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Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...


Alice Lawson Aber-Count

(b Navalmoral, Toledo, ?1633–43; d Toledo, before July 21, 1713). Spanish harpist, theorist, composer and teacher. Undoubtedly the theorist Andrés Lorente (see Jambou) and the Court harpist Juan de Navas were among his teachers. Huete was the harpist at Toledo Cathedral from 13 October 1681 to 14 June 1710; however he is remembered chiefly for his Compendio numeroso de zifras armónicas, con theórica, y pràctica para arpa de una orden y arpa de dos órdenes, y de órgano (Madrid, 1702–4), which marks the climax of a golden period for the two harp types (single-rank diatonic and two-rank chromatic) predominant in Spain between 1550 and 1700. Part i of the treatise (1702), containing secular pieces, is divided into three books for the beginner, intermediate and advanced player. Part ii (1704), containing sacred pieces, also consists of three books; the first contains 26 pasacalles which demonstrate Huete’s 11-mode system; the second presents the modes in descending and ascending octaves; and the third consists of psalm settings for voice(s), harp and/or organ (the organ is secondary to the harp in the treatise). The ...


James R. Heintze

( b ?Edinburgh, Dec 25, 1685; d Queen Anne County, MD, June 15, 1763). Scottish theorist and teacher . His father was a minister in Edinburgh, 1681–7, so he is likely to have spent his childhood there. As a young man, Malcolm devoted much time to teaching mathematics and related disciplines and to compiling various treatises, read both in Europe and America. It was his Treatise of Musick: Speculative, Practical and Historical (Edinburgh, 1721, 1779/R), that established his musical reputation. Relying on the writings of Descartes, Kircher, Mersenne and others, Malcolm's object was to ‘gather together in one system what lay scattered in several treatises’. Included are chapters on the history of music and on equal-temperament tuning, instruction in elements of composition, including melody, harmony, counterpoint, intervals, the musical scale and modulation, as well as directions for tuning a harpsichord. Hawkins considered it ‘one of the most valuable treatises on the subject of theoretical and practical music to be found in any of the modern languages’, and Stone has given evidence that Malcolm was the first British author to write a history of music in English rather than Latin....


(b Andelot, Haute-Marne, bap. Dec 4, 1667; d Aumont, 22 [not 27] Sept 1737). French composer, theorist and teacher. Michel Pignolet was the youngest of seven children born to the weaver Adrien Pignolet and Suzanne Galliot. On 27 January 1676 he entered the choir school at Langres Cathedral where he studied under Jean-Baptiste Moreau, director of the choir from October 1681 to February 1682. He added the name of ‘Montéclair’ (a fortress in Andelot) to his own some time after his arrival in Paris in 1687, but signed himself ‘Pignolet dit Montéclair’ as late as 1724. From the title-page of his Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre la musique (1709), we learn that he was ‘formerly maître de la musique for the Prince of Vaudémont’, whom he followed to Italy. Details of his Italian sojourn are unknown.

Montéclair performed on the basse de violon in the Paris Opéra orchestra as early as ...


Cecil Adkins

( b Bernstadt, c 1685; d Königsberg, 1739). German theorist and composer . After early training at Altdorf and Wittenberg, Neidhardt matriculated as a theology student at Jena, where he produced his first treatise on temperament and apparently continued his musical training. It is likely that he studied with the university organist, J.N. Bach, who knew him well enough to allow him to try one of his temperaments on the new organ at the city’s central church; Bach’s tuning, however, was found more singable. Between 1710 and 1720, when he was appointed Kapellmeister at Königsberg, Neidhardt was again in Bernstadt as well as in Breslau, where he is known to have lectured on composition. He then remained at Königsberg until his death, teaching organ and versification to the university students in addition to his writing and official duties.

Along with Werckmeister, Neidhardt perfected the art of practical temperaments in the early 18th century. An advocate of circulating temperaments (those intended to be most consonant in the more frequently used keys, and progressively less so in the remoter ones), he wanted his more than two dozen temperaments to be flexibly applied, as may be judged from his recommendation of specific temperaments for a village, a town, a city, and the court (the last assigned an equal temperament). He was apparently an active composer throughout his life; his few extant works include chorale settings (...


Pierluigi Petrobelli

(b Pirano, Istria [now Piran, Istra, Slovenia], April 8, 1692; d Padua, Feb 26, 1770). Italian composer, violinist, teacher and theorist.

Tartini's father Giovanni Antonio, of Florentine origin, was general manager of the salt mills in Pirano. Giuseppe, destined for the church by his pious parents, was to have been first a minore conventuale, a branch of the Franciscan order, and subsequently a full priest. To this end he was educated in his native town and then in nearby Capodistria (now Koper, Slovenia) at the scuole pie; as well as the humanities and rhetoric, he studied the rudiments of music. In 1708 he left his native region, never to live there again, but carrying in his memory the peculiarities of the local musical folklore. He enrolled as a law student at Padua University, where he devoted most of his time, always dressed as a priest, to improving his fencing, a practice in which, according to contemporary accounts, few could compete with him. This account of Tartini's youth has been questioned (see, for instance, Capri), but it is supported by contemporary evidence and is consistent with the later development of his personality, characterized by a fiery and stubborn temperament with a strong tendency towards mysticism. These qualities are equally evident in his writings – both letters and theoretical works – and in his compositions....