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Article

Mikaela Minga

(b Tirana, Albania, April 12, 1949; d Tirana, Sept 28, 2012). Albanian cellist. His parents were acclaimed artists. His father, Kristaq Antoniu, was a singer, actor, and stage director. His mother, Androniqi Zengo, was a painter. Between 1967 and 1973 Antoniu completed his cello studies at the Albanian Higher Institute of Arts (Instituti i Lartë i Arteve), with Y. Skënderi and M. Denizi. During this time he became one of the most acclaimed cello soloists in Albania of both chamber music and solo works, being the first performer of pieces by Albanian composers such as Ç. Zadeja, F. Ibrahimi, K. Laro, S. Kushta, T. Gaqi, and A. Peçi,. Antoniu gave numerous concerts, primarily in Albania, though a few abroad. He participated in the most important musical events of his time and made radio recordings. In his repertory are included cello pieces from Classic and Romantic European composers. Antoniu was appointed professor at the High Institute of Arts and taught there for more than thirty years....

Article

Bill C. Malone

revised by Barry Mazor

[Chester Burton ]

(b nr Luttrell, TN, June 20, 1924, d Nashville, TN, June 30, 2001). American country-music guitarist and recording company executive. Although the first instrument he played professionally was the fiddle, he became internationally famous as a guitarist. Developed while he was in high school, his guitar style was influenced by Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt, and George Barnes and was characterized by the use of the thumb to establish a rhythm on the lower strings and multiple fingers to play melodic or improvisational passages on the higher strings, sometimes with complex voicings. In the early 1940s Atkins toured with Archie Campbell and Bill Carlisle playing both fiddle and guitar, and appeared with them on WNOX radio in Knoxville. He then toured with the second generation Carter Family as a sideman and in 1946 joined Red Foley. After beginning his association with the “Grand Ole Opry” he settled in Nashville in ...

Article

Christoph Wolff

[Johann]

Member of Bach family

(b Andelsbuch, Vorarlberg, c1555; d Nürtingen, Dec 1, 1615). Violinist and court musician. He became a Spielmann (violinist) and jester at the Stuttgart court of Duke Ludwig of Württemberg about 1585, and in 1593 he followed the widowed Duchess Ursula to the court of Nürtingen, where he remained until his death. He apparently often travelled, both alone and in the court entourage. Of his work all that survives is the text of a narrative song of 1614 describing a visit to the town of Weil (Hanss Baachens Lobspruch zur Weil der Statt: ‘Es ist nun über zwantzig Jahr’); its manner is reminiscent of the late medieval style of Oswald von Wolkenstein. There are two extant portraits of him, an etching of about 1605 and an engraving of 1617. The etching bears the inscription:

Hie siehst du geigen/Hansen Bachen

Wenn du es hörst/so mustu lachen...

Article

Milena Bozhikova

[Gueorgui]

(b Vidin, Bulgaria, June 24, 1939). Bulgarian violinist. He studied violin at the age of five under Petăr Hadjiangelov. After his talent was discovered, he was admitted to the Boarding School for Gifted Children (1952–7). He graduated from the State Conservatory (now National Academy of Music) in Sofia under the famous pedagogue Vladimir Avramov (1957–61). His concert début was in 1952 with the Kabalevski Concerto for violin and orchestra with the Rousse Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Dobrin Petkov. Badev studied under Isaac Stern (at Stern’s invitation) in 1971. He received awards in international competitions, first prize at the 6th World Festival of Youth and Students, Moscow (1957), sixth prize at the Queen Elizabeth Competition in Brussels (1959), and second prize at the Montreal International Music Competition (1966). He began teaching in 1962 as a part-time assistant professor of violin; after 1966 it became a full-time position. He is also professor at the National Music Academy and was professor at Musashino Academy of Music in Tokyo (...

Article

Article

Jernej Weiss

[Emerich, Emerih]

(b Brno, Czech Republic, Oct 17, 1868; d Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 11, 1940). Czech composer, cellist, and music educator. Immigrated to Slovenia in 1898. After playing the cello at the Secondary School of Music of the Music Society in Brno (1884–85), he began in 1885 to study at the Organ School in Brno, where he attended composition and instrumentation classes under Leoš Janáček. He graduated with honours in 1888 and passed the national examination in Vienna in 1892. From 1889 to 1890 he was a cellist in the opera orchestra of the City Theatre in Brno. From 1890 to 1898 he taught music at the Czech Men’s College of Education in Brno and was a teaching assistant at the Brno Organ School. In 1897 he appeared before the general public in Brno (where he wrote the majority of his compositions) for the first time as a composer; he achieved his first major success as a composer with ...

