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Article

Jocelyne Aubé

(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

(b Exeter, Jan 28, 1834; d Lewtrenchard, Devon, Jan 2, 1924). English clergyman, folksong collector, novelist and writer. He was educated at Cambridge (MA, 1856), ordained in 1864, and on his father’s death in 1872 he inherited the family estates at Lewtrenchard, where he became rector in 1881 and served as a Justice of the Peace. He travelled extensively and wrote voluminously on theological and general topics; he was also a pioneer in the collection of English folksong. Between 1888 and 1891 he published 110 examples, transcribed from performances by singers in Devon and Cornwall, as Songs and Ballads of the West. The collection was made jointly with the Rev. H.F. Sheppard, sub-dean of the Savoy Chapel, with whom Baring-Gould also collaborated to produce A Garland of Country Song (1895) and English Minstrelsie (1895–6). Their first joint publications in the field preceded by several years the folksong collections of W.A. Barrett, Frank Kidson, John Stokoe and J.A. Fuller Maitland, and were themselves preceded only by John and Lucy Broadwood’s ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

revised by Peter Krause

(b Leipzig, July 17, 1804; d Leipzig, Oct 26, 1877). German organist, musicologist, music collector and bibliographer. He was educated at the Thomasschule under Johann Gottfried Schicht, and also studied with the organists Friedrich Schneider and Johann Andreas Dröbs. He played the violin in the Gewandhaus Orchestra (1820–33) and in the theatre orchestra (1821–4). He was organist at the Peterskirche (1825–37) and later at the Nikolaikirche (1837–54). When the Leipzig Conservatory was founded in 1843, Mendelssohn invited Becker to become its first organ professor; among his pupils was William Rockstro. He also gave organ recitals in Leipzig and other German cities.

In his twenties Becker began to collect early printed music and manuscripts as well as musical literature. Based on his important library he published bibliographies, editions of older music and many articles in such periodicals as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung...

Article

Sigurd Berg

(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1801; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1880). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer. He began composing and playing the flute while still in school. After his matriculation he studied law for a time, but influenced by the composer C.E.F. Weyse he soon dedicated himself to music and attracted attention in 1823 with a cantata for the 200th anniversary of Regensen, the students' college in Copenhagen. Over the next few years he composed several more cantatas as well as incidental music for the Royal Theatre. From 1838 he was organist at the Trinitatis Kirke, and from 1843 singing master at the metropolitan school. He held both posts until his death; they led him to an intensive occupation with church and school singing. He composed a notable set of hymn melodies, many of which are still used in the Danish Church, and edited many collections of partsongs for schools, containing several of his own compositions. He also made an important collection of Danish and foreign folksongs and melodies. In ...

Article

Lodewijk Muns

(b Nijmegen, Netherlands, Aug 4, 1812; d Delft, Netherlands, Nov 1, 1896). Dutch musician, music historian, and instrument collector. The son of a musician and instrument seller, he studied flute and violin at the conservatory of The Hague. After positions as an orchestra musician in the Court Chapel and the French Opera of The Hague, with the Casino Paganini in Paris, and as a conductor at the opera of Metz, he returned in 1841 to his native city, where he conducted several choral societies. In 1853 he was appointed city music director in Delft.

Boers was a pioneer of the study of early music in the Netherlands. He started collecting musical instruments about 1870, with an emphasis on the work of Dutch builders. Most of his research on organology has remained sketchy and is unpublished. In 1899 the major part of his collection of some 130 instruments (including a Couchet harpsichord of ...

Article

Dorothy de Val

(b Melrose, Aug 8, 1858; d Dropmore, nr Canterbury, Aug 22, 1929). English folksong collector and scholar. The great-granddaughter of John Broadwood (1732–1812), founder of the piano firm, and daughter of Henry Fowler Broadwood (1811–93), she spent her youth at the family home at Lyne, Sussex, where she developed an interest in local folksong. Inspired by her uncle, John Broadwood (1798–1864), she reissued his collection of folksongs, Old English Songs (1843) with H.F. Birch Reynardson as Sussex Songs (1890). She also travelled with Baring-Gould to Cornwall, to collect folksongs, and collaborated with J.A. Fuller Maitland to publish English County Songs (1893), thus establishing herself as a key figure in the folksong revival.

