(b St Petersburg, 10/Feb 22, 1846; d Bonn, July 26, 1926). Russian composer and ethnomusicologist. The name Adayevskaya is a pseudonym derived from the notes of the kettledrum (A, D, A) in Mikhail Glinka’s Ruslan and Lyudmila. At the age of eight she started piano lessons with Henselt, continued with Anton Rubinstein and Dreyschock at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1862–4), and later gave concerts in Russia and Europe. She also studied composition at the conservatory with N.I. Zaremba and A.S. Famintsïn and about 1870 began composing choruses for the Imperial Chapel Choir. Two operas followed, Nepri′gozhaya (‘The Homely Girl’)/Doch′ boyarina (‘The Boyar’s Daughter’, 1873) and Zarya svobodï (‘The Dawn of Freedom’, 1877), the latter dedicated to Alexander II but rejected by the censor for its scene of peasant uprising. A comic opera Solomonida Saburova remained in manuscript. A Greek Sonata (...
Malcolm Hamrick Brown
(b Spanish Basque region, c1755; d San Sebastián, June 23, 1831). Spanish composer and theorist. After serving as maestro de capilla in San Sebastián, he took up the same post in Logroño collegiate church during the French invasion (1795). Five years later he returned to San Sebastián as maestro de capilla at S María la Redonda, where he remained until 1829. He composed a large number of sacred works, which enjoyed great success throughout northern Spain during his lifetime, in particular masses, Vespers, the Office for the Dead, motets and villancicos, many of which survive in manuscript at the churches which he served. He also wrote some piano music (of which a sonata is edited in J. Nin’s Classiques espagnols du piano, i, 1925) and a 133-page theoretical work, Instrucción metódica, especulativa, y prática, para enseñar á cantar y tañer la música moderna y antigua...
revised by Emanuele Senici
(b Rome, June 29, 1801; d Rome, June 12, 1863). Italian musicologist and composer. Ordained a Roman priest in 1823, his life was entirely directed towards the deliverance of liturgical music from what he saw as the debased theatrical style of contemporary composers and the neglect and incompetence of singers and organists in regard to Gregorian chant and Renaissance music. He contributed most importantly to this goal through his editions, particularly the Raccolta di musica sacra (Rome, 1841–6), the seven volumes of which provided the first large modern collection of Palestrina's music. Palestrina was Alfieri's ideal for new church music, which, according to his Ristabilimento, should be grave, succinct and suited in expression to the words, which were to be presented clearly and with few repetitions. His own compositions, many of them published at Rome, exemplified these principles.
Alfieri was also a pioneer in Italy in the historical study of Gregorian chant, which he sought to restore to its original purity, although along lines that now appear somewhat arbitrary and subjective. His early ...
(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...
revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin
(b Correggio, nr Reggio nell’Emilia, Aug 30, 1769; d Correggio, May 18, 1832). Italian composer and theorist. Born into a family of musicians, he was essentially self-taught although he studied briefly with Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi, the assistant maestro di cappella in the basilica. At the age of eight he had already written complex sacred pieces and chamber music. He studied in Parma with Angelo Morigi (called ‘Il Merighi’) during 1780–81 and in 1782 stayed for a time in Bologna (where he visited Paudre Martini) and Venice, where he had great success as a harpsichordist and improviser. Having returned to Correggio, at the age of 14 he taught the harpsichord, flute and cello at the Collegio Civico and in 1786 was appointed maestro di cappella. La volubile, performed in Correggio in 1785 with the intermezzo Il ratto di Proserpina, marked the beginning of his career as an opera composer. In the retinue of the Marchese Gherardini, he moved to Turin (...
revised by Edward Garden
(b Moscow, 24 March/April 5, 1839; d Moscow, 12/Jan 24, 1881). Russian composer and scholar. In 1858 he resigned from the civil service and went to Leipzig, where he studied music theory with Richter and Hauptmann. Later he took lessons from Liszt in Rome. While in Paris in 1886, he bought the extensive collection of music which had belonged to G.E. Anders. On his return to Russia in 1870 he was appointed honorary librarian to the St Petersburg Conservatory, and in the following year became its director. Unlike his predecessor Zaremba, he was favourably disposed towards the New Russian School, and one of his first acts as director was to appoint Rimsky-Korsakov as professor of practical composition and instrumentation. This bold step had a profound effect on the history of composition in Russia, and the conservatory soon became as important in the field of composition as it had already become in producing excellent instrumentalists and singers (one of its graduates during Azanchevsky's time was the great bass Fyodor Stravinsky, whose son Igor later became a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov). Tchaikovsky referred to him as ‘a good and kind person’. Ill-health forced him to resign in ...
