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Renee Lapp Norris

(b Northborough, MA, Sept 5, 1830; d Madison, WI, Dec 9, 1889). American classical scholar, teacher, editor, and writer. Allen is best known musically as an editor of Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), also edited by Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison, who were white collectors of black music.

Allen graduated from Harvard in 1851, subsequently studied in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1856. In 1863 he began an eight-month stint as a teacher on St Helena Island in South Carolina, home to former slaves who remained after plantation owners left in 1861. Here, Allen gained first-hand experience of slave singing that contributed to the detailed explanations of his 36-page prologue to Slave Songs. In 1867 Allen was appointed chair of ancient languages at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he remained until his death.

Allen’s interest in philology is evident in the many pages of the prologue to ...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b New York, June 3, 1851; d Dresden, Oct 13, 1934). American music scholar and lexicographer. Trained as a young man for a business career, he decided rather on music. For a time he was an organist in Concord, Massachusetts. He went to Germany to study in 1874 and took the doctorate at Leipzig in 1882 with a dissertation based on field studies among the Seneca Indians in New York state. This, the first serious work on American Indian music, was shown to MacDowell by Henry Gilbert, and provided themes for MacDowell's Second (‘Indian’) Suite for orchestra. Baker returned to the USA in 1891 and became literary editor and translator for the music publishing firm of Schirmer, Inc. (1892), a post he held until his retirement in 1926, when he returned to Germany. Besides making many translations into English of books, librettos and articles (the last especially for the ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Christopher Fifield

(Aloys Theodor)

(b Cologne, Jan 23, 1813; d Berlin, Aug 17, 1887). German music historian, editor, organist and composer. He was a pupil of Joseph Klein and Carl Leibl and in 1828 became organist of the Carmelite church at Cologne and a member of the cathedral choir. In 1832 he went to Berlin, where he studied with A.W. Bach (organ) and K.F. Rungenhagen (composition) and attended A.B. Marx’s lectures. His interest in old music was stimulated by his friendship with Carl von Winterfeld, whom he met in 1835, and by a commission to set in order the library of the Royal Institute for Church Music, which from 1845 held much of Forkel’s personal library. In 1839 Musica sacra, the first of Commer’s many important editions of early music, began to appear. In 1845 he became regens chori of the Hedwigskirche and singing teacher at the Elisabeth School, and he held several other similar positions. He was much decorated by royalty for his research. In ...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Oct 22, 1832; d Templin, Feb 2, 1905). German editor and bibliographer. Self-taught in music, Eitner established himself at Berlin in 1853 as a music teacher and also became known as a composer. In 1863 he founded a practical music school, but soon became interested in historical research and in 1867 received a prize from the Amsterdam Maatschappij tot Bevorderung der Toonkunst for compiling in manuscript the Lexikon der holländischen Tondichter. Turning to a wider field of musical scholarship, Eitner founded the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung in 1868 (among the first of its kind anywhere) and became its president and secretary. In 1869 he established and edited the Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte as the society's journal and followed this in 1873 with the Publikation Älterer Praktischer und Theoretischer Musikwerke, consisting largely of unpublished early music, which ran to 29 volumes during the next 32 years.

Eitner realized the importance of systematic collection of information about the sources of musical history and made them available in published catalogues. In his own words, ‘Die Musik-Bibliographie ist die Grundlage alles historischen Wissens’. In ...


Watkins Shaw

(b Paddington, London, Nov 11, 1870; d Windsor, Dec 21, 1951). English editor, scholar and cathedral musician. He showed marked musical gifts at an early age and when he was only seven Joachim offered to take him as a pupil. However, he received a conventional education at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford. At Oxford he read theology though he found time to develop his musical interests and remained for a fourth year working towards a music degree. On leaving Oxford he studied for the church and was ordained in 1894. He served for a short time as assistant curate in Wandsworth, London (1894–7), during which he took the Oxford BMus (1896). After three years as minor canon and precentor of Bristol Cathedral from 1897, he moved in 1900 to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, as a minor canon, in which capacity he remained for the rest of his life. In the years between the death of Walter Parratt and the appointment of Walford Davies (...


