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Article

Alfred E. Lemmon

[Bernardo]

(b Cologne, Feb 27, 1714; d Münster, ?Jan 28, 1781). German philologist and compiler of music. He became a Jesuit missionary in 1732 and in 1746 left for Chile, where he arrived in 1748. After the Jesuits were expelled from the Spanish Americas in 1767 he returned to Germany, and ten years later he published a linguistic treatise, Chilidúgú, sive Res chilenses, vel Descriptio status tum naturalis, tum civilis, cum moralis regni populique chilensis (Münster, 1777). It contains two sections critical for an understanding of the role of music in missiology. In the dictionary of the Araucanian language, sections 561–4 are devoted to native musical terminology. Part 6 includes 16 hymn texts in the Araucanian language set to European melodies with basso continuo; most of the texts are based on Catholic acts of charity and contrition. Also included are songs for the arrival of civic and ecclesiastical officials. While innumerable missionaries left accounts of the practice of making translations from the Catechism and setting them to European melodies, Havestadt was exceptional in publishing both texts and melodies with basso continuo....

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Hamburg, Sept 28, 1681; d Hamburg, April 17, 1764). German composer, critic, music journalist, lexicographer and theorist.

Mattheson was the third and only surviving son of Johann Mattheson, a Hamburg tax collector, and Margaretha Höling of Rendsburg (Holstein). Details of Mattheson’s life come largely from his autobiography published in the Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education was exceptionally broad, perhaps because his parents hoped he would gain a position in Hamburg society. At the Johanneum he received a substantial background in the liberal arts, including musical instruction from Kantor Joachim Gerstenbüttel. He also had private instruction in dancing, drawing, arithmetic, riding, fencing, and English, French and Italian. At six he began private music lessons, studying the keyboard and composition for four years with J.N. Hanff (later organist at Schleswig Cathedral), taking singing lessons from a local musician named Woldag and instruction on the gamba, violin, flute, oboe and lute. At nine Mattheson was a child prodigy, performing on the organ and singing in Hamburg churches. His voice was of such quality that Gerhard Schott, manager of the Hamburg opera, invited him to join the company, and he sang in J.W. Franck’s opera ...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Gunzing, near Lohnsburg am Inn, Germany, Nov 28, 1669, d Mainz, Germany, April 30, 1728). German priest, philosopher, editor of Latin works of Raymond Lull, and inventor of an enharmonic keyboard. While working at the court of Johann Wilhelm, Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, in Düsseldorf, Salzinger invented and built a keyboard (‘Tastatura nova perfecta’) accommodating the division of the octave into 31 equal parts. His enharmonic harpsichord is mentioned by Joseph Paris Feckler, who reports (1713) that a further two had been ordered: one for the Emperor in Augsburg, the other for the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence. Details of this instrument appear in Salzinger’s ‘Revelatio secretorum artis’ (1721), which he published as an introduction to his edition of Lull’s Ars magna et major. This work tells that ‘the Most Serene Elector continuously used this harpsichord for music at court’, and that years earlier the construction of an organ with the same kind of keyboard had begun, only to be halted in ...

Article

(b Dunchurch, Warwicks., 1700, bap. Nov 6, 1706; d St Neots, Hunts., Oct 7, 1783). English psalmodist and theorist. He was the son of a labourer named Edward Tanzer, but generally used the spelling Tans’ur. The main facts of his life emerge from the prefaces to his publications. For many years he travelled to various parts of England as a teacher of psalmody, sometimes working also as an organist. Later he settled at St Neots as a stationer, bookseller and music teacher, but surprisingly he seems to have played no part in the music of the local parish church. His son, also named William Tans’ur, was a chorister at Trinity College, Cambridge, on which flimsy pretext the father signed some of his prefaces ‘University of Cambridge’. In reality he had no links with the upper strata of English musical life. His field was country church music, and here he established a dominance that extended as far as the American colonies....

Article

(b Madrid, c1670; d Madrid, June 3, 1738). Spanish composer, organist, theorist and publisher. He entered the royal chapel boys’ school in 1680, when he must have been between seven and ten years old. His training as an organist was almost certainly undertaken at the Daroca school by Pablo Bruna, and he was probably tutored in composition by the then master of the royal chapel, Cristóbal Galán. Torres was appointed organist of the royal chapel on 14 December 1686, and taught at the school there from 1689 to 1691.

The forced exile of the maestro de capilla Sebastián Durón, because of his support for the Archduke of Austria in the War of the Spanish Succession, gave rise to a vacancy in the royal chapel which was filled temporarily by Torres from 1708 until his definitive appointment on 3 December 1718. A second chapel functioned from 1721 at La Granja, where the court had moved as a result of the king’s melancholy state of mind. It was dissolved in ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Erfurt, Sept 18, 1684; d Weimar, March 23, 1748). German organist, composer, theorist and lexicographer. His father was Johann Stephan Walther, an Erfurt fabric maker; his mother, Martha Dorothea, née Lämmerhirt, was a close relative of J.S. Bach’s family. Walther’s autobiography was published in Mattheson’s Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education began at the age of four with private instruction; in 1691 he entered the lower school of Erfurt. Organ lessons were begun with Johann Bernhard Bach, organist of the Kaufmannskirche, and continued with his successor, Johann Andreas Kretschmar. Walther said he learnt in less than a year to sing well enough to become a soloist in church music performances. According to Walther, his teacher was Jakob Adlung, but he probably meant David Adlung, the father of Jakob. The latter, born in 1699, became a friend of Walther in the early 1720s and later a prominent Erfurt organist and theorist....