(b Berlin, May 30, 1872; d Berlin, Jan 24, 1926). German physician and psychologist. He graduated in medicine at Berlin University in 1894, and thereafter dedicated himself primarily to psychoacoustics and the physiology of music. From 1896 to 1905 he was assistant professor under Carl Stumpf at the Psychological Institute of Berlin University (which in 1905 became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv). In 1900, when Hornbostel joined the staff, Abraham and Stumpf recorded on wax cylinders a visiting Siamese court orchestra – the first German attempt to record non-Western music. Abraham also recorded music from South Africa in the same year. In 1901 he published an article on absolute pitch which later (1906) resulted in a polemic between him and Auerbach. Adopting Stumpf's methods, Abraham and Hornbostel entered into a collaboration which laid the foundation for comparative musicology; he also collaborated with the physiologist and otologist K.L. Schaefer (...
Israel J. Katz
(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...
(b Mauth [now Vysoké Mýto], Nov 17, 1816; d Vienna, June 28, 1876). Austrian music historian and critic. His mother, sister of the musicologist Kiesewetter, fostered his love of music, painting and architecture; the performance of older music in the Kiesewetter home belonged to Ambros’s strongest early impressions. He acquired a musical training, despite his father’s objections, through a keen enthusiasm, an exceptional memory and an unbounded capacity for work. A humanistic Gymnasium education, a doctorate of law completed in 1839 at Prague University and vast reading, with a youthful predilection for Jean Paul, underlay his later scholarship and influenced his prolix style. Robert Schumann was his spiritual and journalistic model, and as ‘Flamin’ he associated with enthusiastic young followers, including Hanslick as ‘Renatus’, in a Bohemian branch of the ‘Davidsbund’ to fight musical conservatism in Prague. He was indebted more to the concepts and methods of art historians and historians of antiquity, of law and of literature, than to such musical colleagues as Kiesewetter or Fétis....
John Edwin Henken
(b Madrid, Aug 3, 1823; d Madrid, Feb 17, 1894). Spanish composer, musicologist, conductor and critic. Barbieri’s father died in 1823 and the composer used his matronym throughout his life although, in the heated polemic wars of the period, that was sometimes held against him as an Italianate pretence.
Barbieri received his early music training from his maternal grandfather and entered the fledgling Royal Conservatory in 1837, studying the clarinet with Ramón Broca, the piano with Albéniz y Basanta, singing with Saldoni and composition with Carnicer. In 1841 his family moved to Lucena, but Barbieri remained in Madrid, eking out a living as a clarinettist, pianist, teacher and copyist. His earliest compositions were songs and dances, and a paso doble for a militia band in which he played. He also sang baritone roles in Italian operas at the Conservatory and the Teatro del Circo. He wrote the libretto for a one-act zarzuela but did not complete the music in time for its scheduled première in ...
revised by Axel Helmer
(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...
(b 1843–4; d ?1917). English translator . He was a scholar of Oriel College, Oxford (BA 1866), and was ordained in the Church of England in 1868. He was choirmaster and organist of Christ Church, Marylebone, London, from 1878 to 1882.
For the production of Così fan tutte (at that time rarely staged) by the Royal College of Music at the Savoy Theatre in 1890, he wrote an amusing and elegant English version, ‘translated and adapted from the original Italian and the German paraphrase’, in a style Richard Brinsley Sheridan would not have disdained. It was published in vocal score by Novello, with the characters Fiordiligi and Guglielmo renamed Isidora and Gratiano, presumably for the convenience of English tongues. The long survival of this version, with modifications, extended to the ENO production of 1990. Browne also translated Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad (RCM, Savoy, 1891) and Hermann Goetz’s ...
revised by Geoffrey Chew
(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.
Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...
(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...
(b Botoşani, Feb 2, 1890; d Bucharest, June 13, 1962). Romanian writer on music and critic. He studied music history and the violin at the Iaşi Conservatory (1906–8), and at the Leipzig Conservatory (1912–14) with Arnold Schering. He studied law in Paris, taking the doctorate at the Sorbonne. He taught music history at the Pro-Arte Conservatory in Bucharest (1936–9) and became director of the Enescu PO (1945–7). Ciomac wrote criticism and scholarly articles for numerous periodicals and also made Romanian translations of oratorio and opera librettos, including Ariadne auf Naxos, Prince Igor, Gounod’s Faust, and Enescu’s Oedipe. An excellent orator, he was much in demand as a lecturer in Romania and throughout Europe, and became one of the most respected Romanian teachers of the first half of the 20th century.George Enescu (Bucharest, 1915) Viaţa şi opera lui Richard Wagner...