Article

Timothy D. Taylor

[Charles Edward Anderson]

(b St Louis, 18 Oct 1926; d Wentzville, MO, 18 March 2017). American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. Born into a solid working-class black family, he worked at a variety of jobs before pursuing a career in music. He achieved success rather late; his first number one hit, Maybellene, was recorded in 1955 when he was 29. During the 1950s and 60s he wrote a number of hit songs which have become rock and roll standards, including Roll over Beethoven, Too Much Monkey Business, Brown-Eyed Handsome Man, School Days, Back in the USA, Little Queenie, Memphis, Tennessee, and Johnny B. Goode. Berry’s songs were based on 12-bar blues progressions, with variations ranging from 8 to 24 bars, played at fast tempos with an emphasis on the backbeat. He had a high clear baritone and extremely clean diction and wrote literate, witty lyrics, many of them the best in early rock and roll. He was a consummate guitarist and his style has been as influential as his songwriting. He employed blues and rhythm and blues licks with bluegrass inflections, and adapted them to a pop-song format. Many of these were probably learned from his pianist and collaborator, Johnnie Johnson....

Article

Lowell Lindgren

Member of Bononcini family

( b Modena, June 18, 1677; d Modena, July 8, 1726). Composer and cellist , second son of (1) Giovanni Maria Bononcini. He worked alongside his more famous elder brother, (2) Giovanni, until 1713. By 1686 both were students of G.P. Colonna in Bologna. When Cardinal Pamphili was papal legate there during the period 1690–93 both played in his orchestra. Antonio composed a Laudate pueri with a florid obbligato for cello in 1693, and about the same time a set of 12 cello sonatas that employ the same kinds of patterned figuration. Only two cello sonatas preceded them, both by Gabrielli. In 1694 Bononcini was listed first among the cellists active in Rome; by November 1696 he had joined the Congregazione di S Cecilia; and during the years 1694–8 he or his elder brother played for six events sponsored by Cardinal Ottoboni. In 1698 he wrote ...

Article

Lowell Lindgren

Member of Bononcini family

( b Modena, July 18, 1670; d Vienna, July 9, 1747). Composer and cellist , son of (1) Giovanni Maria Bononcini (i).

Giovanni Bononcini moved to Bologna when his father's death made him an orphan at the age of eight. There he studied counterpoint with G.P. Colonna at S Petronio; at the age of 15 he published three instrumental collections and was accepted into the Accademia Filarmonica on 30 May 1686. During the next two years he published three more collections, was engaged at S Petronio as a string player and singer, composed two oratorios which were performed in both Bologna and Modena, and succeeded G.F. Tosi as maestro di cappella at S Giovanni in Monte. For this church he wrote the double-choir masses that were printed as his op.7 in 1688. He composed a new oratorio for Modena in 1690, and in 1691 dedicated his op.8, consisting of well-wrought vocal duets, to Emperor Leopold I and played in the orchestra of the papal legate, the Roman Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili....

Article

Lowell Lindgren

[Angelo Bononcini]

Member of Bononcini family

( b Modena, Nov 18, 1678; d Rome, Nov 1753). Violinist and composer , son of (1) Giovanni Maria Bononcini (i). He was born one hour after his father’s death and was given the same name. Nothing is known of any association with his elder half-brothers, and the suggestion made by La Via that Ghezzi’s drawing of ‘Bononcino [and] nephew of Bononcino’ might represent (2) Giovanni and Giovanni Maria (ii) seems unlikely, although they both did work at Rome during the period 1714–19. In 1704 Giovanni Maria wrote from Venice to a friend in Modena; his other extant letters (in I-MOe ) were written from Rome to Modena during the period 1707–15. In Rome he was employed as a professional violinist, by Cardinal Pamphili (1707–9), Prince Ruspoli (1707–15), the church of S Carlo ai Catinari (1715–36), Cardinal Ottoboni (1717–37...

Article

Geoff Thomason

(b Taganrog, Russia, 21 March/2 April 1851; d Manchester, England, 22 Jan 1929). Russian violinist and pedagogue. From 1860 to 1867 he studied with Joseph Hellmesberger at the Vienna Conservatoire, playing in Hellmesberger’s concerts, eventually becoming second violin in his quartet. In Vienna he first met Brahms and the conductor Hans Richter. In 1870 he returned to Russia, where he made the acquaintance of Tchaikovsky and in 1875 was appointed a teacher at the Moscow Conservatoire. From 1878 to 1880 he was the Director of the Kiev Symphony Society. During three years of European touring, 1880–83, he gave the first performance of Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto in December 1881, with the Vienna Philharmonic under Richter. Its originally dedicatee, Leopold Auer, had deemed the concerto unplayable and Tchaikovsky subsequently rededicated it to Brodsky. After his appointment as Professor of Violin at the Leipzig Conservatoire in 1883 Brodsky founded his first string quartet. In Leipzig he gave the premières of works by Grieg and Busoni, with whom he formed lasting friendships. His leadership of Walter Damrosch’s New York Symphony Orchestra, ...

