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(b Spanish Basque region, c1755; d San Sebastián, June 23, 1831). Spanish composer and theorist. After serving as maestro de capilla in San Sebastián, he took up the same post in Logroño collegiate church during the French invasion (1795). Five years later he returned to San Sebastián as maestro de capilla at S María la Redonda, where he remained until 1829. He composed a large number of sacred works, which enjoyed great success throughout northern Spain during his lifetime, in particular masses, Vespers, the Office for the Dead, motets and villancicos, many of which survive in manuscript at the churches which he served. He also wrote some piano music (of which a sonata is edited in J. Nin’s Classiques espagnols du piano, i, 1925) and a 133-page theoretical work, Instrucción metódica, especulativa, y prática, para enseñar á cantar y tañer la música moderna y antigua...


Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici

(b Rome, June 29, 1801; d Rome, June 12, 1863). Italian musicologist and composer. Ordained a Roman priest in 1823, his life was entirely directed towards the deliverance of liturgical music from what he saw as the debased theatrical style of contemporary composers and the neglect and incompetence of singers and organists in regard to Gregorian chant and Renaissance music. He contributed most importantly to this goal through his editions, particularly the Raccolta di musica sacra (Rome, 1841–6), the seven volumes of which provided the first large modern collection of Palestrina's music. Palestrina was Alfieri's ideal for new church music, which, according to his Ristabilimento, should be grave, succinct and suited in expression to the words, which were to be presented clearly and with few repetitions. His own compositions, many of them published at Rome, exemplified these principles.

Alfieri was also a pioneer in Italy in the historical study of Gregorian chant, which he sought to restore to its original purity, although along lines that now appear somewhat arbitrary and subjective. His early ...


Watkins Shaw

(b Paddington, London, Nov 11, 1870; d Windsor, Dec 21, 1951). English editor, scholar and cathedral musician. He showed marked musical gifts at an early age and when he was only seven Joachim offered to take him as a pupil. However, he received a conventional education at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford. At Oxford he read theology though he found time to develop his musical interests and remained for a fourth year working towards a music degree. On leaving Oxford he studied for the church and was ordained in 1894. He served for a short time as assistant curate in Wandsworth, London (1894–7), during which he took the Oxford BMus (1896). After three years as minor canon and precentor of Bristol Cathedral from 1897, he moved in 1900 to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, as a minor canon, in which capacity he remained for the rest of his life. In the years between the death of Walter Parratt and the appointment of Walford Davies (...


Dieter Haberl

(b Oberellenbach, Bavaria, April 12, 1840; d Regensburg, Sept 5, 1910). German musicologist and church musician. A schoolmaster's son, he was educated in Passau, ordained priest there on 12 August 1862, and was subsequently head of music in the episcopal seminaries and deputy choirmaster at Passau Cathedral. From 1867 to 1870 he was organist of S Maria dell'Anima in Rome, and pursued musicological research in Italian libraries and archives. In Rome he met Liszt and became acquainted with the Roman plainchant movement headed by Cardinal Domenicus Bartolini. In 1871 he was appointed cathedral Kapellmeister and inspector of the Dompräbende in Regensburg. In 1874, encouraged by Liszt and F.X. Witt, he founded a school of church music in Regensburg that soon acquired an international reputation. Pope Leo XIII made him an honorary canon of Palestrina Cathedral in 1879, the year in which Haberl founded a Palestrina society and became editor of the first complete Palestrina edition, which Breitkopf & Härtel had begun in ...


Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Israel J. Katz

(b Filzburg, nr Libau [now Liepāja, Latvia], June 11, 1882; d Johannesburg, Aug 15, 1938). Jewish cantor and musicologist of Russian birth. Raised in a traditional German Jewish environment, he trained as a cantor in Libau; he also studied briefly at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) where he met Eduard Birnbaum. Later he studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and at the conservatory and university in Leipzig; his claim to have studied at both institutions with Kretzschmar (history), Zöllner (composition) and Jadassohn (harmony) remains unsubstantiated. He served as cantor at the Adat Jeshurun congregation, Leipzig (1902). From 1903 to 1905 he was a cantor at Regensburg and then after a year in Johannesburg he was persuaded by the president of the Zionist movement, David Wolffsohn, to emigrate to Jerusalem, where he lived from 1906 to 1921. These were decisive years for Idelsohn's research into the diverse musical traditions of the Sephardi and ‘Oriental’ Jewish communities and Muslim and Christian sects. Although his plans in ...


