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Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

revised by Michael von der Linn

(b Stuttgart, March 25, 1871; d Stuttgart, Aug 13, 1927). German musicologist. His father was court Kapellmeister at Stuttgart and composed operas, seven symphonies and other works. From 1890 to 1895 Abert studied classics and then music in Berlin under Bellermann, Fleischer and Friedlaender. He took the doctorate at Berlin in 1897 with a dissertation on Greek music, and in 1902 he completed his Habilitation at the University of Halle with a work on the basis of the aesthetics of medieval melody. He was appointed honorary professor in 1909 and reader in 1911. In 1920 he was appointed professor at the University of Leipzig (succeeding Riemann) and in 1923 he became professor at Berlin University (succeeding Kretzschmar). In 1925 he was elected an ordinary member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences at Berlin, the first musicologist to have earned this distinction.

Abert was one of the leading German musicologists of his generation, and he did much to increase regard for his subject among followers of more traditional university disciplines. His numerous distinguished pupils include his daughter ...


Renee Lapp Norris

(b Northborough, MA, Sept 5, 1830; d Madison, WI, Dec 9, 1889). American classical scholar, teacher, editor, and writer. Allen is best known musically as an editor of Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), also edited by Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison, who were white collectors of black music.

Allen graduated from Harvard in 1851, subsequently studied in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1856. In 1863 he began an eight-month stint as a teacher on St Helena Island in South Carolina, home to former slaves who remained after plantation owners left in 1861. Here, Allen gained first-hand experience of slave singing that contributed to the detailed explanations of his 36-page prologue to Slave Songs. In 1867 Allen was appointed chair of ancient languages at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he remained until his death.

Allen’s interest in philology is evident in the many pages of the prologue to ...


Ferenc Bónis

(b Bálványos-Váralja, Nov 23, 1821; d Budapest, Feb 9, 1899). Hungarian musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied theology and law, and the piano, horn, and music theory at the conservatory in Kolozsvar, starting his musical career in 1846 as a piano teacher in provincial towns. In 1851 he settled in Pest as a teacher and concert pianist, and began to work as a musicologist and journalist (late 1850s); with Kornél Ábrányi and Mihály Mosonyi he was co-editor (1860–63) of the first Hungarian musical weekly, Zenészeti lapok. Subsequently he made two study trips to monasteries in Upper Austria and compiled a catalogue of their manuscripts and prints which related to Hungary. In 1869 he was appointed professor of music at the Pest teacher-training college. A member of the Kisfaludy Society of Literature and Science (1867) and a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (...


Sigurd Berg

(b Copenhagen, March 2, 1801; d Copenhagen, Nov 8, 1880). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer. He began composing and playing the flute while still in school. After his matriculation he studied law for a time, but influenced by the composer C.E.F. Weyse he soon dedicated himself to music and attracted attention in 1823 with a cantata for the 200th anniversary of Regensen, the students' college in Copenhagen. Over the next few years he composed several more cantatas as well as incidental music for the Royal Theatre. From 1838 he was organist at the Trinitatis Kirke, and from 1843 singing master at the metropolitan school. He held both posts until his death; they led him to an intensive occupation with church and school singing. He composed a notable set of hymn melodies, many of which are still used in the Danish Church, and edited many collections of partsongs for schools, containing several of his own compositions. He also made an important collection of Danish and foreign folksongs and melodies. In ...


Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...


Elaine Brody

revised by Pierre Guillot

(Marie Anne)

(b Rochecorbon, nr Vouvray, May 12, 1863; d Toulon, Nov 8, 1909). French music scholar, teacher and composer. He was taught composition by Franck and the piano by Marmontel and was maître de chapelle and organist at Nogent-sur-Marne from July 1887 until March 1890 when the minister of education commissioned him to assemble a collection of early Basque music (published in 1897 as the Archives de la tradition basque). In 1890 he went to Paris where, as maître de chapelle at St Gervais-St Protais, he organized (1892) the Semaines Saintes de St Gervais, a series of musical services at which the best-known works of French and Italian Renaissance composers were performed by Bordes’ singers, the Chanteurs de St Gervais. Indeed, he dedicated most of his short life (sometimes at the expense of his other creative work) to the revival of sacred and secular Renaissance polyphony, much of which had been completely neglected for centuries, and to encouraging young musicians to look to the past for inspiration....


