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Article

Sven Hansell

revised by Emilia Zanetti

(b ?Milan, c1692; d Milan, 1776). Italian theorist and composer. He was living in Holland in the mid-1730s but then moved to London, where he stayed for more than two decades and wrote his treatise L’Arte armonica: or, A Treatise on the Composition of Musick (1760). It was published in an anonymous English translation, which the Monthly Review found lacking in purity and elegance of style but intelligible and valuable for advanced students of music. In many respects it is an up-to-date and sophisticated presentation of theory, for instance in its use of Corelli’s op.5 no.1 to illustrate the transformation of chord progressions into melodies and counterpoint. About 1770 Antoniotto returned to Milan, where he gave Giovenale Sacchi his scheme for creating dissonances by sustaining chords until all the notes of the scale sound together. Fétis, the most important source of information on Antoniotto, reported that he died in Milan in ...

Article

John Walter Hill

(b Florence, Nov 8, 1679; d ?Prato, 1734). Italian theorist and composer. Beccatelli’s early musical studies were under Virgilio Cionchi and G.M. Casini in Florence. By order of Grand Duke Cosimo III, he was made maestro di cappella and organist of Prato Cathedral in 1704 where he remained until his death. Domenico Zipoli studied with Beccatelli at Prato from 1704 until his departure for Florence in 1707. Although he composed a quantity of church music, Beccatelli was best known as a speculative writer on music theory and its history. As one of the Florentine neo-Pythagoreans of the late Baroque (cf Nigetti and Casini), Beccatelli treated problems of temperament and relied heavily on mathematical reasoning; among other things, Beccatelli described equal temperament. Of particular interest is his contention that the 4th is a consonance (see Lustig). His supporting arguments include the construction of an hypothetical modo obbliquo in which all the intervals of the normal ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

(b nr Tours, 1711; d Paris, 1769). French theorist, composer and cellist. The Marquise de Villeroy was for a time his pupil and patron. He claimed the discovery of a third mode (‘mode mixte’) between major and minor, and his theories provoked controversy and criticism (from Daquin, La Borde and others); after the performance of his symphony in the newly discovered third mode, on 30 May 1751, Rousseau published a sympathetic comment in the Mercure de France (June 1751), and Blainville himself replied (November 1751 and May 1752) to objections such as those of J.A. Serre (January 1752).

In his L'esprit de l'art he discussed aspects of vocal composition and performance: recitative, ariette, the voice, accompaniment and expression. His last theoretical work, the Histoire générale et philologique (dedicated to the Duchesse de Villeroy) has a final section on harmonic theory, in which he tried to demonstrate that the method of ‘counterpoint’ (of Corelli, Lully and Campra) is preferable to that of the ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Immensen, nr Lehrte, Lower Saxony, March 1679; d Wolfenbüttel, Dec 7, 1751). German composer and theorist. He was a friend of and frequent correspondent with J.G. Walther, who published Bokemeyer’s autobiographical sketch in the Musicalisches Lexicon. From it we learn the few facts known of Bokemeyer’s life. He was first educated in his home town and also in the neighbouring village, Burghof. From 1693 to 1699 he studied at the church school of St Martin and St Katharina in Brunswick, and in 1702–4 was at the university in Helmstedt. On 2 April 1704 he returned to Brunswick as Kantor at St Martin. Bokemeyer began composition lessons in 1706 with Georg Oesterreich, Kapellmeister and Kantor to the ducal court of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Between 1712 and 1717 Bokemeyer served as Kantor in Husum (Schleswig) where, he states, he learnt the ‘manner of singing alla siciliana’ from Kapellmeister Bartolomeo Bernhardi, who also asked Bokemeyer to sing some of his Italian cantatas in the presence of the King of Denmark. In ...

Article

(b Berneck, Franconia, Oct 10, 1669; d Ansbach, Aug 26, 1745). German singer, composer and theorist. As a founder-member with Lorenz Mizler of the Leipzig Correspondierende Societät der Musicalischen Wissenschaften, he was accorded a detailed necrology in Mizler’s Neu eröffnete musicalische Bibliothek, iv (1745). This states that he was born near Bayreuth in Berneck, where his father served as Kantor before moving to Naila as a manager of mines. At ten, on the death of his father, Bümler was sent to Münchberg to become a student in the Lateinschule. When he was about 13 he joined the Bayreuth court as a chamber discantist, where he studied singing and keyboard instruments with Ruggiero Fedeli. During the next two decades his exceptional talent as a singer made possible an extensive career at Wolfenbüttel, Hamburg, Berlin, and back again at Bayreuth. In 1698 he was appointed chamber musician and solo alto at the court of Ansbach, where in ...

