 1719 he set off for Messina, where he remained until May 1720; on 7 October he left for a stay of four months in Rome; and on 12 September 1724 he asked permission to ‘perform in the coming November and Carnival’ at the Teatro S Cassiano in Venice. In ...

Article

Robert Thompson

(bap. Oxford, May 24, 1688; bur. Oxford, Jan 7, 1741). English organist and music copyist, son of Richard Goodson. He was baptized at the church of St Cross. He succeeded his father as professor of music at Oxford and as organist of Christ Church. Goodson was listed as choirboy at Christ Church from 1699 to 1707 and as singing-man from 1712 to 1718; Thomas Ford ( GB-Ob MS Mus.e.17) stated that he was appointed organist of Newbury on 24 August 1709. He matriculated on 3 March 1714 and graduated BMus on 1 March 1717. A number of manuscripts in Christ Church and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, contain music copied by him, but he does not appear to have been a composer, unless two anonymous works in his hand – an act song, Festo quid potius die ( Ob MS Mus.Sch.C.143, Och Mus 37, 1142b), and an incomplete Ode for St Cecilia's Day, ...

Article

Winton Dean

(b Aberdeen, c1692; d South Carolina, 1754/5). Scottish tenor, author and antiquary. He graduated at Aberdeen University, lived for a time by teaching languages and music, and then left for the Continent, spending some years in Italy, where presumably he was trained as a singer. He sang in C.A. Monza’s La principessa fedele at Messina in 1716 and Orlandini’s Lucio Papirio and Leo’s Sofonisba at Naples in 1717–18. He returned to Britain in 1719 and sang at four concerts at the Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre that winter. He was a member of the Royal Academy (at the King’s Theatre) during its first season (spring 1720), singing in Porta’s Numitore, Handel’s Radamisto (Tiridate) and Roseingrave’s arrangement of Domenico Scarlatti’s Narciso. He had a benefit at York Buildings on 6 February 1721 and another at the Little Haymarket Theatre on 26 January 1722. He was back at the King’s Theatre in ...

Article

Alice Lawson Aber-Count

(b Navalmoral, Toledo, ?1633–43; d Toledo, before July 21, 1713). Spanish harpist, theorist, composer and teacher. Undoubtedly the theorist Andrés Lorente (see Jambou) and the Court harpist Juan de Navas were among his teachers. Huete was the harpist at Toledo Cathedral from 13 October 1681 to 14 June 1710; however he is remembered chiefly for his Compendio numeroso de zifras armónicas, con theórica, y pràctica para arpa de una orden y arpa de dos órdenes, y de órgano (Madrid, 1702–4), which marks the climax of a golden period for the two harp types (single-rank diatonic and two-rank chromatic) predominant in Spain between 1550 and 1700. Part i of the treatise (1702), containing secular pieces, is divided into three books for the beginner, intermediate and advanced player. Part ii (1704), containing sacred pieces, also consists of three books; the first contains 26 pasacalles which demonstrate Huete’s 11-mode system; the second presents the modes in descending and ascending octaves; and the third consists of psalm settings for voice(s), harp and/or organ (the organ is secondary to the harp in the treatise). The ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(bap. Aldersgate, London, Feb 26, 1724; d London, April 15, 1764). English amateur musician. ‘In his younger days he was a great beau’, said Hawkins, who is the chief source of information about Immyns. ‘He had been guilty of some indiscretions, which proved an effectual bar to success in his profession, and reduced him to the necessity of becoming a clerk to an attorney in the city’. He cultivated music assiduously, playing the flute, viola da gamba and harpsichord, and had a ‘cracked counter-tenor voice’. As a member of the Academy of Ancient Music, and as a student and copyist to Pepusch, he became familiar with much old music, which he preferred to that of his own day. In 1741 he founded the Madrigal Society, which began as a small group of mechanics and tradesmen experienced in psalmody, meeting at a tavern in Fleet Street. Immyns was ‘both their president and instructor’, and in preparation for the meetings he copied out some 200 madrigals and canons: his MS survives at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The music was confined to madrigals and other old music, by such composers as Ruffo, Lassus, Marenzio, Vecchi and Gesualdo; the English madrigalists were also explored. Immyns copied seven Palestrina motets for the society's use. From these modest beginnings sprang what is now the oldest musical association in existence....

