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John Edwin Henken

(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.

Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...


Fritz Feldmann

revised by Rudolf Walter

(b Bielau, nr Neisse [now Nysa], Jan 14, 1839; d Breslau [now Wrocław], July 5, 1909). German musicologist, conductor and organist. At the University of Breslau he studied classical and oriental philology (1858–62). From 1862 to 1868 he studied music at the Akademisches Institut für Kirchenmusik. He was taught singing and choral direction by Julius Schäffer, and organ by Expedit Baumgart. While still a student Bohn directed the Breslau Akademischer Musikverein, and in 1868 became organist at the city's church of the Heilige Kreuz. He belonged to the generation of Eitner, the first to dedicate itself to investigating, classifying and ordering the musical heritage of the past, and which at the same time endeavoured to combine musical scholarship with performing practice. The Bohnsche Gesangverein, founded by Bohn in 1882, furthered these aims in its ‘historical concerts’, which numbered 100 by 1905, and another 16 by 1909...


Janna Saslaw

(b Berlin, Nov 26, 1838; d Berlin, Jan 18, 1900). German music theorist and conductor. His maternal grandfather was the famous tenor Karl Bader; his father, Robert Bussler, was a painter, author and privy counsellor. Ludwig studied music with A.E. Grell, Siegfried Dehn (theory) and W.F. Wieprecht (instrumentation). From 1865 he taught theory at the Ganz School of Music (later the Schwantzer Conservatory) in Berlin. In 1874 he was nominated professor at the Mohr Conservatory and in 1877 he resumed his post at the Schwantzer Conservatory. From 1879 he taught theory at the Stern Conservatory, receiving the title of royal professor in 1898. Bussler was also active as a conductor at various Berlin theatres. In 1883 he began contributing music criticism to the Nationalzeitung, and he also wrote for other Berlin journals.

Riemann noted that the wide acceptance of Bussler's theoretical works was due to their practical focus. Bussler's texts are full of examples from 18th- and 19th-century masters, and are punctuated by many exercises. Like Riemann, Bussler wrote about a large variety of musical subjects, including harmony, counterpoint, form, melodic construction, modulation and instrumentation. Contemporary appreciation of Bussler's work is indicated by the fact that Russian editions of five of his works were completed in the mid-1880s. S.I. Taneyev personally translated ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....


Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Birr, Ireland, Jan 17, 1882; d Law, Scotland, Dec 30, 1965). British musicologist, orientalist and conductor. He studied the violin, the clarinet, the piano and harmony, the last two with Vincent Sykes, organist of St Brendan's Church, Birr, where Farmer was a chorister. In London he studied with H.C. Tonking, Mark Andrews and F.A. Borsdorf and in 1895, while on holiday there with his father, he heard the Royal Artillery Orchestra conducted by Ladislao Zavertal; impressed by its performance, he joined as a violinist and clarinettist and after years of private study he served as its principal horn player, 1902–10. Forced by ill-health to abandon the horn, he began a conducting career at the Broadway Theatre, London (1910–13), while teaching music at various county council schools; he also founded the Irish Orchestra in London, which performed at the National Sunday League Concerts under his direction (...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Bydgoszcz, Feb 6, 1878; d Warsaw, Sept 27, 1943). Polish musicologist, conductor and composer. Ordained priest in 1902, he studied music at Regensburg with Haberl and Haller and musicology with Kinkeldey in Breslau (Wrocław) and with Wolf and Kretzschmar in Berlin. He took the doctorate at Breslau in 1913 with a dissertation on a 15th-century treatise. From 1925 to 1939 he was an assistant professor at the University of Poznań. He also taught at the Poznań Conservatory and at the theological seminary. From 1916 he was conductor of the Poznań Cathedral Choir and succeeded in making it one of the finest choirs in Poland between the wars. His main interest was church music, both early and contemporary. He was responsible for several editions and composed a number of church works himself.

Die ‘Musica Magistri Szydlovite’: ein polnischer Choraltraktat des XV. Jahrhunderts und seine Stellung in der Choraltheorie des Mittelalters...