Article

(b Bindersleben, nr Erfurt, April 25, 1666; d Erfurt, Dec 1, 1727). German composer and theorist. He was one of four children of Johann Henricus Buttstett (d 25 Dec 1702), pastor in Bindersleben, who had been educated at the University of Erfurt. He received his early education in Bindersleben, and at the age of 15 was sent to the Erfurt Ratsschule. As early as 1678 he began to study with Johann Pachelbel, organist at the Erfurt Predigerkirche. Buttstett's first appointment as organist was in 1684 at the Reglerkirche, where he also taught in the church school. In 1687 he held positions as organist and Latin teacher at the Kaufmannskirche and school, and in July of that year he married Martha Lämmerhirt of Erfurt, a distant cousin of J.S. Bach's mother. Their marriage produced ten children between 1688 and 1704, among whom was Johann Samuel, probably the father of Franz Vollrath Buttstett. In ...

Article

Walter W. Schurr

revised by Patrizio Barbieri

(b Venice, 1656; d Venice, Nov 12, 1742). Italian composer and theorist. He took his vows as a Franciscan at the convent of Palma del Friuli in Venice, and earned the bachelor's degree at the Franciscan seminary in Assisi; he then studied counterpoint with Lotti. On 1 September 1700 he was elected maestro di cappella of S Francesco in Bologna. He later held the same position at S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice from 1701 to 1703, and at the basilica of S Antonio in Padua from 3 May 1703 until 5 April 1727. He exchanged posts with Giuseppe Antonio Rinaldi, maestro di cappella at the Frari (1715–27), and thus returned to the Frari to spend his last years. During his lifetime Calegari was well known for his music and his extensive knowledge of music theory. Benedetto Marcello sent Calegari his psalms Estro poetico-armonico and his ...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b Rouen, c1685; d Paris, Oct 21, 1747). French musician, composer and theorist. In 1704 he succeeded Maltot as guitarist and theorbo player in the orchestra of the Académie Royale de Musique. He held this position until 1719, also teaching the guitar and theorbo in Paris. He seems to have moved in the circle of the Duke of Noailles. In 1731 he stayed in England for six months; he may have been a descendant of Thomas Campion. Thereafter his works are evidence that he was still active in Paris. On his death, his nephew respected his wishes by placing a copy of his Nouvelles découvertes (1705) and some manuscript pieces in the royal library. His inventory of 12 February 1748 shows that he owned a large collection of instruments.

Campion was well known as a composer before he turned to writing theoretical and polemical works. He composed several pieces for five-course guitar; although he provided the instrument with a new repertory, he unwittingly left it obscured by complex tablatures that make use of up to eight different tunings. His ...

Article

Viorel Cosma and Owen Wright

[Demetrius]

(b Silişteni-Fălciu, Moldavia, Oct 26, 1673; dDmitrievka, Russia, Aug 21, 1723). Prince of Moldavia (1683, 1710–11), Romanian scholar, encyclopedist, composer, folklorist and theorist. He started his musical studies under Jeremia Cacavelas in Iaşi and continued them in Istanbul with Kemani Ahmed and Angeli. In the Ottoman capital he compiled a treatise on the theory of Turkish music which used an innovative system of musical notation based on the Arabic alphabet. At the end of this treatise, Edvar-i musiki (‘Textbook of music’), he added notations of some 350 instrumental pieces in the peşrev and semai forms, a few of them his own compositions. These notations provide an important comprehensive record of the late 17th-century Ottoman instrumental repertory.

Back in his country, as Prince of Moldavia (1710–11), he continued his ethnographic and folk music studies, recorded in Descriptio Moldaviae (1716). Appointed councillor to the Tsar of Russia, Peter I, Cantemir settled in Moscow. But he continued his musical activities, compiling (in Romanian) ...

Article

Siegfried Gmeinwieser

(b Siena, Jan 19, 1679; d Rome, Sept 4, 1759). Italian composer and music theorist. He first studied under G.O. Cini and T. Redi in Siena. In 1713 he went to Rome, where B. Gaffi and above all G.O. Pitoni were his teachers. In 1717 he referred to himself as Maestro eletto all'Orfanelli, i.e. of S Maria in Aquiro. In 1726 he took over the direction of music at S Giovanni in Laterano, a position he held until his death. As a member of the Congregazione dei Musici di S Cecilia in Rome, he was several times Guardiano della sezione dei maestri. From 1745 onwards, he carried on an extensive correspondence with Padre Martini in Bologna.