revised by Naomi Cumming
(b Pescasseroli, nr Aquila, Feb 25, 1866; d Naples, Nov 20, 1952). Italian philosopher, historian and critic. In its original and most influential formulation Croce's aesthetic theory is part of a general philosophy of civilization (largely derived from Vico and Hegel). Croce's view is both ‘idealist’ and ‘historicist’. His idealism is evident when he poses a strong contrast between ‘intuition’ and ‘intellect’, and argues that art is ‘intuition without intellectual relations’ (1915). His emphasis on the intuitive is motivated by a resistance to contemporary positivism, which gave weight to scientific understanding. His ‘intuition’ is a form of non-conceptual, non-experimental activity. It does not, however, consist in introspective knowledge, or vague impressions which can be known apart from any tangible form. Rather, that which is ‘known’ intuitively is grasped only in its expression (‘The spirit only intuits by making, forming, expressing’, 1902, Eng. trans., 1992, 8–9). ‘Expression’ itself gains an unusual meaning by this association with the intuitive. If the act of ‘expressing’ gives content to the intuition, it cannot be claimed that the expression is of something already ‘known’, as if intuition and expression were two separate things. To say that art ‘expresses’ intuitions is to say that it brings a state to clear and explicit consciousness by giving it a material and perceptible form....
(b Naples, April 5, 1883; d Turin, March 12, 1968). Italian musicologist and critic. Self-taught in music, he was professor of music history at the Turin Conservatory (1926–53) and at Turin University (1939–53). His main occupation, however, was journalism. He contributed to various Neapolitan papers from 1906 and was music critic of the Turin paper La stampa (1919–1967), a post to which he brought a professionalism hitherto unknown in Italy.
As a musicologist his chief interest was opera history, and he made valuable contributions to the knowledge of Neapolitan opera, Gluck and above all Verdi: his essays on Aida, Otello and Falstaff (1923–5) enlarged the awareness of the organic unity of Verdi’s dramas to which Toscanini’s reform of interpretation was greatly contributing. In his Toscanini visto da un critico (1958) Della Corte made a study of the concept of interpretation. An advocate of idealism, he produced studies in aesthetics and theory which are collected in ...
Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune
(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.
At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....
Ora Frishberg Saloman
(b Boston, May 13, 1813; d Boston, Sept 5, 1893). American writer on music. A graduate of Harvard College (1832) and Harvard Divinity School (1836), Dwight manifested an early affinity with the German idealist tradition in his annotated translations of poetry by Goethe and Schiller. As a leading contributor to the Associationist Harbinger (1845–9) and Dwight's Journal of Music (1852–81), which he founded and edited, he elevated criticism to a higher and more educational plane. After the death of his wife in 1860, he spent his last 20 years as resident librarian and permanent president of the Harvard Musical Association, which sponsored an annual series of concerts under his management (1865–82).
Dwight's writings of the 1840s reflect New England transcendentalist currents and a familiarity with such European thinkers as E.T.A. Hoffmann, A.B. Marx, Gottfried Fink, Charles Fourier, F.-J. Fétis, Frédéric Kalkbrenner, Thomas Carlyle and William Gardiner. Championing aesthetic education and informed listening, Dwight proposed that music – as art, science, and language of feeling ennobling and uniting people – be made widely accessible. In America he was a pioneer in describing the humanistic importance and large-scale structures of Beethoven's symphonies....
(b London, Aug 20, 1852; d London, Jan 2, 1919). English writer and translator. His father was a surgeon and following medical studies at St George's Hospital, London, Ellis held the post of Resident Medical Officer at the Western Dispensary from 1878. In the mid-1870s, however, he became (in his own words) ‘a devotee of Wagner's works’ and resigned his post in 1887, devoting himself over the following 28 years to the single-minded pursuit of Wagner studies.
From 1888 to 1895 he edited (and largely wrote) the macaronically titled journal of the London Wagner Society, The Meister, founded primarily to publish English translations of Wagner's more substantial prose works. Out of this project grew the first of Ellis's chief undertakings, the eight-volume English translation of Richard Wagner's Prose Works (1892–9). His other major endeavour was the six-volume Life of Richard Wagner, which was initiated as ‘an English revision’ of the ‘authorized’ biography by C.F. Glasenapp, but which from the fourth volume omitted Glasenapp's name from the title-page, on the grounds that it had become Ellis's own work. The latter project – flawed, idiosyncratic, but containing a wealth of detail not available elsewhere – remained uncompleted: volume six takes the story only to ...
