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Rufus Hallmark

b Château de Boncourt, 27–30 Jan 1781; d Berlin, 21 Aug 1838). German writer and naturalist. He is known in music history chiefly as the poet of the cycle Frauenliebe und Leben, which was set to music by Carl Loewe, Robert Schumann, and others.

Literarily Chamisso is known for his fable Der Wundersame Geschichte von Peter Schlemiehl (a Faustian tale of a man who sells not his soul, but his shadow), his travel account Reise um die Welt, and his numerous poems. Some portray ordinary people of the Biedermeier period in both serious and humorous verse, some are sensational narratives, others exotic tales, some inspired by his travels, and some are ironic poems of a liberal political cast; finally there are his lyrisch-episch cycles of first-person lyrics with a narrative outline, many in a woman’s voice (e.g. Frauenliebe und Leben, Tränen).

In science Chamisso is noteworthy as a collector and cataloguer. As the naturalist on a global circumnavigation of discovery (...

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Adelbert von Chamisso, Painting by Robert Reinick (1831)

Article

Kimberly Greene

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 19, 1766; d New York, NY, Sep 28, 1839). American playwright, librettist, theater manager, historian, and painter. Despite losing his sight in one eye due to an accident, Dunlap became a professional portrait painter in his youth, and he was noted for his paintings of George Washington. In 1784 he traveled to London and studied painting with Benjamin West. Upon his return to the United States in 1787, he began writing plays and became America’s first professional playwright. Over a period of 40 years he translated, adapted, or wrote more than 70 plays, many of which used music by composers such as Benjamin Carr, Alexander Reinagle, Victor Pelissier, and James Hewitt. He was influenced by the plays of German dramatist August von Kotzebue, whose works he translated and made popular in the United States.

Dunlap’s The Archers, or Mountaineers of Switzerland (1796...

Article

Paul C. Echols

revised by David Music

(b Northampton, MA, May 14, 1752; d New Haven, CT, Jan 11, 1817). American poet and author of hymn texts. He graduated from Yale College in 1769, becoming a tutor there two years later. He served as a chaplain in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and wrote the texts of several patriotic songs, one of which (“Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,” 1787) became widely popular. From 1783 to 1795 he was pastor of the Congregational Church in Greenfield Hill, Connecticut, where he rose to eminence as a preacher, educator, and poet. He was elected president of Yale College in 1795. In 1798, at the request of both Congregational and Presbyterian governing bodies in Connecticut, he undertook a revised edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns to replace one by Joel Barlow (1785) that had previously been compiled for the Congregationalists. Issued at Hartford in ...