Chiti wrote in a mixed style characteristic of the Roman school, using not only strict imitation, but also homophonic note-against-note writing and a concertato manner. His masses and psalms are primarily contrapuntal; the psalm tone emerges more strongly here. In his polychoral works Chiti included passages for few voices, combining the polychoral and concertato principles. In his duets he preferred to compose according to the more modern Affect principle, using a descriptive, expressive style. He held a somewhat special place in the Roman school because he occasionally used accompanying instruments in addition to continuo. The older masters that Chiti took as his models were principally Palestrina, Benevoli and Pitoni....

Article

Nicholas Temperley and Simon Heighes

(b Norwich, July 5, 1775; d Taunton, Dec 29, 1847). English composer, organist, theorist and painter. He was an exceptional child prodigy and became one of the most distinguished English musicians of his day.

Crotch was the youngest son of Michael Crotch, a master carpenter, and his wife Isabella. At the age of about 18 months he began to pick out tunes on a small house organ which his father had built, and soon after his second birthday he had taught himself to play God Save the King with the bass. He played to a large company at Norwich in February 1778, and that summer his mother began taking him on a series of tours in which his phenomenal gifts were exploited. They went first to Cambridge and other main towns in East Anglia, then to Oxford and London, where on 10 December 1778 Daines Barrington heard him play tunes ‘almost throughout with chords’. On ...

Article

Neal Zaslaw

(b Lyons, late 17th century; d Paris, c1752). French singer, theorist, composer and actor. He was the head of a theatrical troupe that played in Lille between 1715 and 1722, at Brussels in 1716 and in Antwerp in 1717. The title-page of his Nouveau système calls him ‘formerly of the Royal Academies of Music of Lyons, Rouen, Marseilles, Lille, Brussels and Antwerp, and maître de musique of the cathedrals of St Omer and Tournai’. In 1730 he was married in Paris to Marie-Marguerite Lecouvreur, younger sister of the playwright. The dedication of Denis’ Nouvelle méthode to the ladies of St Cyr suggests that he may have been involved in the musico-theatrical training offered at that school. In the 1740s and early 1750s, and perhaps earlier, Denis ran a music school in Paris; the school continued after his death under his son-in-law Jouve.

Denis’ treatises enjoyed considerable longevity, one of them remaining in publishers’ catalogues until ...

Article

(b Werningshausen, Erfurt, bap. May 8, 1673; d Sondershausen, Dec 18, 1732). German organist, composer and theorist. Although orphaned at the age of nine, Eckelt had a good grammar school education in Gotha and Erfurt. In the latter place he studied briefly with Johann Pachelbel. He became organist of the Liebfrauenkirche in Wernigerode in 1697. Andreas Werckmeister, who had connections with the town, may also have influenced his development. In 1701 or 1703 he moved to the Holy Trinity Church in Sondershausen and remained there until shortly before his death. Johann Friedrich Eckelt succeeded his father as Stadtorganist in 1732. One of his successors at Sondershausen was the court organist and lexicographer Ernst Ludwig Gerber, who subsequently acquired Eckelt’s library.

In the monograph about Eckelt, Gerber cited three theoretical works which later disappeared: Experimenta musicae geometrica (1715), Unterricht eine Fuge zu formiren (1722) and ...

Article

Thomas Hochradner and Harry White

(b Hirtenfeld, nr St Marein, Styria, 1660; d Vienna, Feb 13, 1741). Austrian composer and music theorist. He represents the culmination of the Austro-Italian Baroque in music. His compositions reflect the imperial and Catholic preoccupations of the Habsburg monarchy no less than does the architecture of Fischer von Erlach or the scenic designs of the Galli-Bibiena family. His Gradus ad Parnassum (1725) has been the most influential composition treatise in European music from the 18th century onwards.

Harry White

Fux's exact date of birth is unknown. According to his death certificate he was 81 when he died; Flotzinger (Fux-Studien, A1985, p.34) has conjectured that he may have been born on 5 January 1660. His antecedents were of peasant stock from the village of Hirtenfeld. His father, Andreas (b before 1618; d 1708), married twice, and Johann Joseph may have been his eldest child. Although a peasant, Andreas Fux was a parish official attached to the church at St Marein and came into contact with a number of musicians, among them the Graz organist J.H. Peintinger and the Kantor Joseph Keller, who probably influenced his son's early musical development. It is also possible, given his father's position, that Fux sang in the parish choir....

Article

Enrico Careri

(Saverio) [Xaviero]

(b Lucca, bap. Dec 5, 1687; d Dublin, Sept 17, 1762). Italian composer, violinist and theorist. His contemporaries in England considered him the equal of Handel and Corelli, but except for the concerti grossi op.3, a few sonatas and the violin treatise, little of his musical and theoretical output is known today. He was, nevertheless, one of the greatest violinists of his time, an original if not a prolific composer and an important theorist.