Article

Amelia S. Kaplan

(Lee )

(b Ann Arbor, MI, Feb 8, 1940). American composer and violinist. She studied violin at Oberlin Conservatory (BM 1962), and Michigan State University (MM 1963). She played with the Fort Worth Symphony and Opera Orchestras, and later the Dallas Symphony. During the same period she also played and recorded for commercial and pop artists, including Tony Bennett and Johnny Mathis. She composed during and after college but continued her professional violin career until 1984, when she began graduate studies in composition at Indiana University (DMA 1988), where she studied with donald Erb , harvey Sollberger , and Fred(erick Alfred) Fox.

Before beginning her tenure as Head of Composition at the Cleveland Institute of Music (1996–2008) where she held the Vincent K. and Edith H. Smith Chair, she taught at Washington and Lee University (1988–96), and served as composer-in-residence for the Roanoke Symphony (...

Article

Jason Mellard

[Jamieson ]

(b Cottonwood, AZ, June 12, 1952). American country guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Junior Brown is simultaneously one of country music’s most innovative instrumentalists and devoted traditionalists. Born in Arizona and raised in Indiana, Brown counts Ernest Tubb’s television show as his earliest influence, and his musical style reflects that debt. He began performing in roadhouse bands in New Mexico, California, and Texas during the 1960s and 70s before settling for a period at the Hank Thompson School of Country Music in Claremore, Oklahoma. There, Brown not only worked with steel guitarist Leon McAuliffe, but also instructed his longest musical collaborator, future wife Tanya Rae. In the 1980s, Brown moved to Austin, Texas, becoming involved in the scene with which he is most closely associated and playing in the bands Rank and File, Asleep at the Wheel, and Alvin Crow’s Pleasant Valley Boys. In 1985, Brown invented his signature instrument, the “guit-steel,” a double-necked guitar that combines the traditional six-string guitar with an eight-string lap-steel. Brown moves between the two in performance and recordings, in the process creating a balance between classic honky-tonk and rock stylistics perhaps best demonstrated in the Jimi-Hendrix-style phrases with which Brown concludes his version of Hank Garland’s “Sugarfoot Rag.” Brown’s first two records, ...

Article

Michelle Vigneau

(b Gladewater, TX, Dec 3, 1938; d Elyria, OH, Feb 8, 2006). American oboist, baroque oboist, viola da gambist, and educator. He earned a diploma in 1961 from the Curtis Institute where he studied with john de Lancie . Caldwell served as principal oboist of the National SO (NSO) from 1965–66 and 1968–1971, and was principal oboist of the short-lived Chamber Symphony of Philadelphia from 1966–68. He played with the Puerto Rico Symphony and the Casals Festival Orchestra, and was a frequent performer at the Marlboro Music Festival. In 1971, Caldwell joined the faculty of the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, where he trained many of the profession’s leading oboists, including Alex Klein, former principal oboist of the Chicago SO. Caldwell’s pedagogy was unusual, as he rarely mentioned the oboe. His students learned to play as a result of the musical demands of the phrase.

As a chamber musician, he was a member of the Soni Ventorum Quintet, the Oberlin Baroque Ensemble, and the Oberlin Woodwind Quintet. While playing in the NSO in the late 1960s, he also became interested in the viola da gamba and studied with noted teacher August Wenzinger. He became an accomplished viol player as well as a celebrated baroque oboist, earning a reputation as a leading scholar in historical performance. With his wife, cellist and viola da gambist Catharina Meints, he co-founded the Baroque Performance Institute, the first American summer school for historical performance, in ...

Article

R. Allen Lott

revised by Scott Alan Southard

(b Parma, Italy, Sept 1, 1860; d Chicago, IL, Dec 19, 1919). Italian conductor, opera manager, and violinist. After violin study in Parma, he began to conduct there in 1880. Campanini was assistant conductor with the Metropolitan Opera in its inaugural season (1883–4), often leading his brother, tenor Italo. Returning to Europe, Campanini conducted extensively in Italy; successes there led to engagements in Spain and South America. In 1887 Campanini returned to the United States and conducted the American premiere of Verdi’s Otello (Academy of Music, New York, 16 April 1888). His wife Eva, sister of Luisa Tetrazzini, sang Desdemona. Returning once again to Europe, he conducted at Covent Garden, London, and led the premieres of Cilea’s Adriana Lecouvreur (1902) and Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (1904) at La Scala, Milan. Campanini was principal conductor of Oscar Hammerstein’s Manhattan Opera Company during its first three seasons (...

