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John Edwin Henken

(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.

Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...



Fritz Feldmann

revised by Rudolf Walter

(b Bielau, nr Neisse [now Nysa], Jan 14, 1839; d Breslau [now Wrocław], July 5, 1909). German musicologist, conductor and organist. At the University of Breslau he studied classical and oriental philology (1858–62). From 1862 to 1868 he studied music at the Akademisches Institut für Kirchenmusik. He was taught singing and choral direction by Julius Schäffer, and organ by Expedit Baumgart. While still a student Bohn directed the Breslau Akademischer Musikverein, and in 1868 became organist at the city's church of the Heilige Kreuz. He belonged to the generation of Eitner, the first to dedicate itself to investigating, classifying and ordering the musical heritage of the past, and which at the same time endeavoured to combine musical scholarship with performing practice. The Bohnsche Gesangverein, founded by Bohn in 1882, furthered these aims in its ‘historical concerts’, which numbered 100 by 1905, and another 16 by 1909...


Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, Oct 3, 1839; d Iaşi, Feb 17, 1923). Romanian writer on music, folklorist and violinist. He studied music in Iaşi (1855–60) and at the Paris Conservatoire with Reber, Clapisson and Alard (1861–5). At the Iaşi Conservatory he held posts as professor of violin (1860–61) and of music theory (1893–1903). He undertook concert tours in Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Italy, Asia Minor and elsewhere, and collected folklore material of various peoples, particularly of the Romanians in Moldavia, Dobruja and Transylvania. The published results concerned wedding and burial customs (including remarkable studies on dirges), and Romanian folk music instruments. He was a founder of Romanian musicology, and published research on music education, the musical theatre, military songs and church choirs. He was also the founder of Romanian music lexicography: he edited the first Romanian dictionary of music (Dicţionar muzical...


Janna Saslaw

(b Berlin, Nov 26, 1838; d Berlin, Jan 18, 1900). German music theorist and conductor. His maternal grandfather was the famous tenor Karl Bader; his father, Robert Bussler, was a painter, author and privy counsellor. Ludwig studied music with A.E. Grell, Siegfried Dehn (theory) and W.F. Wieprecht (instrumentation). From 1865 he taught theory at the Ganz School of Music (later the Schwantzer Conservatory) in Berlin. In 1874 he was nominated professor at the Mohr Conservatory and in 1877 he resumed his post at the Schwantzer Conservatory. From 1879 he taught theory at the Stern Conservatory, receiving the title of royal professor in 1898. Bussler was also active as a conductor at various Berlin theatres. In 1883 he began contributing music criticism to the Nationalzeitung, and he also wrote for other Berlin journals.

Riemann noted that the wide acceptance of Bussler's theoretical works was due to their practical focus. Bussler's texts are full of examples from 18th- and 19th-century masters, and are punctuated by many exercises. Like Riemann, Bussler wrote about a large variety of musical subjects, including harmony, counterpoint, form, melodic construction, modulation and instrumentation. Contemporary appreciation of Bussler's work is indicated by the fact that Russian editions of five of his works were completed in the mid-1880s. S.I. Taneyev personally translated ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


[Leo St. Damian]

(b Liebeshain?, near Chicago, Dec 23, 1858; d Zurich, Jan 27, 1917). American pianist, pedagogue, inventor, philosopher, theologian, and physiologist, mostly active in Germany. He was, according to Rudolf Breithaupt’s Die natürliche Klaviertechnik (3/1912), the “founder of the physiological school, and especially the shoulder mechanics” and offered “the oldest scientific explanation of the modern psycho-physiological method [of piano playing].” In 1882 he married Anna Steiniger (1848–91), a prominent Prussian pianist and Ludwig Deppe’s assistant, whose partially fictitious and romanticized biography, allegedly based on her diary, he published as Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne (London, 1896).

Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen, in his Über die physiologischen Fehler und die Umgestaltung der Klavier-Tehnik (1905), states that Clark can be given “the credit and the merit of a first scientific attempt” of applying physiologically based movements. Clark thus emerges as the world pioneer in the physiological approach to piano playing and the first scholar to offer a scientific explanation and graphic illustration of the rolling movement of arm and wrist, in his ...


Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....


(b Ipswich, June 13, 1870; d Bromsgrove, Jan 19, 1941). English organist and music scholar. He was a Gilstrap scholar at the RCM, where he was taught the organ by Walter Parratt (1888–93; FRCO 1892, ARCM 1893) and then studied music at New College, Oxford (1893–5, BMus 1895). After serving as organist at St Margaret’s, King’s Lynn, he returned to London (having become a Roman Catholic) as organist of the Italian Church, Hatton Garden (1898–1915); he was then organist of the Birmingham Oratory until his death. He edited the quarterly Music and Liturgy (1932–6), and for several years lectured on polyphony at the Oxford Summer School, and on Latin church music by early English composers at the universities of London and Birmingham.