Anthony Hicks

(b Fontmell Magna, Dorset, July 8, 1879; d Blandford, March 12, 1964). English author, collector and publisher. After training as a writer on various popular journals, Flower joined the publishers Cassell & Co. in 1906 and took over as proprietor in 1927. He was knighted in 1938. His purely literary work includes an edition of the journals of Arnold Bennett.

Flower’s musical interests were amateur. His books are marred by a poor literary style and the absence of scholarly discipline, though the use of previously unknown documentary material gives them some value. His important collection of manuscripts and early printed editions of Handel’s music (including the bulk of the Aylesford Manuscripts, copied for Handel’s friend Charles Jennens) was acquired by the Henry Watson Library, Manchester, in 1965.

Catalogue of a Handel Collection formed by Newman Flower (Sevenoaks, 1921) George Frideric Handel: his Personality and his Times (London, 1923, 2/1947)...


H.C. Colles

revised by Frank Howes

(b Norwich, Sept 14, 1859; d Dinton, nr Salisbury, May 2, 1948). English musicologist, critic and editor. He was educated at Wellington College and Balliol College, Oxford (MA, 1882), and studied music for two years at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He became a schoolmaster at Dulwich College (1884–6) and a form master at Wellington (1887–1910), where he succeeded Alan Gray as the music master in 1893, a post he held until 1901, when he was made house master in college. During these years he wrote a Wellington College German Grammar and visited India, which aroused his interest in Indian music. When he left Wellington in 1910 he returned to India for eight months, collecting material for a book which is still a classic on its subject, The Music of Hindostan (1914); he also acted as Rabindranath Tagore's unpaid literary agent, ...


(b London, April 7, 1856; d Carnforth, Lancs., March 30, 1936). English critic, editor and musical scholar. Poor health disrupted his early nonconformist education and apart from three terms at Westminster School he was, by necessity, taught privately. His musical education began in 1872 when he took piano lessons with Ernst Pauer. In 1875 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became friends with Stanford and W.B. Squire, whose elder sister he married in 1885, and with whom he participated fully in the flourishing activities of the Cambridge University Musical Society. After graduation in 1882 he studied the piano with Dannreuther and Rockstro; both took a keen interest in early music, but it was Rockstro who introduced him to harpsichord playing. Although he cultivated a reputation as an exponent of the piano and harpsichord, it was in the field of antiquarian studies and musical journalism that he found his true vocation. He was invited by Grove to write articles for his ...


Carolyn Gianturco

(b Chieti, May 30, 1892; d Grottaferrata, nr Rome, May 10, 1973). Italian musicologist, editor and administrator. He began to play the violin when he was six and the piano when he was 12, and after schooling in Chieti he studied engineering at the University of Turin (1909–14). At 20 he was made editor-in-chief of the weekly Riforma musicale, published in 1913–15 and briefly in 1918; concurrently he organized concerts of contemporary chamber music in Turin. He founded and edited Il pianoforte (1920–27), which in 1928 became the Rassegna musicale (later with Ronga and Mila as co-editors); after an interruption during the war (1944–6) it moved to Rome (1947), where it subsequently became Quaderni della Rassegna musicale (1962). He also founded Studi musicali (1972–3). The first Congresso Italiano di Musica (Turin, 1921) was held partly under the auspices of Gatti's journal ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Kęty, nr Kraków, Dec 7, 1782; d Kraków, July 4, 1868). Polish bookseller and historian. In 1797 he began working in Groebel’s bookshop in Kraków, and there came into contact with a number of leading historians who aroused his fascination in the subject. After 20 years Grabowski opened his own bookshop, which he eventually closed in 1837 in order to devote himself exclusively to collecting historical material. His work in this field resulted in several books between 1840 and 1854, and also a number of articles published mainly in Biblioteka Warszawska (1850–65). These writings contain information on general Polish history, art history and the history of Kraków, and also a great deal of valuable material derived from primary sources concerning music and musicians in Poland. It was through Grabowski that historical interest in musical matters was first aroused in Poland. (PSB, K. Estreicher)

Dawne zabytki miasta Krakowa...