Erkki Salmenhaara


(b Karvia, May 15, 1889; d Asikkala, July 22, 1950). Finnish musicologist and conductor. He studied the violin and music theory in Helsinki (1907–11), Berlin (1921) and Paris (1924) and musicology with Ilmari Krohn at the University of Helsinki (MA 1918), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the manuscripts in neumatic notation in the university library. After a period as a violinist, violist and conductor of various orchestras in Helsinki and Turku, he was head of the music department of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (1929–46) and chief conductor of the Finnish RO (1929–50). He was also a lecturer (1925–46) and professor extra ordinis of musicology (1946–50) at the University of Helsinki. As a conductor, broadcast programme planner, lecturer, administrator, music critic and writer he did much to promote Finnish music in Finland and abroad. His research was mainly concerned with early Finnish music history; his major work, ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....


Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Olbernhau, Saxony, Jan 19, 1848; d Berlin, May 10, 1924). German musicologist and conductor. He was first taught music by his father, Karl Dankegott Kretzschmar, a choirmaster and organist, and at the age of 14 went to the Dresden Kreuzschule, where he studied composition until 1867 with J. Otto. In 1868 he studied musicology at the University of Leipzig with Oscar Paul, F. Ritschl and Woldemar Voigt, taking the doctorate in 1871 with a dissertation, written in Latin, on early notation and Guido of Arezzo. From 1869 to 1870 he also studied at the Leipzig Conservatory with Paul, E.F. Richter and Carl Reinecke. He became a teacher at the conservatory in 1871 and was also active as a conductor of several musical societies in Leipzig, including Euterpe and the Singakademie. A few of his compositions from the 1870s, mostly smaller vocal works, survive. Overwork forced him to give up his post at the conservatory in ...


Alfred Grant Goodman

(b Stettin [now Szczecin, Poland], June 3, 1874; d New York, Sept 20, 1941). German musicologist and conductor. He studied music with Thuille, Heinrich Urban and Reger and musicology with Friedlaender and Oskar Fleischer at Berlin University and with Sandberger at the University of Munich, where he took the doctorate in 1900 with a dissertation on Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg. He was subsequently an opera conductor at the theatres in Aachen (1902–4), Kiel (1912–13), Breslau (1913–15) and Würzburg (1915–20), and music director of the Munich Bachverein (1918–28), where he performed a wide variety of music, including that of Bach's sons, Pergolesi, Hasse and Jommelli as well as contemporary works. When the municipal subsidy was stopped in 1928 he moved to Berlin; his activity there was confined to occasional broadcasts, lectures at the Lessing Hochschule and library research. He emigrated to Italy in ...


Stephen McClatchie


(b Vienna, July 11, 1868; d Munich, Nov 20, 1939). German musicologist and conductor. A pupil of Spitta and Radecke in Berlin, he worked as a conductor from 1893, notably at Coburg and Gotha, and composed an opera, several orchestral works, songs and a Clarinet Quintet. In the aftermath of World War I he was forcibly retired and settled in Munich. He studied musicology under Moritz Bauer at Frankfurt, graduating in 1922 with a thesis on form in Wagner's Ring. The following year he was appointed lecturer, and in 1926 honorary professor, at Munich University. His four-volume Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner (1924–33) laid the foundation for all subsequent Wagnerian analysis and is still unsurpassed in scope. Cognizant of Wagner's mention in Oper und Drama of the tonally unified ‘dichterisch-musikalische Periode’, Lorenz divided his post-Lohengrin works into such periods, each internally articulated by recurring forms such as ...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

(b Berlin, June 13, 1887; d New York, April 22, 1967). American musicologist, conductor and critic, of German birth . He studied musicology with Friedlaender at the University of Berlin and law at the University of Heidelberg, where he received the doctorate in 1911. From 1913 to 1921 he worked as an operetta conductor in Osnabrück, Essen, Strasbourg, Bremen and elsewhere; later (1921–3) he was music director of the Berlin Kammeroper. In the 1920s and 30s he was a critic for the Lokalanzeiger and other newspapers (including a few Jewish ones) and a writer of programme notes for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He taught music theory and history at the Stern Conservatory and conducted several madrigal choirs. The Nazis identified him as an important Jewish music critic, but on account of his non-Jewish wife Anni he was spared the concentration camps. He did, however, have to endure forced labour as a porter in the Jüdische Bibliothek des Sicherheitshauptamtes. After the war he was able to resume teaching and was even invited to form an orchestra by the mayor of Schöneberg, but he was abruptly arrested by a Soviet patrol for obscure reasons. After his release he emigrated to the USA in ...