Although the exact date is not known, Geminiani was probably born two days before his baptism, on 3 December 1687, the feast day of St Francis Xavier. His father, Giuliano, a violinist in the Cappella Palatina of Lucca, may have been his first violin teacher. Several contemporary sources name Corelli, Alessandro Scarlatti and Carlo Ambrogie Lonati as his teachers. It is still not certain where and when he received his musical training, but we may assume it to have been when he was not in Lucca. His name figures in the register of S Maria Corteorlandini, the parish to which the Geminiani family belonged, between ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On 19 March 1714, before he was 15, he entered Königsberg University to study theology and subsequently philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. After earning a master's degree in 1723 he fled his native land under threat of induction into the Prussian army, moving to Leipzig. Two years later he began his university career as a lecturer. In 1727 he headed the local Deutschübenden-poetischen Gesellschaft, which he reorganized as a national society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft. He hoped to model it on the Académie Française and to create a decisive influence for the reform of German as a single national language, but he did not succeed. At this time he founded two weekly journals, ...

Article

Michael Talbot

revised by Gabriella Biagi Ravenni

(b Lucca, 1663; d Lucca, Jan 1745). Italian composer, theorist and violinist. He was appointed as a violinist to the Cappella di Palazzo, Lucca, on 13 April 1688, remaining in that post until January 1742. Ill-health probably caused his retirement, when he relinquished the post in favour of his son Angelo Paolino. During his final years he worked as a violinist in the cappella musicale of S Maria Corteorlandini, also in Lucca. Composition seems to have occupied him somewhat fitfully; his most prolific period, between 1697 and 1705, coincides with the activity of his brother Bartolomeo as a music publisher in Lucca. Giovanni Lorenzo played an active role in the early years of the publishing venture: he requested subventions from the government of the Republic of Lucca and the imprint ‘per i Gregorj’ appears in the first two publications, his treatise Il principiante di musica and Francesco Gasparini's op.1 cantatas. The music to Gregori's most ambitious works, five oratorios (probably all written for the Chirstmas festivities at S Maria Corteorlandini), for three of which he also wrote the librettos, is lost. He was a noted teacher and theorist: five editions of his elementary textbook ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b c1683; d Salzburg, bur. April 17, 1721). Austrian organist, composer and theorist. He became cathedral organist in Salzburg on 1 October 1717, succeeding Johann Baptist Samber, who probably had been his teacher. In 1710 Gugl's Corona stellarum duodecim, id est Totidem litanie Lauretano-Marianae was published at Salzburg as his op.1, and a Missa Santissimae Trinitatis (1712) survives in manuscript (in A-KR ). Gugl also wrote a thoroughbass treatise, Fundamenta partiturae in compendio data. Das ist: Kurtzer und gründlicher Unterricht, den General-bass, oder Partitur, nach denen Reglen recht und wohl schlagen zu lehren (Salzburg, 1719). Despite its elementary character, it appeared in six published editions, the last one in Augsburg in 1805. The model for the work was apparently (see Federhofer) Samber's thoroughbass manual, Manuductio ad organum (Salzburg, 1704). Gugl's treatise, which he advises should not be studied by keyboard performers until they can play ‘something at the keyboard, such as preludes, fugues, versets, or other ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Krössuln, nr Weissenfels, April 17, 1683; d Dresden, July 16, 1729). German composer and theorist. He was the son of David Heinichen who, after an education at Leipzig's Thomasschule and the university, moved to Krössuln for a lifelong career as pastor. Like his father, Heinichen studied at the Thomasschule, having displayed considerable musical gifts as a child. (According to his own testimony in Der General-Bass in der Composition, these involved composing and conducting sacred music in local churches.) He enrolled at the Thomasschule on 30 March 1695 and his education included harpsichord and organ lessons with Johann Kuhnau. Heinichen's talent impressed Kuhnau, who employed the young student as his assistant, with responsibility for copying and correcting Kuhnau's own manuscripts.

In 1702 Heinichen entered Leipzig University as a law student, completing the degree in 1706 and immediately moving to Weissenfels to begin a practice as an advocate. Here the musical life of the court, under the patronage of Duke Johann Georg, seems soon to have attracted Heinichen away from his career in law. Johann Philipp Krieger, the Kapellmeister, apparently encouraged Heinichen to write music for court occasions. In addition, Heinichen came into contact with other composers including Gottfried Grünewald, Krieger's assistant, the court organist Christian Schieferdecker, and for a while Reinhard Keiser, Hamburg's leading opera composer. In ...