Hans-Martin Plesske

revised by Gunter Hempel

(b Strehla, Jan 24, 1782; d Reudnitz, nr Leipzig, Sept 30, 1864). German music publisher and bibliographer. After learning the trade he opened a retail music business in Leipzig in 1807 and soon extended this to a music publishing firm, to which he added a musical hire service and later a commission business. He was a close friend and the principal publisher of Heinrich Marschner, and for a time he promoted Schumann and Mendelssohn, published works by Berlioz, Chopin, Czerny, Clara Schumann and Friedrich Wieck, and issued songs and ballads by Loewe. Studies, didactic works and tutors for the popular instruments of the day were a prominent part of his publishing programme.

In 1817 Whistling published his Handbuch der musikalischen Literatur and Hofmeister published its successive supplements from the second (1819) and went on to produce further catalogues dealing with musical practice and music literature in German-speaking countries (from ...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Kiel, June 16, 1813; d Göttingen, Sept 9, 1869). German philologist, archaeologist and musicographer. After attending the universities of Kiel, Leipzig and Berlin, Jahn rapidly became one of the leading classical scholars of his day, in the study of Greek mythology, in textual criticism – he published editions of Persius and Juvenal – and in archaeology, in which he made a notable contribution to the history of Greek vase-painting. He became professor at Greifswald in 1842 and director of the archaeological museum at Leipzig in 1847, but involvement in the political unrest of 1848–9 caused his dismissal. In 1851 he edited in vocal score the second version (1806) of Beethoven's Leonore. In 1855 he went to Bonn as professor of philology and archaeology and retained this post until shortly before his death.

It is remarkable that such a dedicated career should have left Jahn any time for extended work on music, although in his youth it had rivalled his passion for the classics. While his family had wide musical contacts and he was active as a performer, he seems to have had little academic training in music, which makes his biography of Mozart all the more remarkable an achievement. The preface explains how the idea of writing it came from a conversation with Gustav Hartenstein at Mendelssohn's funeral on ...


Kimberly Greene

(b Branford, CT, Oct 22, 1746; d New Haven, CT, June 5, 1823). American tunebook compiler, composer, clock maker, and engraver. An influential compiler of tunebooks in the 1780s and 1790s, he included established English and American favorites in his books and introduced the works of such new American composers as Lewis Edson and Daniel Reed. His significant compilations are The Chorister’s Companion (1782/R), which was issued in collaboration with the publisher Amos Doolittle; a 48-page supplement to The Chorister’s Companion entitled “Part Third” (1783); A Collection of Favorite Psalm Tunes (1787); The Federal Harmony (1793); and The New Haven Collection of Sacred Music (1818). Jocelin helped to create a distinctive New England idiom which is representative of early American psalmody; his publications are counted among the important early American tunebooks. Details about his life remain scarce. However, Eli Whitney served as his partner in the manufacture of clocks, and his sons Simeon Jr. and Nathaniel, an aspiring portrait painter and active abolitionist, bought several firms in ...


Paula Morgan

(b New York, March 4, 1857; d Babylon, NY, July 27, 1918). American writer on music. After studies in Wiesbaden and New York he attended Columbia University, graduating from the School of Arts in 1877 and the School of Law in 1879. From 1879 to 1880 he was editor of the Musical Review. Beginning in 1880 he was music critic for a series of New York papers, The Sun, The World, the Mail and Express, and The Herald; he was music and art critic for The Herald at the time of his death. In 1883 Kobbé was sent to Bayreuth by The World to report on the first performance of Parsifal.

A prolific writer, he is chiefly known for his Complete Opera Book (1919), a collection of opera plots and analyses, which has become a standard work of reference; he also published books on Wagner and other composers, opera singers, and works on the pianola and the Aeolian pipe organ....


Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(b Moscow, 16/July 28, 1882; d Nikolina Gora, nr Moscow, May 5, 1951). Russian music editor. He graduated from the Moscow Conservatory having studied the piano and undertook concert tours with the singer Olenina d'Algeym; he was also involved with the work of the Dom pesni (‘House of Song’). In 1912 he began working as a music editor, and in 1918 he was made a professor of chamber music at the Moscow Conservatory, a post he held until his death. Throughout the 1920s and 30s he also worked for the State Publishing House (Gosudarstvennnoye Izdatel′stvo).