Article

(b Montaigut-sur-Save, Jan 26, 1700; d Paris, May 3, 1788). French concert entrepreneur and cellist. He served as basse du grand choeur in the Paris Opéra orchestra from 1736 to 1755. That he played the cello, rather than the basse de viole, is implied by Corrette in 1741: ‘at the Musique du Roi, at the Opéra, and in concerts, it is the violoncello that plays the basse continue’. By 1748 Capperan was rehearsing singers as a maître de chant. His health began failing by 1753. He had obtained the survivance of a charge in the Vingt-Quatre Violons du Roi in 1746 and succeeded to the post in 1749; he resigned it in 1759 to André-Joseph Exaudet. The Affiches de Paris reported his burial at St. Roch in Paris; the Almanach musicale gave the date of death.

On 14 June 1748, Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer made Capperan a 25 percent partner in the ...

Article

Ian Mikyska

(b Frýdek-Místek, 30 March 1980). Czech composer and guitarist. He studied singing and composition at the Ostrava Conservatory and composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts in Brno with Martin Smolka, with whom he completed the PhD in 2014. He also studied at the Royal Conservatory in the Hague (with Louis Andriessen and Clarence Barlow), the Matej Bel University in Bánská Bystrica, CalArts (with David Rosenboom), and the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Vienna.

His work’s penchant for drama and rhythmic drive betrays influences of both rock music and American minimalism. His harmonies are mostly dissonant, which, together with the use of fractured, grating, or fragile sounds, creates an unusual aesthetic. His work with more indeterminate types of notation, however, has led to a looser, more environmental conception of rhythm (The Book of Sand, The Book of Earth).

He has led the Dunami Ensemble since its foundation in ...

Article

Nicholas Tochka

(b Tirana, Albania, Dec 8, 1945). Albanian conductor and violinist. The son of vocalist Mihal Ciko and nephew of composer Nikolla Zoraqi, he was a leading member of the first generation of musicians to be trained by socialist-era Albania’s new music institutions. A virtuoso violinist, he graduated from the State Conservatory in 1967 and immediately assumed teaching duties and an appointment as concertmaster to the Theatre of Opera and Ballet’s Orchestra. Ciko was named artistic director of the same institution in 1970. Between 1973 and 1974, a number of musicians and artists came under attack for exhibiting so-called politically subversive attitudes. Caught up in this purge, Ciko was reassigned to Patos, a large village, where he remained effectively exiled until his rehabilitation a decade later. First reappointed to the faculty at the Arts Lyceum ‘Jordan Misja’ he then organized a successful string ensemble, Tirana’s Young Virtuosi, which toured and recorded in the country and abroad. Ciko was appointed director of the Radio-Television Orchestra in ...

Article

John Moran and Ned Kellenberger

(b Vienna, 17 Nov 1780; d Vienna, 3 Nov 1842). Austrian violinist, conductor, and composer. He began to play the violin at the age of four with his father, who recognized his unusual musical gifts. At the age of five he began giving private concerts. At the age of seven the boy prodigy was enlisted in lessons under Kurzweil, concertmaster for Prince Grassalkovich. Shortly thereafter Clement gave his first public concert (11 April 1788). He spent two years in England (1790–92) giving concerts, appearing with Haydn, Salomon, and the young Bridgetower. Clement took a journal with him on his travels, consisting mostly of entries by people he met along the way, many of them illustrious, including entries by Haydn and Beethoven from 1791 and 1794 respectively. During this time Clement studied with the eminent violinist Giovanni Giornovichi, who mentored the young violinist. Back in Vienna in ...

Article

Ed Hazell

revised by Barry Kernfeld

Member of Coltrane family

(b Detroit, Aug 27, 1937; d West Hills, CA, Jan 12, 2007). Pianist, organist, and harpist, sister of Ernie Farrow. She studied classical music from the age of seven and jazz with Bud Powell, and gained early experience in church groups and in the jazz ensembles of Kenny Burrell, Johnny Griffin, Lucky Thompson, and Yusef Lateef. She married the singer Kenny Hagood while overseas and after the marriage broke up she returned to Detroit. While touring and recording with Terry Gibbs (1962–3) she met John Coltrane, whom she married around 1965; in 1966 she joined his group as McCoy Tyner’s replacement. Following Coltrane’s death (1967) she led many groups that at various times included the saxophonists Pharoah Sanders, Archie Shepp, Joe Henderson, Frank Lowe, and Carlos Ward, the double bass players Cecil McBee and Jimmy Garrison, and the drummers Rashied Ali, Ben Riley, and Roy Haynes....