Niall O’Loughlin


(b Negotin, Jan 9, 1856; d Skopje, Sept 28, 1914). Serbian composer, musicologist and conductor. From 1879 he studied at the Munich Conservatory with Sachs (harmony) and Rheinberger (composition); he also studied with Parisotti in Rome (1884–5) and with Reinecke, Jadassohn and Brodsky in Leipzig (1885–7). In 1887 he returned to Serbia to become conductor and lifelong director of the Belgrade Choral Society, for which he wrote many works. Two years later he founded a string quartet, in which he played second violin. He made numerous tours of Slav territories, notating folksongs as he heard them. In 1893 he visited Dubrovnik and Cetinje, in 1894 Skopje and Budapest; in 1896 he toured Macedonia extensively and in 1910–11 visited Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia and Croatia. He incorporated many of the folksongs he collected into his own compositions. In 1899, with K. Manojlović and S. Binički, he founded the Serbian School of Music in Belgrade (now the Mokranjac School of Music), remaining its director until his death....


Rudolf Klein

(b Vienna, Nov 14, 1887; d Salzburg, July 27, 1971). Austrian musicologist, conductor and composer . His father, Hans Paumgartner, was a writer on music and a friend of Bruckner, and his mother was Rosa Papier, a singer at the Court Opera. At an early age Paumgartner came into contact with the giants of Viennese music, including Bruckner, Wolf and Mahler. After a secondary education in the humanities he first studied law, in which he took the doctorate in 1911. He had already been an active musician (as conductor, horn-player, violinist and pianist) at school, and now studied musicology privately with Adler and was particularly influenced by Mandyczewski. His first professional appointment was as répétiteur at the Vienna Opera (1911–12). During World War I he was able to realize a project of his own: based in a military department called ‘Musikhistorische Zentrale’, he collected the songs of soldiers in the imperial multilingual army. In the course of this work, the results of which are lost, Paumgartner came into contact with Bartók and Kodály....


Humphrey Searle

revised by Dennis Hutchison

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 27, 1872; d Weimar, April 12, 1945). German scholar and conductor. He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Woldemar Bargiel and afterwards worked as a conductor in various towns in Germany and the Netherlands. In 1907 he was appointed court conductor in Weimar, where he became the curator of the Liszt Museum and chief editor of the Breitkopf Collected Edition of Liszt’s works, to which he contributed several volumes. In 1916 he received the PhD from Jena University with a dissertation on the genesis of Liszt’s orchestral music. In 1920 he was appointed general music director of the Aachen Städtisches Orchester, and in 1924 he was made honorary professor of music at Aachen Technische Hochschule. In 1935 he became chairman of the Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein and succeeded Richard Strauss as the president of the Reichsmusikkammer, a post which he held until his death. In ...


Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b St Quentin, Nov 27, 1881; d Paris, Dec 30, 1975). French choir director and musicologist. He studied at the Lille Conservatoire (1899–1900; premier prix for viola in 1900 under Charles Queste), then at the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1900–09), where he was taught the organ by A.M. Decaux, composition by d’Indy and counterpoint by Roussel; he also studied harmony under Libert. Raugel’s many posts during his long career were mainly those of organist and choir director: maître de chapelle at St Eustache (1911–28) and at St Honoré d’Eylau (1928–40); founder and director of the Handel Society (1909–14), the Chorale Française (1922–4), the Société des Etudes Mozartiennes (1930–39) and the Chorale Félix Raugel (1931); finally choir trainer for French radio (1934–47) and conductor of the Société Philharmonique in Reims (1926–62...


(b Berea, OH, Aug 31, 1878; d Akron, OH, July 20, 1950). American organist, conductor, scholar and librarian. His father Karl H. Riemenschneider, president from 1893 to 1908 of the Methodist Episcopal Deutsches Wallace Kollegium in Berea, first taught him music, and he was a piano, organ and theory pupil of James H. Rogers of Cleveland (1896–1902). He became piano and organ instructor at the Kollegium (1896) and director of its music department (1897). He subsequently studied the piano with Hugo Reinhold and composition with Robert Fuchs in Vienna (1902–3), the organ with Charles Clemens in Cleveland (1903) and with Alexander Guilmant, and composition and organ with Widor in Paris in 1904–5 and for five successive summer sessions. In Paris Riemenschneider developed lifelong friendships with Marcel Dupré and Albert Schweitzer. Meanwhile he continued his work at the Kollegium, which in ...