Lamm's main scholarly contribution was his pioneering editorial methods based on a careful study of sources and precise palaeographic methods. He initiated the publication of the collected works of Musorgsky (which remained incomplete) using the autograph manuscripts and the original texts, and Lamm was one of the first music editors to account for textual variants and provide an elaborate critical apparatus. Only later did flaws in his editorial decisions emerge, such as the combination of various versions of the texts, or the grouping of the cycles. He also edited the operas of Borodin based on the composer's manuscripts, although he did not complete ...


Eugène Cardine

revised by David Hiley

( b Bouzemont, Vosges, Dec 7, 1835; d Conques, Aveyron, Dec 8, 1923). French scholar and editor of plainchant . He was ordained priest on 18 December 1858 and took his vows as a Benedictine monk at Solesmes on 1 November 1860. He became prior of Ligugé in 1893 and abbot at Saint-Wandrille in 1898. In 1860 Guéranger assigned him as an assistant to Jausions to help him prepare a new edition of liturgical chant books for use in the monastic community. After Jausions's death Pothier completed and published the whole work himself, bringing out the first part, Mélodies grégoriennes d’après la tradition in 1880. This publication was very well received at the Gregorian Congress of Arezzo (1882) and contributed greatly to the success of the teaching of the Solesmes school. In 1883 the second part, the Liber Gradualis, gave rise to a long controversy with the supporters of the ‘Medicean’ edition (Pustet, Regensburg), at that time enjoying a special privilege given by the Holy See. When in ...


August Scharnagl

revised by Raymond Dittrich

[Karl ]

( b Gröbnig, Upper Silesia, Feb 11, 1794; d Regensburg, Dec 20, 1861). German musicologist and editor . He was a medical doctor before settling in 1823 in Regensburg, where he turned to the study of theology and was ordained on 11 April 1826. In 1827 he was appointed vicar-choral at the collegiate monastery of the Alte Kapelle in Regensburg; he was made a canon there in 1830. From that time he devoted himself entirely to church music reform. Proske's aim was to combat the tendency towards independence in church music and link it as closely as possible to the liturgy again. He regarded Gregorian chant and the old style of vocal polyphony as the two basic types of ‘pure, exclusively sanctioned sacred song’. Proske's ideas made him an important instigator of the Cecilian movement, which had one of its major centres in Regensburg. His publishing activities began with the Denkschrift ...


Rosemary Williamson

( b Oundle, March 1, 1835; d Hackney, Dec 5, 1909). English musical theorist, editor and teacher . The son of a Congregationalist minister, Prout showed exceptional musical promise as a child, but his father opposed a career in music, and, apart from a course of piano lessons from Charles Salaman, he was entirely self-taught as a musician. He worked as a schoolmaster from 1852, taking the degree of BA (London) in 1854, but in 1859 he turned to music as a profession, initially teaching a singing class at a ladies' school in Hackney and taking private pupils, the first of whom was the organist John Locke Gray. He was organist of several nonconformist chapels, including the Union Chapel, Islington (1861–73), and from 1861 to 1885 was professor of the piano at the Crystal Palace School of Art. In 1862 he won a Society of British Musicians prize with his String Quartet in E op.1, and in ...


Jon Newsom

revised by H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Lafayette [now part of Jersey City], NJ, Oct 6, 1873; d New York, Oct 30, 1928). American musicologist, librarian, editor and composer. As a boy he was sent to Germany to study; he was a piano pupil of James Kwast (1883–93) and later attended courses at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich, developing his interests in philosophy and, especially, musicology. He studied composition in Munich with Melchior Ernst Sachs, composition and orchestration with Iwan Knorr in Frankfurt, and conducting with Carl Schröder at the Sondershausen Conservatory.

In 1899 Sonneck returned to the USA and for three years travelled from New England to South Carolina, collecting references to American musical life before 1800, primarily from newspapers. He also did much work in the new Library of Congress building, and in 1902 the librarian Herbert Putnam made him head of the newly formed music division, where he organized and developed what was to become one of the most comprehensive collections of music, manuscripts and books on music in the world. He established its unrivalled archive of opera scores and librettos, and in ...