(b Rome, Oct 21, 1775; d Rome, May 21, 1844). Italian musicologist and composer. At 13 he entered the Seminario Romano and studied there under Stefano Silveyra. In 1795 he was accepted as a member of the choir of the papal chapel, even though he was not yet a priest (he became one in 1798). He studied singing with a bass from the choir, Saverio Bianchini, and, from 1802, counterpoint with Giuseppe Jannacconi. He was probably also a pupil of the organist G.B. Batti and of his uncle, the composer Lorenzo Baini. In 1814 he was entrusted with the reorganization of the archives of the papal chapel and in 1819 became camerlengo (general administrator) of the college of papal singers, an elective office which he held until his death. In 1825 he was made an examiner at the Congregazione di S Cecilia, although he was not a member of it. His efforts to persuade the pope to found a school of singing and a conservatory were unsuccessful. A member of many European academies and the teacher of numerous composers and musicologists, among them Cartoni, La Fage, Nicolai, Proske and Hiller, he spent the last part of his life in extreme seclusion....
(b Kissy (nr Freetown), Sierra Leone, March 14, 1893; d ?Sierra Leone, 1961). African ethnomusicologist and composer. Missionaries changed Ballanta, the grandfather’s African surname, to Taylor. Nicholas George’s father, Gustavus, hyphenated the name, under which the son published. He sang and played the organ at St. Patrick’s Chapel, Kissy, as a youth. In 1917 he passed the intermediary examination for the BM degree at Fourah Bay College, Freetown, an affiliate of the University of Durham, UK, but he could not complete this degree because of travel requirements that the final examination be taken in England. Between 1918 and 1919, he participated in a Freetown choral society, for which he wrote the oratorio Belshazzar’s Feast. He spent the winter of 1921 in Boston, sponsored by an American patron, where he conducted his African Rhapsody at Symphony Hall and studied orchestration privately. In 1922 he matriculated at the New York Institute of Music Art (now Juilliard School of Music), where he obtained his diploma (...
John Edwin Henken
(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.
Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...
(b Bálványos-Váralja, Nov 23, 1821; d Budapest, Feb 9, 1899). Hungarian musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied theology and law, and the piano, horn, and music theory at the conservatory in Kolozsvar, starting his musical career in 1846 as a piano teacher in provincial towns. In 1851 he settled in Pest as a teacher and concert pianist, and began to work as a musicologist and journalist (late 1850s); with Kornél Ábrányi and Mihály Mosonyi he was co-editor (1860–63) of the first Hungarian musical weekly, Zenészeti lapok. Subsequently he made two study trips to monasteries in Upper Austria and compiled a catalogue of their manuscripts and prints which related to Hungary. In 1869 he was appointed professor of music at the Pest teacher-training college. A member of the Kisfaludy Society of Literature and Science (1867) and a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (...
(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1801; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1880). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer. He began composing and playing the flute while still in school. After his matriculation he studied law for a time, but influenced by the composer C.E.F. Weyse he soon dedicated himself to music and attracted attention in 1823 with a cantata for the 200th anniversary of Regensen, the students' college in Copenhagen. Over the next few years he composed several more cantatas as well as incidental music for the Royal Theatre. From 1838 he was organist at the Trinitatis Kirke, and from 1843 singing master at the metropolitan school. He held both posts until his death; they led him to an intensive occupation with church and school singing. He composed a notable set of hymn melodies, many of which are still used in the Danish Church, and edited many collections of partsongs for schools, containing several of his own compositions. He also made an important collection of Danish and foreign folksongs and melodies. In ...
revised by Axel Helmer
(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...
Arthur J. Ness
revised by Jonas Westover
(b Sierre, Switzerland, Feb 17, 1850; d Buffalo, NY, Feb 18, 1939). Swiss composer, organist, and scholar, active in the United States. Born and trained in Europe, Bonvin served as organist and choirmaster for a German Jesuit order in Exaeten, the Netherlands. He came to the United States after being ordained as a priest in England in 1885. In 1887, Bonvin was sent by the Church to Buffalo, New York, where he lived for the remainder of his life. While there, he became a key figure in the musical life of Canisius College. He first established a choir, which he directed for nearly twenty years. He then founded and conducted the school’s orchestra, beginning in 1881. In addition to his duties at the college, Bonvin worked with a local school, the Sacred Heart Academy, in 1922.
Very active as a composer, Bonvin wrote for a variety of ensembles, even though his specialty was in sacred vocal works. In addition to several works for piano and pieces for organ, Bonvin’s catalog includes masses, motets, litanies, four children’s operas, eleven song cycles, a symphony, six tone poems, and 17 works for chamber ensembles. His first orchestral composition was a short work entitled ...
revised by Pierre Guillot
(b Rochecorbon, nr Vouvray, May 12, 1863; d Toulon, Nov 8, 1909). French music scholar, teacher and composer. He was taught composition by Franck and the piano by Marmontel and was maître de chapelle and organist at Nogent-sur-Marne from July 1887 until March 1890 when the minister of education commissioned him to assemble a collection of early Basque music (published in 1897 as the Archives de la tradition basque). In 1890 he went to Paris where, as maître de chapelle at St Gervais-St Protais, he organized (1892) the Semaines Saintes de St Gervais, a series of musical services at which the best-known works of French and Italian Renaissance composers were performed by Bordes’ singers, the Chanteurs de St Gervais. Indeed, he dedicated most of his short life (sometimes at the expense of his other creative work) to the revival of sacred and secular Renaissance polyphony, much of which had been completely neglected for centuries, and to encouraging young musicians to look to the past for inspiration....