Her arrival in London (1894) precipitated a greater involvement with musical life, especially early music for which her voice was well suited. She also flourished as an amateur singer in charitable concerts. She continued her work on folksong, both arranging songs for performance by singers such as Plunket Greene, and composing some of her own in a similar style, with encouragement from Liza Lehmann and Arthur Somervell. In ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Iaşi, Oct 3, 1839; d Iaşi, Feb 17, 1923). Romanian writer on music, folklorist and violinist. He studied music in Iaşi (1855–60) and at the Paris Conservatoire with Reber, Clapisson and Alard (1861–5). At the Iaşi Conservatory he held posts as professor of violin (1860–61) and of music theory (1893–1903). He undertook concert tours in Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Croatia, Italy, Asia Minor and elsewhere, and collected folklore material of various peoples, particularly of the Romanians in Moldavia, Dobruja and Transylvania. The published results concerned wedding and burial customs (including remarkable studies on dirges), and Romanian folk music instruments. He was a founder of Romanian musicology, and published research on music education, the musical theatre, military songs and church choirs. He was also the founder of Romanian music lexicography: he edited the first Romanian dictionary of music (Dicţionar muzical...

Article

Anthony Hicks

(b Fontmell Magna, Dorset, July 8, 1879; d Blandford, March 12, 1964). English author, collector and publisher. After training as a writer on various popular journals, Flower joined the publishers Cassell & Co. in 1906 and took over as proprietor in 1927. He was knighted in 1938. His purely literary work includes an edition of the journals of Arnold Bennett.

Flower’s musical interests were amateur. His books are marred by a poor literary style and the absence of scholarly discipline, though the use of previously unknown documentary material gives them some value. His important collection of manuscripts and early printed editions of Handel’s music (including the bulk of the Aylesford Manuscripts, copied for Handel’s friend Charles Jennens) was acquired by the Henry Watson Library, Manchester, in 1965.

Catalogue of a Handel Collection formed by Newman Flower (Sevenoaks, 1921) George Frideric Handel: his Personality and his Times (London, 1923, 2/1947)...

Article

Lyndesay G. Langwill

revised by Veslemöy Heintz

(b Västerås, May 4, 1879; d Hälsingborg, Aug 25, 1965). Swedish musicologist and collector. He studied Romance languages at Uppsala University, where he took the doctorate in 1907, and was a music pupil of I.E. Hedenblad and L.J. Zetterqvist. Subsequently he taught French in schools in Sundsvall (1910–21) and Hälsingborg (1921–44). He devoted himself to a scrupulous study of the history and etymology of various instruments, but is best known for his unique music collection, the largest private collection of its kind in Sweden, now housed in the Musikmuseet and Statens Musikbibliotek (Stockholm) and the Helsingborg Stadsmuseum. It includes 900 instruments, books, posters and music editions, and 10,000 music manuscripts, autographs and letters. Of special interest are the Marseillaise collection of 3000 items, the correspondence of Fétis and the August Bournonville collection. A catalogue of this collection can be found in Collection Fryklund 1949...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Dorchester, Dec 25, 1858; d Richmond, Surrey, Dec 30, 1945). English collector of musical instruments and scholar. He was educated at King's School, Sherborne, where James Robert Sterndale Bennett, son of the composer, encouraged his aptitude for music. From 1877 he studied classics at Trinity College, Cambridge (BA 1882, MA 1885), where he played the clarinet under Stanford in the orchestra of the Cambridge University Musical Society. Ordained in 1883, he was curate of Redenhall with Harleston, Norfolk, for four years, then curate at St Giles-in-the-Fields (1887–91), vicar of Hatfield Broad Oak (formerly Hatfield Regis, 1891–1915), vicar of Witham (1915–21) and rector of Faulkbourn (1921–33). In 1917 he was made a canon of Chelmsford Cathedral. From his university years onwards, Galpin made an outstanding collection of musical instruments, which he made freely available for public exhibitions and lectures and described and illustrated in his book ...

Article

Georgina Boyes

(b Manchester, Dec 8, 1863; d Lancaster, July 24, 1954). English musical antiquary and authority on folk music, psalmody and hymnody. Trained at the Royal Academy of Music, she began research in folklore in 1895, when she noted similarities between newly discovered folksongs and the modal tunes of 16th- and 17th-century hymns. Between 1895 and 1910 she collected folklore in south-eastern and northern England; her main interest, however, was historical research and fellow scholars benefited particularly from her expertise in sourcing tunes. She joined the Folk-Song Society in 1905 as part of a new wave of collector-musicians associated with its revitalization and contributed numerous articles and notes to the Journal of the Folk-Song Society and its successor the Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society; from 1906 until her death she also served as a member of the editorial board, where she worked closely with Frank Kidson and Lucy Broadwood. A liberal Presbyterian, her attention to nonconformist religious music was unusual among contemporary folklorists and was reflected in articles for ...