Article

(b Běleč, bap. April 21, 1730; d London, Oct 5, 1784). Bohemian violinist and composer. His father was a forester on the Wallenstein estate. He studied at the Patres Piares College, Slaný (1746–51), where he received a thorough musical education. From 1751 to 1753 he probably studied philosophy at Prague University; in 1753–4 he was enrolled in the faculty of law. Kammel’s marked musical talent, however, determined his career. At an unknown date Count Vincent of Waldstein sent him to Italy, where he was a pupil of Tartini in Padua. After returning to Prague Kammel excelled, according to contemporary witnesses, in the playing of adagios. By early 1765 (not 1774, as has often been maintained) he was in London; he is mentioned among London musical personalities in Leopold Mozart’s travel notes from that year. In 1766 he published his first compositions in London, at his own expense. He made his first known public appearance that year and his second on ...

Article

James R. Anthony

[‘La Rochois’]

(b Caen, c1658; d Paris, Oct 9, 1728). French soprano and singing teacher, commonly but incorrectly known as Marthe Le Rochois. She may have studied with Michel Lambert, who brought her to the attention of his son-in-law, Lully. She entered the Paris Opéra in 1678 and retired in 1698. Lully chose her to create the major female roles in his Persée, Amadis, Roland, Armide and Acis et Galathée; she was best known for her performance of Armide, the memory of which caused Le Cerf de la Viéville to ‘shiver’ with delight. After Lully’s death in 1687 she sang the main female roles in works by Collasse, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Desmarest, Marais, André Campra and A.C. Destouches. Titon du Tillet called her the ‘greatest actress and the best model for declamation to have appeared on the Stage’ (Le parnasse françois, Paris, 1732/R). He also wrote:...

Article

Kenneth Elliott

( fl 1624–43). Scottish musician . He graduated MA from Edinburgh University in 1624 and probably subsequently taught music in Edinburgh. His manuscript collection of psalm settings dated 1626 was known and described by Cowan, but has since disappeared. After Charles I’s Scottish coronation at Holyrood in 1633, regular choral services were re-established at the Scottish Chapel Royal; Millar was appointed Master of the Choristers in 1634 and in 1635 his fine edition of psalm settings was printed in Edinburgh. In this collection the 104 anonymous settings of the Proper Tunes are by Scottish composers of the late 16th century. Millar wrote in his preface: ‘I acknowledge sinceerely the whole compositions of the parts to belong to the primest Musicians that ever this kingdome had, as Deane John Angus, Blackhall Smith, Peebles, Sharp, Black, Buchan and others famous for their skill in this kind’. Some of these settings can be identified from other sources as wholly the work of Peebles, Buchan and Kemp. In many cases, however, Millar seems to have made ‘composite’ pieces by taking phrases from different settings and fitting them together (sometimes even transposing the parts) to form a more or less pleasing whole. This perhaps helps to explain Millar’s further comment in the preface: ‘collecting all the sets I could find on the Psalmes, after painfull tryall thereof, I selected the best for this work, according to my simple judgement’. In other sections of the book, certain settings of Common Tunes and psalms ‘in reports’, new to the ...

Article

Jane M. Bowers

(bc? 1690; d Paris, Nov 26, 1762). French composer, flautist and teacher. He is sometimes erroneously referred to as Jean-Jacques. First identified as a ‘master of music’ in a marriage document of 1719, Naudot published his first compositions in 1726 and, according to Quantz’s autobiography, was among the several flautists active in Paris in 1726–7. In 1732 he was described by Walther as a ‘flourishing’ French flautist, and in 1739 was one of three flautists (with Lucas and Michel Blavet) whose ‘rare talent’ for the flute caused the poet Denesle to dedicate his poem Syrinx, ou L’origine de la flûte to them. Although it seems clear that Naudot was well known in Paris as a player, it is not known where he played; perhaps it was mainly in private salons, for the dedications to many of his works show that he had a number of aristocratic and bourgeois pupils and patrons. Between ...

