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Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, Oct 3, 1839; d Iaşi, Feb 17, 1923). Romanian writer on music, folklorist and violinist. He studied music in Iaşi (1855–60) and at the Paris Conservatoire with Reber, Clapisson and Alard (1861–5). At the Iaşi Conservatory he held posts as professor of violin (1860–61) and of music theory (1893–1903). He undertook concert tours in Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Italy, Asia Minor and elsewhere, and collected folklore material of various peoples, particularly of the Romanians in Moldavia, Dobruja and Transylvania. The published results concerned wedding and burial customs (including remarkable studies on dirges), and Romanian folk music instruments. He was a founder of Romanian musicology, and published research on music education, the musical theatre, military songs and church choirs. He was also the founder of Romanian music lexicography: he edited the first Romanian dictionary of music (Dicţionar muzical...

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Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...

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[Leo St. Damian]

(b Liebeshain?, near Chicago, Dec 23, 1858; d Zurich, Jan 27, 1917). American pianist, pedagogue, inventor, philosopher, theologian, and physiologist, mostly active in Germany. He was, according to Rudolf Breithaupt’s Die natürliche Klaviertechnik (3/1912), the “founder of the physiological school, and especially the shoulder mechanics” and offered “the oldest scientific explanation of the modern psycho-physiological method [of piano playing].” In 1882 he married Anna Steiniger (1848–91), a prominent Prussian pianist and Ludwig Deppe’s assistant, whose partially fictitious and romanticized biography, allegedly based on her diary, he published as Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne (London, 1896).

Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen, in his Über die physiologischen Fehler und die Umgestaltung der Klavier-Tehnik (1905), states that Clark can be given “the credit and the merit of a first scientific attempt” of applying physiologically based movements. Clark thus emerges as the world pioneer in the physiological approach to piano playing and the first scholar to offer a scientific explanation and graphic illustration of the rolling movement of arm and wrist, in his ...

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Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....

Article

Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...

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Ruth Smith

revised by Stanley Sadie

(b Brighton, Nov 29, 1853; d Hove, Aug 28, 1929). English musicologist and pianist. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1874–7), principally with Jadassohn, Reinecke, Richter and Wiedenbach, returning to Brighton, where he worked as a journalist and taught until 1903. His research was primarily concerned with English music of the 16th and 17th centuries, to which his ...

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Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...

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Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

Article

Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....

Article

Lev Ginzburg

revised by Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Baku, 29 May/June 9, 1909; d Moscow, Nov 7, 1986). Russian musicologist and pianist. He received his early musical education from his father, L.N. Fishman (1883–1936), conductor of an amateur theatre in Baku. In 1927 he graduated from M.L. Presman's piano class at the Baku Conservatory and in 1931 from L.V. Nikolayev's piano class at the Leningrad Conservatory. He then worked as a concert pianist (1925–40) and taught the piano in Moscow from 1935. He was principal conductor of the Malïy Theatre in Moscow (1943–50) and a senior research fellow at the Glinka Museum of Musical Culture (1951–78). As a musicologist Fishman became known particularly for his research on Beethoven. In 1962 he published a transcription and study of the Beethoven sketchbooks in the Wielhorski archives, for which he was awarded the doctorate in 1968. In 1970...

Article

Nicholas Tawa

(William )

(b Salem, MA, March 5, 1853; d Boston, MA, April 8, 1937). American composer, pianist, organist, and music theorist. Arthur Foote was the first noted American composer of art music to receive his musical education entirely in the United States. He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the youngest of three children. His father was editor of the Salem Gazette. His mother died while he was still a child, and an older sister, Mary Wilder (Foote) Tiletson, saw to his upbringing. An older brother, Henry Wilder Foote, was a noted Unitarian minister. Arthur began piano lessons with a local teacher, fanny Paine, at the age of twelve. Two years later, he started studying theory with stephen albert Emery at the New England Conservatory. In 1870 he enrolled at Harvard, with john knowles Paine as his teacher in music composition. He intended to study law and was not yet bent toward a musical vocation. After graduation he took keyboard lessons with ...

Article

Josephine Wright

(b Galveston, TX Feb 16, 1874; d Boston, MA Feb 13, 1936). African American music historian, concert pianist, and playwright. She studied piano at the New England Conservatory of Music (1890–95) and privately with Emil Ludwig and Edwin Klabre. After teaching at the Texas Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Institute for Colored Youths at Austin (1897–8), the settlement house of the Institutional Church of Chicago (1900–01), and Prairie View (Texas) State Normal and Industrial College for Negroes (1903–4), she married lawyer William Hare and resettled in Boston by 1906.

Hare enjoyed a reputation as the leading authority on African American music during her era. A product of the Harlem Renaissance, she was music critic of The Crisis (ca. 1910–19) and contributed articles to the Musical Observer, The Musical Quarterly, and Christian Science Monitor. For about two decades, Hare toured the United States with African Canadian baritone William Richardson, giving lecture-recitals. She also traveled extensively throughout Louisiana, Mexico, and the Caribbean, collecting folk songs and musical instruments. This data provided the foundation for her book ...

Article

Hugh Cobbe

(b Stuttgart, Nov 20, 1885; d Freiburg, Aug 17, 1967). German musicologist and keyboard performer. After studying architecture at Stuttgart and Munich, he was encouraged to take up a musical career by his teacher Max Reger. He studied at Munich, Stuttgart and Leipzig, and in 1910 took a teaching post at Weimar, where he performed double concertos with Reger. In 1916 he was appointed organist at the Markuskirche, Stuttgart. He taught at the Musikhochschule there from 1919 and took the doctorate at Tübingen in 1924 with a dissertation on musical articulation. From 1928 he was head of the department of church and school music in the Musikhochschule, and became its director in 1946, retiring in 1952.