Article

(b Wilster, Holstein, Oct 15, 1761; d Copenhagen, Dec 30, 1825). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer of German birth. After studying in Kiel (1782–5), where he came to know C.F. Cramer, Grønland took up a post as an official of the German chancellery in Copenhagen. Though he remained a civil servant all his life, his musical activities covered a wide field: he was the teacher of C.E.F. Weyse and acted as correspondent for a number of German and Danish music periodicals. His most important work, however, was concerned with the preservation of Scandinavian folksongs. In about 1810 work on a wide scale had begun in Denmark to rescue extant traditions from the oblivion threatened by the development of communications, especially roads. A valuable outcome of this work was the recording of folksongs, both texts and tunes, and particularly their publication in five volumes (1812–14) by Abrahamson, Nyerup and Rahbek. This newly aroused interest in folksong further resulted in a number of piano arrangements of folktunes. Grønland’s contributions include two manuscript collections, in the Royal Library of Copenhagen, and his publication (...

Article

Sigurd Berg

(Hersleb)

(b Copenhagen, Sept 9, 1824; d Copenhagen, July 14, 1883). Danish folklorist. He was the son of the well-known poet and hymn writer Bishop N.F.S. Grundtvig. He was educated by his father and matriculated at the University of Copenhagen in 1846. As a boy he took a great interest in Danish medieval folk ballads, and at the age of 18 he published translations of related English and Scottish folksongs. In 1847 he produced a project for a new Danish edition of folksongs, based on a critical evaluation of extensive musical and textual material. His expert knowledge upheld his theories in the face of contemporary attacks, and from 1853 until his death he completed five volumes of his important Danmarks gamle folkeviser. The collection was continued by other folklorists from 1898 and comprises 11 large volumes. The systematic nature of this Danish work was of pioneering importance for several later collections in the field, for example Child’s ...

Article

Alec Hyatt King

revised by Joost van Gemert

(b Rotterdam, March 23, 1887; d Zürich, Nov 1, 1983). Dutch collector and bibliographer. While training as an engineer in Delft, he also received his early education in music from Anton B.H. Verhey, and in 1911 attended the Hoch Conservatory at Frankfurt where he studied harmony with Bernhard Sekles and composition with Ivan Knorr. From 1925 to 1934 Hoboken was a pupil of Heinrich Schenker in Vienna, and was much influenced by his ideas. It was Schenker who induced him to establish the famous Archiv für Photogramme musikalischer Meister-Handschriften (the ‘Meister-Archiv’) in the music department of the National Library in Vienna. It comprises a large quantity of photographic copies of the autographs of works by great composers, from Bach to Brahms. Its value to scholars has been much enhanced by the loss of some of the originals during World War II.

From 1919 onwards Hoboken began to build up systematically his private collection of first and early editions. The collection now ranges from Frescobaldi, Froberger, Purcell, and J.S. and C.P.E. Bach, through all the great names of Classical and Romantic music up to Brahms and also includes a wealth of early theory and literature. Conceived as a complement to the ‘Meister-Archiv’, it has been accessible to scholars as an invaluable source of textual information. The collection was acquired by the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek in ...

Article

Ludwik Bielawski

( b Przysucha, Opoczno district, Feb 22, 1814; d Kraków, June 3, 1890). Polish folklorist and composer . He was educated at the Warsaw Lyceum (1823–30) and studied the piano with Franciszek Vetter. He then worked in a bank, continuing his musical studies with Józef Elsner and I.F. Dobrzyński and later in Berlin (1835–6) with Girschner and Karol Rungenhagen. After returning from Berlin he taught the piano in Warsaw, Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia) and Homel (Belarus). He was also active as a composer, chiefly of songs and dances whose inspiration he drew from folk music; most of these were published. His cycles of kujawiak proved the most popular of his works. Kolberg also composed the music for three one-act stage entertainments on rural themes, J.K. Gregorowicz's Janek spod Ojcowa (‘Johnny from Ojców’; Warsaw, 1853), Teofil Lenartowicz's Król pasterzy (‘The Shepherd King’; Warsaw, 1859) and Seweryna Pruszakowa’s ...