revised by Emanuele Senici
(b Turin, March 15, 1800; d Milan, Feb 28, 1876). Italian composer and theorist. As a composer he was largely self-taught, his musical interest having been discouraged by his father who died in 1817. After a period in Turin, where he was befriended by Bernardo Ottani, he became a music teacher in Milan and in 1822 went to Voghera as music director and conductor at the Teatro Civico (according to his pupil Edoardo Perelli he was also maestro di cappella at the church there). In 1829 he became maestro di cappella at Vigevano Cathedral and in 1842 applied for the same post, then vacant, at Milan Cathedral. He received the Milan appointment only in 1847, after having in 1844 become maestro at Casale Monferrato Cathedral, and remained there until his death.
Boucheron composed two operas (Ettore Fieramosca and Le nozze al castello) and some farces, none of them performed. Three of his songs and an organ fantasia were published by Ricordi, and four symphonies are in the Milan Cathedral archives. His ...
revised by Richard Langham Smith
(b Nantes, Feb 2, 1840; d Vernouillet, Yvelines, July 4, 1910). French scholar and composer. He was a nephew of Billault, the famous minister of the Second Empire, and prepared for a career in law, but entered Ambroise Thomas’ class at the Conservatoire in 1859, a year after his comic opera L’atelier de Prague had been performed in Nantes. He won the Prix de Rome in 1862 with his cantata Louise de Mézières, and during his subsequent visit to Italy developed an interest in both the music of Palestrina’s time and folk music. In 1868 he moved from Nantes to Paris and shortly thereafter founded the Société Bourgault-Ducoudray, an amateur choral group which performed the works of Lassus, Palestrina, Janequin, Bach and Handel among others. He was also one of the founders of the Société Nationale de Musique. In 1874 he travelled to Greece to study ancient and popular Greek music; this journey resulted in several writings and the publication of collections of Greek folksongs, harmonized by himself. He subsequently became interested in the music of Brittany, collecting folksongs from local singers in a published collection and harmonizing them with sensitivity, adding a copious description of his methods, the modal structure of the music and its performance practice. From ...
revised by Lennart Rabes
(b Stockholm, Oct 13, 1821; d Stockholm, July 22, 1909). Swedish composer and scholar. He followed his father in a military career, rising to the rank of captain in 1857. During the 1840s he established a reputation in Stockholm as a pianist and song composer. In the following decade he developed his creative talent in a number of chamber works, the Piano Trio in E♭ (1850), a cello duo (1851) and, more particularly, in the first of his two quartets, the Quartetto svedese (1856, rev. 1895). He was active as a teacher in the late 1850s and early 1860s; in 1866 he succeeded August Berwald as inspector of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, and in 1872 he was appointed professor. In 1871 he published a theory work for schools (Allmän musiklära, till skolornas tjenst). After a period as conductor of the Turku orchestral society (...
(b Kensington, London, Nov 20, 1766; d Bristol, May 15, 1821). English composer and theorist. Entering music as a largely self-taught amateur, he became a popular glee composer and a respected authority on music theory.
He was the son of a builder, Thomas Callcott, by his second wife, Charlotte Wall, and was educated at a private school by William Young; he was a brilliant student of classics, Hebrew and philosophy. Until he was 13 it was planned that he should become a surgeon, but he was so disgusted by witnessing an operation that he gave up this idea. He had learnt something of music from Henry Whitney, organist of Kensington parish church, and he began to practise the organ seriously while continuing to pursue, untaught, the study of languages and mathematics. He also learnt to play the clarinet and the oboe, and began to compose. In 1782 he became acquainted with Samuel Arnold and Benjamin Cooke, who encouraged him to enter the profession; the next year he became assistant organist of St George’s, Bloomsbury. Through Cooke he was admitted as a ‘supernumerary hautboy’ at the concerts of the Academy of Ancient Music. From this time onwards his efforts in composition were mainly devoted to the glee. His first glee, ...
(b Laigle, Normandy, June 10, 1773; d Paris, Nov 29, 1830). French composer and theorist. He went to Paris at the age of 11 to study composition with Gossec and the piano with Gobert. With the outbreak of the Revolution he joined the band of the Garde Nationale de Paris, for which he supplied new music for public functions. After a brief period in the army, he was assigned to teach solfège and harmony to the corps de musique of the National Guard. He also took on duties as répétiteur at the Opéra, a post he held till 1803; and in 1795 he was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the newly founded Conservatoire. From 1792 to 1797 he composed at least 25 works for performance at Revolutionary fêtes nationales; these included hymns, marches and military symphonies. During the late 1790s he composed a number of chamber works, including quartets and quintets for strings and wind....