Keller was best known for his work as a scholar and performer of 17th- and 18th-century keyboard music; his particular interest lay in the keyboard works of J.S. Bach, on which he contributed a number of articles to the ...

Article

(b Nagyszalonta, May 22, 1891; d Paris, Dec 3, 1987). American viola player and musicologist of Hungarian birth. He gained a diploma at the Royal Academy of Music, Budapest, in 1911; he then studied at the University of Berlin until 1914. From 1911 to 1923 he was violist in the Hungarian String Quartet, touring throughout Europe. After settling in the USA in 1923 he taught and performed in concerts, radio broadcasts and recording sessions. In 1947 he took the MA at New York University; he taught music history and allied subjects at the University of Iowa, Peabody College, Nashville, and the University of Connecticut until his retirement in 1961. From then until 1971 he was librarian of the Mannes College of Music. As a scholar Kenton specialized in late 16th-century Venetian music. His monograph on the life and works of Giovanni Gabrieli was the first such study in English; Kenton translated material from Winterfeld’s pioneering book and provided extensive biographical and analytical material and a thorough catalogue of Gabrieli’s works....

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Douglas A. Lee

(Clopton)

(b Macon, GA, Feb 3, 1842; d Lynn, NC, Sept 7, 1881). American poet, writer, flautist and composer. Descended from a family of musicians associated with the English court of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, he became proficient on many instruments as a child, later proclaiming himself self-taught in most musical matters. He graduated from Oglethorpe University in 1860, served in the Confederate Army and then spent several years in business ventures, but ultimately resolved to devote his time and energy to literary and musical pursuits.

Lanier is best known for his sensitive poetry, much of which has been set to music, but he also produced significant books and scholarly essays on music, a translation of Wagner’s Das Rheingold and a libretto for Dudley Buck’s cantata The Centennial Meditation of Columbia (1876), and lectured on music and literature at Johns Hopkins University. As a flautist he was known particularly for his facile technique and skill in sight-reading; his appointment to the Peabody Orchestra in Baltimore, as well as brief visits to New York, introduced him to the repertory and the progressive musical thought of the late 19th century. His compositions are generated more by idiomatic instrumental qualities than by a mature grasp of musical composition....

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Kuče, Croatia, March 31, 1889; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 16, 1972). Croatian composer, organist, music theorist, and educator. He finished his education in 1909 at the music school of the Croatian Music Institute in Zagreb, where he acquired compositional and theoretical knowledge in music and developed his organ playing skills; he also simultaneously finished teacher-training school. From 1918 to 1927 Lučić was a district prefect of Turopolje County, where he initiated significant cultural and educational progress. He became an organ professor and taught counterpoint at the Zagreb Music Academy (1921–61) and was appointed a dean (1944–5; 1952–61). On his initiative a private music school, called Polyhymnia, was founded in Zagreb and Lučić was named its head principal (1932–41). He occasionally played the organ at the Zagreb Cathedral. Lučić’s oeuvre comprises orchestral pieces, chamber and vocal music, sacred works, and pedagogical instrumental exercises, but his most notable contribution as a composer lies in his organ music, where he presented his mastery of the laws of counterpoint, composing many fugues, fantasias, preludes, and the like. Lučić is also considered to be one of the first Croatian composers (together with Dora Pejačević) to create larger symphonies in a modern sense (Symphony in f-minor, ...

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Bernarr Rainbow

(b London, Feb 6, 1845; d London, June 29, 1923). English pianist and biographer . First trained by her father, Edward Collett May, in 1871 she went to Lichtental, near Baden-Baden, to study with Clara Schumann, who introduced her to Brahms. Becoming his pupil, she was thereafter noted for her authoritative performances of his music. Her ...

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Laura Otilia Vasiliu

[ Karol ]

( b Chernivtsi, [now in Ukraine], Oct 20, 1819; d Lviv, Ukraine, May 21, 1897). Armenian-Polish-Romanian pianist, composer, folklorist, and teacher .

He studied the piano in Paris with Frédéric Chopin and composition with Anton Reicha (1844–7). He toured as a concert pianist in Austria, France, Italy, and Russia. He was a professor at and head of the Lviv Conservatory from 1858 to 1888. He then founded his own school. Among his students were the Romanians Ciprian Porumbescu, Paul Ciuntu, and Constantin Gros, but also the musician pianists of Lviv that would be his disciples—Raoul Koczalski, Moriz Rosenthal, and Aleksander Michałowski. He collected, notated, and processed Romanian and Polish folk songs (1848–54). He published a 17-volume critical edition of Chopin’s work (Leipzig, 1879). He used several verified sources, most of which were written or corrected by Chopin himself. His editions of Chopin’s works were first published in America in ...

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Philip Bate

( Frederick )

( b London, Jan 17, 1890; d Cobham, Surrey, June 1, 1972). English horn player and scholar . His aptitude for brass instruments revealed itself during his schooldays, and at 21 he entered the Paris Conservatoire, taking the conducting class and studying under Brémond, who had revived the teaching of valve-horn there in 1896. Though trained on the French valved instrument, to which he remained faithful until quite late in life, Morley-Pegge became an acknowledged master of hand-horn technique, which he regarded as indispensable. During a long career he played in many leading orchestras in Paris and elsewhere; the style and integrity of his playing were much admired. In his Paris days Morley-Pegge recatalogued and photographed the wind instruments of the Conservatoire collection. He was a founder-member of the Galpin Society and contributor to its journal, but his main contribution to scholarship was The French Horn (London, 1960, 2/1973...