Collins devoted nearly all his spare time to copying and collecting manuscripts of early church music in London (British Museum), Oxford, Cambridge, Tenbury and elsewhere, editing it initially for his own church and later for general use. His preference was exclusively for polyphonic music of the 15th and 16th centuries and he became the leading authority on its notation in English sources. After his edition of 15 offertories by Lassus was published in Düsseldorf (...


Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...


Ruth Smith

revised by Stanley Sadie

(b Brighton, Nov 29, 1853; d Hove, Aug 28, 1929). English musicologist and pianist. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1874–7), principally with Jadassohn, Reinecke, Richter and Wiedenbach, returning to Brighton, where he worked as a journalist and taught until 1903. His research was primarily concerned with English music of the 16th and 17th centuries, to which his ...


Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...


Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...


Wayne D. Shirley

(b Paris, July 21, 1883; d New York, May 6, 1944). American musicologist, administrator and composer of German birth. After studying at the universities of Strasbourg and Munich and as a composition pupil of Thuille in Munich, he emigrated to the USA (1905), becoming an American citizen in 1917. He was music editor for the Boston Music Company (1909–22), head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress (1922–34), president of the music publishing firm of G. Schirmer (appointed 1929) and honorary consultant in musicology to the Library of Congress (from 1934). Concurrently he worked as a columnist (1922–44) and editor (1929–44) of the Musical Quarterly. In 1934, with Sonneck and Kinkeldey, he founded the American Musicological Society, subsequently serving as its president (1937–8).

Engel was one of the first generation of American musicologists trained in Europe who applied the standards of continental musicology to American scholarship. He was closely associated with Sonneck (succeeding him as head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, as president of G. Schirmer and as editor of the ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Birr, Ireland, Jan 17, 1882; d Law, Scotland, Dec 30, 1965). British musicologist, orientalist and conductor. He studied the violin, the clarinet, the piano and harmony, the last two with Vincent Sykes, organist of St Brendan's Church, Birr, where Farmer was a chorister. In London he studied with H.C. Tonking, Mark Andrews and F.A. Borsdorf and in 1895, while on holiday there with his father, he heard the Royal Artillery Orchestra conducted by Ladislao Zavertal; impressed by its performance, he joined as a violinist and clarinettist and after years of private study he served as its principal horn player, 1902–10. Forced by ill-health to abandon the horn, he began a conducting career at the Broadway Theatre, London (1910–13), while teaching music at various county council schools; he also founded the Irish Orchestra in London, which performed at the National Sunday League Concerts under his direction (...


Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....


Lev Ginzburg

revised by Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Baku, 29 May/June 9, 1909; d Moscow, Nov 7, 1986). Russian musicologist and pianist. He received his early musical education from his father, L.N. Fishman (1883–1936), conductor of an amateur theatre in Baku. In 1927 he graduated from M.L. Presman's piano class at the Baku Conservatory and in 1931 from L.V. Nikolayev's piano class at the Leningrad Conservatory. He then worked as a concert pianist (1925–40) and taught the piano in Moscow from 1935. He was principal conductor of the Malïy Theatre in Moscow (1943–50) and a senior research fellow at the Glinka Museum of Musical Culture (1951–78). As a musicologist Fishman became known particularly for his research on Beethoven. In 1962 he published a transcription and study of the Beethoven sketchbooks in the Wielhorski archives, for which he was awarded the doctorate in 1968. In 1970...


(b Lismore, Co. Waterford, 1 Nov 1857; d Enniscorthy, 6 Aug 1928). Irish music historian, organist, and composer. He received his first musical education from his mother and was then educated at Mount Melleray Roman Catholic University, All Hallows College, Dublin, and Carlow College. Although intended for the priesthood he turned to antiquarian studies (chiefly musical) and was organist of Belfast Pro-Cathedral from 1876, Thurles Cathedral from 1882, and Enniscorthy Cathedral from 1895 to his death. He also taught music at St McCartan’s College, County Monaghan, St Kieran’s College, County Kilkenny, and Clongowes Wood College, County Kildare. Devoting himself to raising the standard of church music, he wrote three masses and numerous other church compositions. The National University of Ireland awarded him an honorary DMus (1907) and his services to Catholic church music were recognized by the award of the papal cross Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice and his elevation to the Order of St Gregory (...


Nicholas Tawa

(William )

(b Salem, MA, March 5, 1853; d Boston, MA, April 8, 1937). American composer, pianist, organist, and music theorist. Arthur Foote was the first noted American composer of art music to receive his musical education entirely in the United States. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His father was editor of the Salem Gazette. His mother died while he was still a child, and an older sister, Mary Wilder (Foote) Tiletson, saw to his upbringing. An older brother, Henry Wilder Foote, was a noted Unitarian minister. Arthur began piano lessons with a local teacher, fanny Paine, at the age of twelve. Two years later, he started studying theory with stephen albert Emery at the New England Conservatory. In 1870 he enrolled at Harvard, with john knowles Paine as his teacher in music composition. He intended to study law and was not yet bent toward a musical vocation. After graduation he took keyboard lessons with ...