(b Kaluga, Nov 5, 1841; d Ligovo, nr St Petersburg, July 6, 1896). Russian music historian, critic and composer. He had well-to-do parents and studied natural sciences at St Petersburg University and music privately with M.L. Santis; from 1862 to 1864 he studied privately and at the Leipzig Conservatory with Moritz Hauptmann, E.F. Richter and Carl Riedel, and also (1864–5) studied instrumentation with Max Seifriz at Löwenberg. Returning to St Petersburg he was appointed professor of music history and aesthetics at the conservatory (1865–72); between 1869 and 1871 he edited the periodical Muzïkal′nïy sezon and later contributed to Bessel’s Muzïkal′nïy listok and other journals. From 1870 to 1880 he was secretary to the directorate of the Imperial Russian Musical Society. His four-act opera Sardanapal was produced in 1875 and the vocal score was published by Bessel, but it had so little success that his second opera, the four-act ...
revised by Larisa Georgievna Danko
(b St Petersburg, Aug 5, 1868; d Leningrad, Sept 10, 1928). Russian musical journalist and historian. He studied at the Ye. Shreknik Commercial College in St Petersburg (1878–87). He gained his musical education at the K. Dannemann and N. Krivoshein Music School (1886–9), and studied counterpoint privately with Nikolay Sokolov (1890–92). Two years later he published, under the initials N.F., a short study of Verstovsky’s music. In 1894 he founded the monthly Russkaya muzïkal′naya gazeta, which was published weekly from 1899 until it ceased publication in 1917; the quality of its main contents – to say nothing of its concert notices, reviews and news – quickly earned it a unique position in Russian musical journalism. Findeyzen not only edited the Gazeta but contributed numerous biographical and critical articles on Russian musicians and music, and printed quantities of hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material, some (but by no means all) of which appeared later as books or pamphlets. In ...
(b Sparti, 1856; d Athens, Sept 3, 1933). Greek music critic, doctor, and philologist. Along with his philological and medical studies at the Athens University, Foustanos studied at the Athens Conservatory (elementary theory and possibly flute) and participated in the foundation of the short-lived musical club ‘Orpheus’ (1880), an association which organized concerts, in which Foustanos would participate as a flute player. After his three-year postgraduate medical studies in Paris (1882–5)—where he attended, Charcot’s lectures, among others—Foustanos settled in Syros, where he worked as a doctor and medical researcher. He also took part in the direction of the local Opera House, organized and participated in musical concerts, and gave lectures on music history and aesthetics. At the same time, he published opera reviews at the Press, parts of which he gathered in the book Armonia kai Melodia, itoi Mousikai Meletai meta Technokritikis Analyseos diaforon melodramaton...
revised by Frank Howes
(b Norwich, Sept 14, 1859; d Dinton, nr Salisbury, May 2, 1948). English musicologist, critic and editor. He was educated at Wellington College and Balliol College, Oxford (MA, 1882), and studied music for two years at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. He became a schoolmaster at Dulwich College (1884–6) and a form master at Wellington (1887–1910), where he succeeded Alan Gray as the music master in 1893, a post he held until 1901, when he was made house master in college. During these years he wrote a Wellington College German Grammar and visited India, which aroused his interest in Indian music. When he left Wellington in 1910 he returned to India for eight months, collecting material for a book which is still a classic on its subject, The Music of Hindostan (1914); he also acted as Rabindranath Tagore's unpaid literary agent, ...
revised by James Deaville
(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...
(b London, April 7, 1856; d Carnforth, Lancs., March 30, 1936). English critic, editor and musical scholar. Poor health disrupted his early nonconformist education and apart from three terms at Westminster School he was, by necessity, taught privately. His musical education began in 1872 when he took piano lessons with Ernst Pauer. In 1875 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he became friends with Stanford and W.B. Squire, whose elder sister he married in 1885, and with whom he participated fully in the flourishing activities of the Cambridge University Musical Society. After graduation in 1882 he studied the piano with Dannreuther and Rockstro; both took a keen interest in early music, but it was Rockstro who introduced him to harpsichord playing. Although he cultivated a reputation as an exponent of the piano and harpsichord, it was in the field of antiquarian studies and musical journalism that he found his true vocation. He was invited by Grove to write articles for his ...