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Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Kimberly Greene

(b Perth Amboy, NJ, Feb 19, 1766; d New York, NY, Sep 28, 1839). American playwright, librettist, theater manager, historian, and painter. Despite losing his sight in one eye due to an accident, Dunlap became a professional portrait painter in his youth, and he was noted for his paintings of George Washington. In 1784 he traveled to London and studied painting with Benjamin West. Upon his return to the United States in 1787, he began writing plays and became America’s first professional playwright. Over a period of 40 years he translated, adapted, or wrote more than 70 plays, many of which used music by composers such as Benjamin Carr, Alexander Reinagle, Victor Pelissier, and James Hewitt. He was influenced by the plays of German dramatist August von Kotzebue, whose works he translated and made popular in the United States.

Dunlap’s The Archers, or Mountaineers of Switzerland (1796...

Article

Ora Frishberg Saloman

(b Boston, May 13, 1813; d Boston, Sept 5, 1893). American writer on music. A graduate of Harvard College (1832) and Harvard Divinity School (1836), Dwight manifested an early affinity with the German idealist tradition in his annotated translations of poetry by Goethe and Schiller. As a leading contributor to the Associationist Harbinger (1845–9) and Dwight's Journal of Music (1852–81), which he founded and edited, he elevated criticism to a higher and more educational plane. After the death of his wife in 1860, he spent his last 20 years as resident librarian and permanent president of the Harvard Musical Association, which sponsored an annual series of concerts under his management (1865–82).

Dwight's writings of the 1840s reflect New England transcendentalist currents and a familiarity with such European thinkers as E.T.A. Hoffmann, A.B. Marx, Gottfried Fink, Charles Fourier, F.-J. Fétis, Frédéric Kalkbrenner, Thomas Carlyle and William Gardiner. Championing aesthetic education and informed listening, Dwight proposed that music – as art, science, and language of feeling ennobling and uniting people – be made widely accessible. In America he was a pioneer in describing the humanistic importance and large-scale structures of Beethoven's symphonies....

Article

Wayne D. Shirley

(b Paris, July 21, 1883; d New York, May 6, 1944). American musicologist, administrator and composer of German birth. After studying at the universities of Strasbourg and Munich and as a composition pupil of Thuille in Munich, he emigrated to the USA (1905), becoming an American citizen in 1917. He was music editor for the Boston Music Company (1909–22), head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress (1922–34), president of the music publishing firm of G. Schirmer (appointed 1929) and honorary consultant in musicology to the Library of Congress (from 1934). Concurrently he worked as a columnist (1922–44) and editor (1929–44) of the Musical Quarterly. In 1934, with Sonneck and Kinkeldey, he founded the American Musicological Society, subsequently serving as its president (1937–8).

Engel was one of the first generation of American musicologists trained in Europe who applied the standards of continental musicology to American scholarship. He was closely associated with Sonneck (succeeding him as head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, as president of G. Schirmer and as editor of the ...

Article

Sue Carole DeVale

(b Newton, MA, Nov 14, 1850; d Forest Glen, MD, May 31, 1930). American ethnologist. He studied biology at Harvard (AB 1875, PhD 1877), and later studied at Leipzig and the University of Arizona. He was field director of the Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition (1889–94), and, commissioned by Mary Hemenway, tested the value of the phonograph for fieldwork in March 1890 by recording songs of the Passamaquoddy Indians in Maine. These were soon followed by his Zuni (1890) and Hopi Pueblo (1891) recordings which were then analysed by Benjamin Ives Gilman. He was responsible for the Hemenway Exhibition at the Madrid exhibition of 1892 commemorating Columbus's discovery of America, and consequently received many honours. As a result of his work in Madrid, Hemenway later commissioned recordings by Gilman. From 1895 to 1918 Fewkes worked as an ethnologist at the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, DC, becoming chief in ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco

(b Chieti, May 30, 1892; d Grottaferrata, nr Rome, May 10, 1973). Italian musicologist, editor and administrator. He began to play the violin when he was six and the piano when he was 12, and after schooling in Chieti he studied engineering at the University of Turin (1909–14). At 20 he was made editor-in-chief of the weekly Riforma musicale, published in 1913–15 and briefly in 1918; concurrently he organized concerts of contemporary chamber music in Turin. He founded and edited Il pianoforte (1920–27), which in 1928 became the Rassegna musicale (later with Ronga and Mila as co-editors); after an interruption during the war (1944–6) it moved to Rome (1947), where it subsequently became Quaderni della Rassegna musicale (1962). He also founded Studi musicali (1972–3). The first Congresso Italiano di Musica (Turin, 1921) was held partly under the auspices of Gatti's journal ...