Article

Susan Feder

(b New York, NY, Sept 22, 1899; d Plainfield, NJ, May 23, 1979). American soprano and folklorist. She studied voice in New York with Cesare Stunai, Henry Russell, and Katherine Opdycke, and made her debut in 1929, as Gounod’s Marguerite, with the Quebec Opera Company, Montreal. During the 1930s, while continuing to sing opera in New York, Philadelphia, and elsewhere (her roles included Aida, Tosca, and Carmen), she became interested in American folk music and folklore and began collecting songs, particularly from residents of the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and the Zuni Indians of New Mexico, about both of which she lectured and wrote articles. Her recital programs (from 1937) ranged from Hopkinson and Billings to MacDowell, Farwell, and Gershwin (often performed from manuscript); she also sang Native American songs in original languages and folksongs from all over North America. A frequent performer on radio, she was the soloist on ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Ciudad Rodrigo, Feb 3, 1868; d Salamanca, June 13, 1928). Spanish folklorist, organist and composer. His talent as a musician was nurtured during his early childhood. After serving as an organist at a local church, Ledesma became organist at the cathedral in Ciudad Rodrigo (1889–98) and at Salamanca Cathedral (1898), a post he held until his death. He was ordained a priest in Salamanca. He was a famous improviser and a prolific composer of organ and liturgical music, but he is best remembered for his Folk-lore ó Cancionero salmantino (Madrid, 1907/R), which contains 404 melodies collected from the rich oral tradition of his native province. This was awarded a prize in an open competition by the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando (Madrid), and was later published by the Diputación Provincial de Salamanca; the collection remains one of the most outstanding in Spanish folklore. An unpublished second volume containing 903 items was left to his disciple Bernardo García-Bernalt Huertos in ...

Article

( b Cartagena, Oct 24, 1863; d St Blasien, Baden, Feb 27, 1929). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic . His father was a captain of a marine infantry battalion, and he began his musical training under a military bandsman in his father's regiment. In the early 1880s, while stationed in Madrid as a second lieutenant, he began to study harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition with Ruperto Chapí, remaining his sole disciple until Chapí's death in 1909. During these years he devoted most of his spare time to composition. He was a member of the Sociedad Filarmónica Madrileña (1901–11) and a founder-member of La Asociación Wagneriana Madrileña (inaugurated 4 May 1911). He was music critic for the periodical El mundo (1907–15) and also contributed articles to ABC. He also conducted numerous concerts of the Sociedad de Conciertos, Madrid, and the S Cecilia choral society. In ...

Article

( b Cholula, Mexico, Jan 27, 1894; d Mexico City, Oct 27, 1964). Mexican folklorist . He was born of a musical family (his great-grandfather was an organist, his grandfather a tenor and his father a piano teacher) and he began his studies at home at an early age. When his family moved to Mexico City in 1906, Mendoza began working as a barber while continuing his music instruction; this lasted for 12 years. At the same time he also worked as a draughtsman and as a pianist for silent films. In 1916 he entered the National Conservatory, where he studied under Lauro Beristáin and Rubén M. Campos, and until 1925 he studied intermittently with Julián Carrillo.

After four years working in state schools, he took a post in 1936 at the Institute of Aesthetic Investigations at the University of Mexico, which he held until his death. He was founder and president of the Sociedad Folklórica de México from ...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

[ Karol ]

( b Chernivtsi, [now in Ukraine], Oct 20, 1819; d Lviv, Ukraine, May 21, 1897). Armenian-Polish-Romanian pianist, composer, folklorist, and teacher .

He studied the piano in Paris with Frédéric Chopin and composition with Anton Reicha (1844–7). He toured as a concert pianist in Austria, France, Italy, and Russia. He was a professor at and head of the Lviv Conservatory from 1858 to 1888. He then founded his own school. Among his students were the Romanians Ciprian Porumbescu, Paul Ciuntu, and Constantin Gros, but also the musician pianists of Lviv that would be his disciples—Raoul Koczalski, Moriz Rosenthal, and Aleksander Michałowski. He collected, notated, and processed Romanian and Polish folk songs (1848–54). He published a 17-volume critical edition of Chopin’s work (Leipzig, 1879). He used several verified sources, most of which were written or corrected by Chopin himself. His editions of Chopin’s works were first published in America in ...