Article

[Carl Theodorus]

Member of Pachelbel family

(b Stuttgart, bap. Nov 24, 1690; d Charleston, SC, bur. Sept 15, 1750). Organist, harpsichordist, composer and teacher, son of (1) Johann Pachelbel. He settled in Boston some time before 1734 (perhaps after a stay in England). In 1734 he was hired by Trinity Church in Newport, Rhode Island, to assemble an organ given to the church by the eminent philosopher George Berkeley; he served as organist there for a year. From 1734 to 1743 he taught the organist and composer Peter Pelham. He performed harpsichord and chamber music in a private benefit concert in New York in 1736, and later that year he moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where in November 1737 he gave a St Cecilia’s Day concert. In February 1740 he succeeded John Salter as organist of St Philip’s Church. On 29 March 1749 he advertised that he would be opening a singing school, but his health failed soon after this notice (according to the vestry of St Philip’s he was ‘afflicted with a lameness in his hands’, 18 September)....

Article

(b Naples, ca. 1707; d Venice, Aug 25, 1791). Italian composer, harpsichordist, and teacher. He is believed to have studied with Nicola Porpora in Naples, but little is known about his early life. The first documented performance of his music was of the opera Alessandro in Persia (Lucca, 1738), on a libretto of the Florentine Francesco Vanneschi. The poor reception of this work marked the beginning of a generally unsuccessful career as a composer for the stage. During the 1739–40 season Paradies moved to Venice, where he was employed by the Conservatorio dei Mendicanti, one of the city’s four famous schools for orphaned girls. There his reputation as an opera composer suffered further when his serenata of 1740, Il decreto del fato, proved unpopular. During this period, however, he was exposed to the vibrant Venetian musical life of the era and the progressive keyboard music of composers such as his contemporary Baldassare Galuppi....

Article

H. Joseph Butler

(b London, Dec 9, 1721; d Richmond, VA, April 28, 1805). American organist, harpsichordist, teacher and composer of English birth . He was the son of Peter Pelham, a mezzotint portrait engraver who settled in Boston in 1726. The earliest recorded public concert of secular music in the New World was held at the family's house on 30 December 1731, and the family also supported other musical activities in the city. Pelham studied with Charles Theodore Pachelbel for nine years from the age of 12, first in Newport, Rhode Island and later in Charleston, South Carolina. There Pelham taught the spinet and the harpsichord, his students describing him as ‘a Genteel Clever young man’ and ‘verey chomical and entertaining’. He was the first organist at Trinity Church, Boston (1744–9), and was organist of Bruton Parish Church in Williamsburg, Virginia, from 1755 to 1802; his evening performances (...

Article

Rebecca Harris-Warrick

(fl Paris, c1700). French harpsichordist, pedagogue and composer. Remarks in his Principes suggest that he worked as a harpsichord teacher, primarily in Paris. The first name ‘Michel’, frequently attributed to him, derives from the conflation of Saint Lambert with the singer and composer Michel Lambert, an error that goes back at least as far as Walther’s Musicalisches Lexicon (1732).

Les principes du clavecin was, as its author claimed, the first method book for the harpsichord, antedating François Couperin's L’art de toucher le clavecin by 14 years. Its first 18 chapters, devoted primarily to fundamentals of music, contain significant information regarding the range of the harpsichord, the performance practice of the slur (of particular value for the performance of préludes non mesurés) and a chapter on metre and tempo. Of the remaining chapters, one is devoted to fingering (including a fully fingered minuet and gavotte) and the other nine to ornamentation. By reproducing and commenting on the ornament symbols of four 17th-century keyboard composers – Chambonnières, Nivers, Lebègue and especially D’Anglebert – Saint Lambert provided a useful comparative perspective on the performance practices of his day....