John Tyrrell

revised by Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


[Leo St. Damian]

(b Liebeshain?, near Chicago, Dec 23, 1858; d Zurich, Jan 27, 1917). American pianist, pedagogue, inventor, philosopher, theologian, and physiologist, mostly active in Germany. He was, according to Rudolf Breithaupt’s Die natürliche Klaviertechnik (3/1912), the “founder of the physiological school, and especially the shoulder mechanics” and offered “the oldest scientific explanation of the modern psycho-physiological method [of piano playing].” In 1882 he married Anna Steiniger (1848–91), a prominent Prussian pianist and Ludwig Deppe’s assistant, whose partially fictitious and romanticized biography, allegedly based on her diary, he published as Iphigenia, Baroness of Styne (London, 1896).

Friedrich Adolf Steinhausen, in his Über die physiologischen Fehler und die Umgestaltung der Klavier-Tehnik (1905), states that Clark can be given “the credit and the merit of a first scientific attempt” of applying physiologically based movements. Clark thus emerges as the world pioneer in the physiological approach to piano playing and the first scholar to offer a scientific explanation and graphic illustration of the rolling movement of arm and wrist, in his ...


(b Ipswich, June 13, 1870; d Bromsgrove, Jan 19, 1941). English organist and music scholar. He was a Gilstrap scholar at the RCM, where he was taught the organ by Walter Parratt (1888–93; FRCO 1892, ARCM 1893) and then studied music at New College, Oxford (1893–5, BMus 1895). After serving as organist at St Margaret’s, King’s Lynn, he returned to London (having become a Roman Catholic) as organist of the Italian Church, Hatton Garden (1898–1915); he was then organist of the Birmingham Oratory until his death. He edited the quarterly Music and Liturgy (1932–6), and for several years lectured on polyphony at the Oxford Summer School, and on Latin church music by early English composers at the universities of London and Birmingham.

Collins devoted nearly all his spare time to copying and collecting manuscripts of early church music in London (British Museum), Oxford, Cambridge, Tenbury and elsewhere, editing it initially for his own church and later for general use. His preference was exclusively for polyphonic music of the 15th and 16th centuries and he became the leading authority on its notation in English sources. After his edition of 15 offertories by Lassus was published in Düsseldorf (...


Albert Dunning

(b Zeist, June 16, 1890; d Budel, Sept 1, 1974). Dutch music teacher and musicologist. He took lessons in singing, the violin and keyboard instruments; later, as a teacher, he studied the piano with Dirk Schäfer and theory with Johann Wagenaar. As a headmaster in The Hague he was concerned with the problems of musical education and music for young people; this brought him into contact with Fritz Jöde and other like-minded music teachers abroad. His activities as a music educationist include the founding of a society for folk music and folkdancing (1930), and through his work on a state commission for school music teaching (1946–8) he contributed to the renewal of music for young people in the Netherlands after the war.

In 1940 he received the doctorate at the University of Utrecht with a dissertation on Coclico which he prepared under Smijers. On the latter's death in ...


Stephan D. Lindeman and George Barth

(b Vienna, Feb 21, 1791; d Vienna, July 15, 1857). Austrian piano teacher, composer, pianist, theorist and historian. As the pre-eminent pupil of Beethoven and the teacher of many important pupils, including Liszt, Czerny was a central figure in the transmission of Beethoven's legacy. Many of his technical exercises remain an essential part of nearly every pianist's training, but most of his compositions – in nearly every genre, sacred and secular, with opus numbers totalling 861, and an even greater number of works published without opus – are largely forgotten. A large number of theoretical works are of great importance for the insight they offer into contemporary musical genres and performance practice.

The primary source of information about Czerny is his autobiographical sketch entitled Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (1842). In it, he describes his paternal grandfather as a good amateur violinist, employed as a city official in Nimburg (Nymburk), near Prague. Czerny's father, Wenzel, a pianist, organist, oboist and singer, was born there in ...


John Trevitt

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Brest, Finistère, Nov 19, 1847; d Paris, May 26, 1923). French musicologist and philosopher. He was educated at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and, from 1867, at the Ecole Normale, where he studied philosophy, gaining the agrégation in 1872; in 1878 he took the doctorate with the dissertation Des notions de matières et de force dans les sciences de la nature and in the same year published his first philosophical work. He held a lectureship in the arts faculty of the University of Lyons (1879–81) and then the chair of philosophy at the University of Montpellier. In the early 1890s he became interested in music and the value of musicology as a university discipline, and travelled to Germany (1894) to study methods of teaching music in universities there. In 1895, when he became professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne, he tried to have a chair of music psychology founded there; this attempt failed and instead Dauriac was given the newly created professorship of musical aesthetics (...


Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....


Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...


(b El Carnero, CO, Sept 12, 1880; d Palo Alto, CA, Sept 4, 1958). American folklorist and educator. Born in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to a prominent Hispano family with deep roots in New Mexico, Espinosa was one of the first US- born Latinos to earn a teaching post at an American university. Although folklorists without formal training such as Charles Fletcher Lummis and Eleanor Hague studied Spanish-language folksongs of the Southwest, Espinosa made the folksongs of Spanish-speaking peoples a legitimate area for scholarly research at a time when individuals of Hispano, Mexican, or Latino heritage were generally discouraged from pursuing higher education. Like Lummis and Hague, Espinosa viewed this repertory as Spanish American rather than Mexican and believed that New Mexican folksong had more in common with Spanish antecedents than with traditional Mexican song. Espinosa was the New Mexican analogue to Francis James Child. Unlike Child, he collected folk ballads from local people in person, although, like Child, he did not study the music that went with the texts he gathered. Espinosa published more than 175 scholarly articles and about a dozen longer monographs, as well as 30 Spanish textbooks. He served as associate editor of the ...


Eugène Cardine

(b Subiaco, Rome province, Dec 3, 1866; d Bologna, May 23, 1938). Italian scholar and teacher of Gregorian chant. He took his vows as a Benedictine monk at Subiaco on 12 March 1884 and was ordained priest on 20 December 1890; from 1900 to 1919 he was abbot of the monastery of S Giovanni Evangelista, Parma. In 1922 he was appointed director of the Scuola Pontificia (from 1931 the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra) in Rome. Up to his death he taught every aspect of the study and practice of Gregorian chant there. He took up a subtle and prudent stance on the controversy over rhythm; in his writings, however, he seemed gradually to incline towards Mocquereau’s views. His chief work is in the first volume of the Estetica gregoriana (1934); he was engaged on a second volume at the time of his death.

Principii teorici e pratici di canto gregoriano...


Douglas Johnson

(b Butschowitz [now Boskovice], Moravia, April 4, 1804; d Vienna, June 28, 1857). Austrian music historian, pianist, composer and teacher. He had some piano lessons as a child, and in 1822 went to Vienna to study medicine while taking instruction in the piano from Anton Halm and in composition from Seyfried. After deciding on a music career in 1827, he taught the piano for many years and in 1833 joined the staff of the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Although well known in his lifetime as a pianist and composer, he is remembered chiefly as a collector and as the author of several articles and monographs, including a history of piano building (Vienna, 1853). His library, one of the great private collections of the century, contained a large number of published scores, books on music theory and music manuscripts. Most of the major composers of the 18th and early 19th centuries and many of the minor ones were represented in manuscript; the concentration of manuscript sources for the works of J.S. Bach was especially impressive, including nearly 200 cantatas. After Fischhof's death his library was bought by the Berlin music dealer Julius Friedlaender, who sold most of it to the Berlin Royal (now State) Library....


Dennis Libby

revised by John Rosselli

(b San Giorgio Morgeto, Calabria, Oct 12, 1800; d Naples, Dec 18, 1888). Italian librarian, musicologist, teacher and composer. The varied activities of his career were dominated by a single theme: the preservation and glorification of the Neapolitan musical tradition. At 12 (or 15) he entered the Naples Conservatory, where he was a fellow student of Bellini, who became his closest friend and the object of his intense devotion. He was made archivist-librarian there in 1826 and (perhaps his most important achievement) acquired a large part of the library’s rich holdings. He also served as director of vocal concerts and singing teacher there. His widely praised Metodo di canto (Naples, ?1840; Milan, 1841–3, enlarged 3/?1861) was conservative in tendency, claiming to be based on the precepts of the castrato Crescentini, then director of the conservatory’s singing school, and intended to restore the ‘antico bello’ of ‘the only true tradition of Italian song’, that of Scarlatti, Porpora and Durante, which had been displaced by ‘la moda barocca’ of the present age. Florimo composed in all genres except the dramatic, but apart from a ...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...