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

(b Kęty, nr Kraków, Dec 7, 1782; d Kraków, July 4, 1868). Polish bookseller and historian. In 1797 he began working in Groebel’s bookshop in Kraków, and there came into contact with a number of leading historians who aroused his fascination in the subject. After 20 years Grabowski opened his own bookshop, which he eventually closed in 1837 in order to devote himself exclusively to collecting historical material. His work in this field resulted in several books between 1840 and 1854, and also a number of articles published mainly in Biblioteka Warszawska (1850–65). These writings contain information on general Polish history, art history and the history of Kraków, and also a great deal of valuable material derived from primary sources concerning music and musicians in Poland. It was through Grabowski that historical interest in musical matters was first aroused in Poland. (PSB, K. Estreicher)

Dawne zabytki miasta Krakowa...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b St Quentin, Nov 27, 1881; d Paris, Dec 30, 1975). French choir director and musicologist. He studied at the Lille Conservatoire (1899–1900; premier prix for viola in 1900 under Charles Queste), then at the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1900–09), where he was taught the organ by A.M. Decaux, composition by d’Indy and counterpoint by Roussel; he also studied harmony under Libert. Raugel’s many posts during his long career were mainly those of organist and choir director: maître de chapelle at St Eustache (1911–28) and at St Honoré d’Eylau (1928–40); founder and director of the Handel Society (1909–14), the Chorale Française (1922–4), the Société des Etudes Mozartiennes (1930–39) and the Chorale Félix Raugel (1931); finally choir trainer for French radio (1934–47) and conductor of the Société Philharmonique in Reims (1926–62...

Article

Julian Herbage

[Alexander] (Thomas Parke)

(b Southsea, June 3, 1892; d Midhurst, Jan 18, 1982). English writer on music. He was educated at Bradfield College and the RAM (1910–13), where he studied chiefly the organ, harmony and composition, and was organist and choirmaster at Frensham parish church and briefly at Farnham. During World War I he served in India, Egypt and Palestine. In 1919 he was appointed music lecturer to London County Council evening institutes. In 1920 he joined the Gramophone Company's educational staff, first as a lecturer and later as its head. In 1930 he entered the Collegio Beda, Rome; he was ordained priest in 1934 and held an appointment at Westminster Cathedral. Though he returned to professional life in 1938 his experiences of Catholic church music, particularly Gregorian plainchant, led him to write a number of books on the subject. In 1940 he joined the Gramophone Department of the BBC, and after the war was appointed chief producer of music talks on the Home and Third Programmes. He developed a highly individual manner as a broadcaster and gave many illustrated talks, which he continued even after his retirement from the BBC in ...

Article

Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Tripolis, Arcadia, Greece, ?1880 (?1878/?1881); d Athens, Oct 13, 1959). Greek music historian, journalist, and director of Ethniki Lyriki Skini (‘National Opera’) (1946–53). He was a successful playwright and a man much more involved in the theatrical rather than the musical life of Athens. Nonetheless, his Istoria tis neoellinikis mousikis (‘History of Neohellenic Music’, Athens, 1919) marks a turning point in Greek music historiography, being the first to confine its narration to the Greek state’s time and space, attesting the repercussions of the modernisation of music education in the country. The history is divided into three periods, defined by the dates 1824, 1871, 1891, and 1919 (the two middle being the dates the Conservatory of Athens was founded and then reformed). He gives a lively description of the gradual introduction and assimilation of Western music into the Greek state. He starts with the first foreigners performing in Greece, continues with biographies of the first Greeks to be successful abroad (the composers Spyros Samaras and Napoleon Lambelet, the flutist Eurysthenes Gizas, and the pianist Timotheos Xanthopoulos), the first amateur Greek opera group, and its performances for the Greeks of the diaspora, and the first operas written by Greeks and on a Greek libretto (by Pavlos Carrer and Spyridon Xyndas)....