Lucy Durán

revised by Gregory F. Barz

(b London, June 4, 1889; d St Albans, April 12, 1980). English ethnomusicologist, missionary and theologian. He studied theology at Oxford (BA 1921, MA 1928) and took an education diploma in London. From 1923 he worked as a missionary in Africa, for over 20 years (1929–50) as principal of St Mark’s College, Mapanza, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). On returning to England in 1952 he was appointed a lecturer in African music at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, a post he held until his retirement in 1966. He was awarded the Oxford DLitt in 1961. His main areas of study were African music and the xylophone; he also edited collections of hymns for schools in Africa. The dominant (and most controversial) theme of Jones’s research was his contention that the similarities between the African and Indonesian xylophone indicate cultural diffusion between Indonesia and Africa. He pointed out significant similarities between scales, tunings, construction, musical forms and other stylistic features; and on the basis of this and other evidence he proposed the theory that at some time in the early Christian era parts of Africa were colonized by peoples of Indonesia. He has been criticized for the selection and analysis of his evidence, as well as for his view (in opposition to historical evidence) that the xylophone was introduced to Africa from Indonesia. His final work (...


Bernarr Rainbow

( b London, March 16, 1823; d London, March 18, 1889). English church musician and composer . He was a pupil of Thomas Adams, J.A. Hamilton and G.A. Griesbach, and began his career in 1841 as organist of St Peter’s, Eaton Square. After holding similar posts at St George’s, Albemarle Street (1843), and St Paul’s, Portman Square (1845), he was appointed choirmaster (1847) and organist (1849) at King’s College, London. While at King’s he came under the influence of William Dyce, professor of fine arts, whose recent scholarly investigation of the principles of plainchant had prepared the way for its use in the Anglican service. Monk assisted in that development by contributing the first articles on the subject to the journal of the Tractarian Society for Promoting Church Music, the Parish Choir (1846–51), of which he later became musical editor....


Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Aug 12, 1825; d Hereford, April 6, 1889). English church musician, scholar and composer. His father, Sir Gore Ouseley (1770–1844), a noted orientalist, was successively ambassador to Persia and to Russia, and was made a baronet in 1808; he was also an amateur musician, and helped found the Royal Academy of Music in 1822. His only son, named after the boy’s godfathers, Frederick, Duke of York, and Arthur, Duke of Wellington, was educated at home in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire. In 1840 he was sent as a pupil to James Joyce, vicar of Dorking, who instructed him in the classics and theology. In 1843 he entered Christ Church, Oxford, and the following year inherited his father’s title and estate. He graduated BA in 1846 and received the DMus in 1854. From 1846, when he moved to London, he sang as a lay member of the newly surpliced choir of St Paul’s, Knightsbridge, under its Tractarian vicar W.J.E. Bennett; after his ordination in ...


Nicolae Gheorghiță

(b Achaias, Palaias Patras, Peloponnese, Greece, 1777; d Bucharest, Oct 10, 1821). Greek composer, psaltēs, teacher, historian, poet, copyist, and calligrapher. He studied Byzantine chant with his father Athanasios (the personal physician to Sultan Abdul Hamit (d 1789) and a servant of the Great Church), and with Iakovos Protopsaltēs (d 1800) and Petros Byzantios Fygas (d 1808) at the School of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople. In 1797 he settled in Bucharest, taking courses at the Princely Academy and at the same time teaching ecclesiastical chant at Căldărușani Monastery (1797–1809) and the schools of psaltic music in Bucharest (1809–16). He was acknowledged as an excellent performer on the tambur and keman, but also played the piano. He was the author of a musical grammar, The Theoretical and Practical Didaskalia of Church Music Written in Particular for the Tambur and Keman Instruments...


Julian Herbage

[Alexander] (Thomas Parke)

(b Southsea, June 3, 1892; d Midhurst, Jan 18, 1982). English writer on music. He was educated at Bradfield College and the RAM (1910–13), where he studied chiefly the organ, harmony and composition, and was organist and choirmaster at Frensham parish church and briefly at Farnham. During World War I he served in India, Egypt and Palestine. In 1919 he was appointed music lecturer to London County Council evening institutes. In 1920 he joined the Gramophone Company's educational staff, first as a lecturer and later as its head. In 1930 he entered the Collegio Beda, Rome; he was ordained priest in 1934 and held an appointment at Westminster Cathedral. Though he returned to professional life in 1938 his experiences of Catholic church music, particularly Gregorian plainchant, led him to write a number of books on the subject. In 1940 he joined the Gramophone Department of the BBC, and after the war was appointed chief producer of music talks on the Home and Third Programmes. He developed a highly individual manner as a broadcaster and gave many illustrated talks, which he continued even after his retirement from the BBC in ...


Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...


Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...